These regulations shall be known as the International Plumbing Code of [NAME OF JURISDICTION] hereinafter referred to as "this code."
The provisions of this code shall apply to the erection, installation, alteration, repairs, relocation, replacement, addition to, use or maintenance of plumbing systems within this jurisdiction. This code shall also regulate nonflammable medical gas, inhalation anesthetic, vacuum piping, nonmedical oxygen systems and sanitary and condensate vacuum collection systems. The installation of fuel gas distribution piping and equipment, fuel-gas-fired water heaters and water heater venting systems shall be regulated by the International Fuel Gas Code. Provisions in the appendices shall not apply unless specifically adopted.
Exception: Detached one- and two-family dwellings and multiple single-family dwellings (townhouses) not more than three stories high with separate means of egress and their accessory structures shall comply with the International Residential Code.
The purpose of this code is to provide minimum standards to safeguard life or limb, health, property and public welfare by regulating and controlling the design, construction, installation, quality of materials, location, operation and maintenance or use of plumbing equipment and systems.
If any section, subsection, sentence, clause or phrase of this code is for any reason held to be unconstitutional, such decision shall not affect the validity of the remaining portions of this code.
Where there is a conflict between a general requirement and a specific requirement, the specific requirement shall govern. Where, in any specific case, different sections of this code specify different materials, methods of construction or other requirements, the most restrictive shall govern.
All plumbing systems, materials and appurtenances, both existing and new, and all parts thereof, shall be maintained in proper operating condition in accordance with the original design in a safe and sanitary condition. All devices or safeguards required by this code shall be maintained in compliance with the code edition under which they were installed.
Additions, alterations, renovations or repairs to any plumbing system shall conform to that required for a new plumbing system without requiring the existing plumbing system to comply with all the requirements of this code. Additions, alterations or repairs shall not cause an existing system to become unsafe, insanitary or overloaded.
It shall be unlawful to make any change in the occupancy of any structure that will subject the structure to any special provision of this code applicable to the new occupancy without approval of the code official. The code official shall certify that such structure meets the intent of the provisions of law governing building construction for the proposed new occupancy and that such change of occupancy does not result in any hazard to the public health, safety or welfare.
The provisions of this code relating to the construction, alteration, repair, enlargement, restoration, relocation or moving of buildings or structures shall not be mandatory for existing buildings or structures identified and classified by the state or local jurisdiction as historic buildings when such buildings or structures are judged by the code official to be safe and in the public interest of health, safety and welfare regarding any proposed construction, alteration, repair, enlargement, restoration, relocation or moving of buildings.
The codes and standards referenced in this code shall be those that are listed in Chapter 13 and such codes and standards shall be considered as part of the requirements of this code to the prescribed extent of each such reference. Where differences occur between provisions of this code and the referenced standards, the provisions of this code shall be the minimum requirements.
The provisions of this code shall not be deemed to nullify any provisions of local, state or federal law.
Reference to chapter section numbers, or to provisions not specifically identified by number, shall be construed to refer to such chapter, section or provision of this code.
The code official shall be appointed by the chief appointing authority of the jurisdiction.
In accordance with the prescribed procedures of this jurisdiction and with the concurrence of the appointing authority, the code official shall have the authority to appoint a deputy code official, other related technical officers, inspectors and other employees. Such employees shall have powers as delegated by the code official.
The code official, member of the board of appeals or employee charged with the enforcement of this code, while acting for the jurisdiction in good faith and without malice in the discharge of the duties required by this code or other pertinent law or ordinance, shall not thereby be rendered liable personally, and is hereