ACCEPTED ENGINEERING PRACTICE. That which conforms to accepted principles, tests or standards of nationally recognized technical or scientific authorities.
ACCESS (TO). That which enables a fixture, appliance or equipment to be reached by ready access or by a means that first requires the removal or movement of a panel, door or similar obstruction (see “Ready access”).
ADAPTER FITTING. An approved connecting device that suitably and properly joins or adjusts pipes and fittings which do not otherwise fit together.
AIR ADMITTANCE VALVE. One-way valve designed to allow air to enter the plumbing drainage system when negative pressures develop in the piping system. The device shall close by gravity and seal the vent terminal at zero differential pressure (no flow conditions) and under positive internal pressures. The purpose of an air admittance valve is to provide a method of allowing air to enter the plumbing drainage system without the use of a vent extended to open air and to prevent sewer gases from escaping into a building.
AIR BREAK (Drainage System). A piping arrangement in which a drain from a fixture, appliance or device discharges indirectly into another fixture, receptacle or interceptor at a point below the flood level rim and above the trap seal.
AIR GAP (Drainage System). The unobstructed vertical distance through the free atmosphere between the outlet of the waste pipe and the flood level rim of the receptacle into which the waste pipe is discharging.
AIR GAP (Water Distribution System). The unobstructed vertical distance through the free atmosphere between the lowest opening from any pipe or faucet supplying water to a tank, plumbing fixture or other device and the flood level rim of the receptacle.
ALTERNATIVE ENGINEERED DESIGN. A plumbing system that performs in accordance with the intent of Chapters 3 through 12 and provides an equivalent level of performance for the protection of public health, safety and welfare. The system design is not specifically regulated by Chapters 3 through 12.
ASPIRATOR. A fitting or device supplied with water or other fluid under positive pressure that passes through an integral orifice or constriction, causing a vacuum. Aspirators are also referred to as suction apparatus, and are similar in operation to an ejector.
Backsiphonage. The backflow of potentially contaminated water into the potable water system as a result of the pressure in the potable water system falling below atmospheric pressure of the plumbing fixtures, pools, tanks or vats connected to the potable water distribution piping.
BACKWATER VALVE. A device or valve installed in the building drain or sewer pipe where a sewer is subject to backflow, and which prevents drainage or waste from backing up into a lower level or fixtures and causing a flooding condition.
BASE FLOOD ELEVATION. A reference point, determined in accordance with the building code, based on the depth or peak elevation of flooding, including wave height, which has a 1 percent (100-year flood) or greater chance of occurring in any given year.
BATHROOM GROUP. A group of fixtures consisting of a water closet, lavatory, bathtub or shower, including or excluding a bidet, an emergency floor drain or both. Such fixtures are located together on the same floor level.
BEDPAN WASHER AND STERILIZER. A fixture designed to wash bedpans and to flush the contents into the sanitary drainage system. Included are fixtures of this type that provide for disinfecting utensils by scalding with steam or hot water.
BRANCH INTERVAL. A vertical measurement of distance, 8 feet (2438 mm) or more in developed length, between the connections of horizontal branches to a drainage stack. Measurements are taken down the stack from the highest horizontal branch connection.
BUILDING DRAIN. That part of the lowest piping of a drainage system that receives the discharge from soil, waste and other drainage pipes inside and that extends 30 inches (762 mm) in developed length of pipe beyond the exterior walls of the building and conveys the drainage to the building sewer.
BUILDING SEWER. That part of the drainage system that extends from the end of the building drain and conveys the discharge to a public sewer, private sewer, individual sewage disposal system or other point of disposal.
CISTERN. A small covered tank for storing water for a home or farm. Generally, this tank stores rainwater to be utilized for purposes other than in the potable water supply, and such tank is placed underground in most cases.
CODE. These regulations, subsequent amendments thereto, or any emergency rule or regulation that the administrative authority having jurisdiction has lawfully adopted.
CODE OFFICIAL. The officer or other designated authority charged with the administration and enforcement of this code, or a duly authorized representative.
COMBINATION WASTE AND VENT SYSTEM. A specially designed system of waste piping embodying the horizontal wet venting of one or more sinks or floor drains by means of a common waste and vent pipe adequately sized to provide free movement of air above the flow line of the drain.
CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTS. All of the written, graphic and pictorial documents prepared or assembled for describing the design, location and physical characteristics of the elements of the project necessary for obtaining a building permit. The construction drawings shall be drawn to an appropriate scale.
CONTAMINATION. An impairment of the quality of the potable water that creates an actual hazard to the public health through poisoning or through the spread of disease by sewage, industrial fluids or waste.
CRITICAL LEVEL (C-L). An elevation (height) reference point that determines the minimum height at which a backflow preventer or vacuum breaker is installed above the flood level rim of the fixture or receptor served by the device. The critical level is the elevation level below which there is a potential for backflow to occur. If the critical level marking is not indicated on the device, the bottom of the device shall constitute the critical level.
CROSS CONNECTION. Any physical connection or arrangement between two otherwise separate piping systems, one of which contains potable water and the other either water of unknown or questionable safety or steam, gas or chemical, whereby there exists the possibility for flow from one system to the other, with the direction of flow depending on the pressure differential between the two systems (see “Backflow”).
DEAD END. A branch leading from a soil, waste or vent pipe; a building drain; or a building sewer, and terminating at a developed length of 2 feet (610 mm) or more by means of a plug, cap or other closed fitting.
DESIGN FLOOD ELEVATION. The elevation of the “design flood,” including wave height, relative to the datum specified on the community’s legally designated flood hazard map.
DEVELOPED LENGTH. The length of a pipeline measured along the centerline of the pipe and fittings.
DRAINAGE FITTINGS. Type of fitting or fittings utilized in the drainage system. Drainage fittings are similar to cast-iron fittings, except that instead of having a bell and spigot, drainage fittings are recessed and tapped to eliminate ridges on the inside of the installed pipe.
Drainage (dfu). A measure of the probable discharge into the drainage system by various types of plumbing fixtures. The drainage fixture-unit value for a particular fixture depends on its volume rate of drainage discharge, on the time duration of a single drainage operation and on the average time between successive operations.
DRAINAGE SYSTEM. Piping within a public or private premise that conveys sewage, rainwater or other liquid wastes to a point of disposal. A drainage system does not include the mains of a public sewer system or a private or public sewage treatment or disposal plant.
EFFECTIVE OPENING. The minimum cross-sectional area at the point of water supply discharge, measured or expressed in terms of the diameter of a circle or, if the opening is not circular, the diameter of a circle of equivalent cross-sectional area. For faucets and similar fittings, the effective opening shall be measured at the smallest orifice in the fitting body or in the supply piping to the fitting.
ESSENTIALLY NONTOXIC TRANSFER FLUIDS. Fluids having a Gosselin rating of 1, including propylene glycol; mineral oil; polydimethylsiloxane; hydrochlorofluorocarbon, chlorofluorocarbon and carbon refrigerants; and FDA-approved boiler water additives for steam boilers.
FILL VALVE. A water supply valve, opened or closed by means of a float or similar device, utilized to supply water to a tank. An antisiphon fill valve contains an antisiphon device in the form of an approved air gap or vacuum breaker that is an integral part of the fill valve unit and that is positioned on the discharge side of the water supply control valve.
FLOOD HAZARD AREA. The greater of the following two areas:
1. The area within a flood plain subject to a 1-percent or greater chance of flooding in any given year.
2. The area designated as a flood hazard area on a community’s flood hazard map or as otherwise legally designated.
FLOW CONTROL (Vented). A device installed upstream from the interceptor having an orifice that controls the rate of flow through the interceptor and an air intake (vent) downstream from the orifice that allows air to be drawn into the flow stream.
FLUSHOMETER VALVE. A valve attached to a pressurized water supply pipe and so designed that when activated it opens the line for direct flow into the fixture at a rate and quantity to operate the fixture properly, and then gradually closes to reseal fixture traps and avoid water hammer.
GREASE INTERCEPTOR. A plumbing appurtenance that is installed in a sanitary drainage system to intercept oily and greasy wastes from a wastewater discharge. Such device has the ability to intercept free-floating fats and oils.
GREASE-LADEN WASTE. Effluent discharge that is produced from food processing, food preparation or other sources where grease, fats and oils enter automatic dishwater prerinse stations, sinks or other appurtenances.
GREASE REMOVAL DEVICE, AUTOMATIC (GRD). A plumbing appurtenance that is installed in the sanitary drainage system to intercept free-floating fats, oils and grease from wastewater discharge. Such a device operates on a time- or event-controlled basis and has the ability to remove free-floating fats, oils and grease automatically without intervention from the user except for maintenance.
HORIZONTAL BRANCH DRAIN. A drainage branch pipe extending laterally from a soil or waste stack or building drain, with or without vertical sections or branches, that receives the discharge from two or more fixture drains or branches and conducts the discharge to the soil or waste stack or to the building drain.
HORIZONTAL PIPE. Any pipe or fitting that makes an angle of less than 45 degrees (0.79 rad) with the horizontal.
INDIRECT WASTE PIPE. A waste pipe that does not connect directly with the drainage system, but that discharges into the drainage system through an air break or air gap into a trap, fixture, receptor or interceptor.
INDIVIDUAL SEWAGE DISPOSAL SYSTEM. A system for disposal of domestic sewage by means of a septic tank, cesspool or mechanical treatment, designed for utilization apart from a public sewer to serve a single establishment or building.
INTERCEPTOR. A device designed and installed to separate and retain for removal, by automatic or manual means, deleterious, hazardous or undesirable matter from normal wastes, while permitting normal sewage or wastes to discharge into the drainage system by gravity.
Expansion. A loop, return bend or return offset that provides for the expansion and contraction in a piping system and is utilized in tall buildings or where there is a rapid change of temperature, as in power plants, steam rooms and similar occupancies.
LEAD-FREE PIPE AND FITTINGS. Containing not more than 8.0-percent lead.
LEAD-FREE SOLDER AND FLUX. Containing not more than 0.2-percent lead.
MACERATING TOILET SYSTEMS. An assembly consisting of a water closet and sump with a macerating pump that is designed to collect, grind and pump wastes from the water closet and up to two other fixtures connected to the sump.
MECHANICAL JOINT. A connection between pipes, fittings, or pipes and fittings that is not screwed, caulked, threaded, soldered, solvent cemented, brazed or welded. A joint in which compression is applied along the centerline of the pieces being joined. In some applications, the joint is part of a coupling, fitting or adapter.
MEDICAL GAS SYSTEM. The complete system to convey medical gases for direct patient application from central supply systems (bulk tanks, manifolds and medical air compressors), with pressure and operating controls, alarm warning systems, related components and piping networks extending to station outlet valves at patient use points.
MEDICAL VACUUM SYSTEMS. A system consisting of central-vacuum-producing equipment with pressure and operating controls, shutoff valves, alarm-warning systems, gauges and a network of piping extending to and terminating with suitable station inlets at locations where patient suction may be required.
NUISANCE. Public nuisance as known in common law or in equity jurisprudence; whatever is dangerous to human life or detrimental to health; whatever structure or premises is not sufficiently ventilated, sewered, drained, cleaned or lighted, with respect to its intended occupancy; and whatever renders the air, or human food, drink or water supply unwholesome.
OCCUPANCY. The purpose for which a building or portion thereof is utilized or occupied.
OFFSET. A combination of approved bends that makes two changes in direction bringing one section of the pipe out of line but into a line parallel with the other section.
OPEN AIR. Outside the structure.
PLUMBING. The practice, materials and fixtures utilized in the installation, maintenance, extension and alteration of all piping, fixtures, plumbing appliances and plumbing appurtenances, within or adjacent to any structure, in connection with sanitary drainage or storm drainage facilities; venting systems; and public or private water supply systems.
PLUMBING APPLIANCE. Any one of a special class of plumbing fixtures intended to perform a special function. Included are fixtures having the operation or control dependent on one or more energized components, such as motors, controls, heating elements, or pressure- or temperature-sensing elements.
Such fixtures are manually adjusted or controlled by the owner or operator, or are operated automatically through one or more of the following actions: a time cycle, a temperature range, a pressure range, a measured volume or weight.
PLUMBING APPURTENANCE. A manufactured device, prefabricated assembly or an on-the-job assembly of component parts that is an adjunct to the basic piping system and plumbing fixtures. An appurtenance demands no additional water supply and does not add any discharge load to a fixture or to the drainage system.
PLUMBING FIXTURE. A receptacle or device that is either permanently or temporarily connected to the water distribution system of the premises and demands a supply of water therefrom; discharges wastewater, liquid-borne waste materials or sewage either directly or indirectly to the drainage system of the premises; or requires both a water supply connection and a discharge to the drainage system of the premises.
PLUMBING SYSTEM. Includes the water supply and distribution pipes; plumbing fixtures and traps; water-treating or water-using equipment; soil, waste and vent pipes; and sanitary and storm sewers and building drains; in addition to their respective connections, devices and appurtenances within a structure or premises.
POLLUTION. An impairment of the quality of the potable water to a degree that does not create a hazard to the public health but that does adversely and unreasonably affect the aesthetic qualities of such potable water for domestic use.
POTABLE WATER. Water free from impurities present in amounts sufficient to cause disease or harmful physiological effects and conforming to the bacteriological and chemical quality requirements of the Public Health Service Drinking Water Standards or the regulations of the public health authority having jurisdiction.
PRIVATE. In the classification of plumbing fixtures, “private” applies to fixtures in residences and apartments, and to fixtures in nonpublic toilet rooms of hotels and motels and similar installations in buildings where the plumbing fixtures are intended for utilization by a family or an individual.
PUBLIC OR PUBLIC UTILIZATION. In the classification of plumbing fixtures, “public” applies to fixtures in general toilet rooms of schools, gymnasiums, hotels, airports, bus and railroad stations, public buildings, bars, public comfort stations, office buildings, stadiums, stores, restaurants and other installations where a number of fixtures are installed so that their utilization is similarly unrestricted.
READY ACCESS. That which enables a fixture, appliance or equipment to be directly reached without requiring the removal or movement of any panel, door or similar obstruction and without the use of a portable ladder, step stool or similar device.
REDUCED PRESSURE PRINCIPLE BACKFLOW PREVENTER. A backflow prevention device consisting of two independently acting check valves, internally force-loaded to a normally closed position and separated by an intermediate chamber (or zone) in which there is an automatic relief means of venting to the atmosphere, internally loaded to a normally open position between two tightly closing shutoff valves and with a means for testing for tightness of the checks and opening of the relief means.
REGISTERED DESIGN PROFESSIONAL. An individual who is registered or licensed to practice professional architecture or engineering as defined by the statutory requirements of the professional registration laws of the state or jurisdiction in which the project is to be constructed.
Temperature relief valve. A temperature-actuated valve designed to discharge automatically at the temperature at which such valve is set.
RIM. An unobstructed open edge of a fixture.
ROUGH-IN. Parts of the plumbing system that are installed prior to the installation of fixtures. This includes drainage, water supply, vent piping and the necessary fixture supports and any fixtures that are built into the structure.
SPILLPROOF VACUUM BREAKER. An assembly consisting of one check valve force-loaded closed and an air-inlet vent valve force-loaded open to atmosphere, positioned downstream of the check valve, and located between and including two tightly closing shutoff valves and a test cock.
Boiling type. A boiling-type sterilizer is a fixture of a nonpressure type utilized for boiling instruments, utensils or other equipment for disinfection. These devices are portable or are connected to the plumbing system.
STERILIZER VENT. A separate pipe or stack, indirectly connected to the building drainage system at the lower terminal, that receives the vapors from nonpressure sterilizers, or the exhaust vapors from pressure sterilizers, and conducts the vapors directly to the open air. Also called vapor, steam, atmospheric or exhaust vent.
STRUCTURE. That which is built or constructed or a portion thereof.
THIRD-PARTY CERTIFICATION AGENCY. An approved agency operating a product or material certification sytem that incorporates initial product testing, assessment and surveillance of a manufacturer’s quality control system.
THIRD-PARTY CERTIFIED. Certification obtained by the manufacturer indicating that the function and performance characteristics of a product or material have been determined by testing and ongoing surveillance by an approved third-party certification agency. Assertion of certification is in the form of identification in accordance with the requirements of the third-party certification agency.
THIRD-PARTY TESTED. Procedure by which an approved testing laboratory provides documentation that a product, material or system conforms to specified requirements.
VACUUM BREAKER. A type of backflow preventer installed on openings subject to normal atmospheric pressure that prevents backflow by admitting atmospheric pressure through ports to the discharge side of the device.
VENT SYSTEM. A pipe or pipes installed to provide a flow of air to or from a drainage system, or to provide a circulation of air within such system to protect trap seals from siphonage and backpressure.
VERTICAL PIPE. Any pipe or fitting that makes an angle of 45 degrees (0.79 rad) or more with the horizontal.
WATER MAIN. A water supply pipe or system of pipes, installed and maintained by a city, township, county, public utility company or other public entity, on public property, in the street or in an approved dedicated easement of public or community use.
WATER OUTLET. A discharge opening through which water is supplied to a fixture, into the atmosphere (except into an open tank that is part of the water supply system), to a boiler or heating system, or to any devices or equipment requiring water to operate but which are not part of the plumbing system.
Water distribution pipe. A pipe within the structure or on the premises that conveys water from the water service pipe, or from the meter when the meter is at the structure, to the points of utilization.
Water service pipe. The pipe from the water main or other source of potable water supply, or from the meter when the meter is at the public right of way, to the water distribution system of the building served.
Dug. A well constructed by excavating a large-diameter shaft and installing a casing.
WHIRLPOOL BATHTUB. A plumbing appliance consisting of a bathtub fixture that is equipped and fitted with a circulating piping system designed to accept, circulate and discharge bathtub water upon each use.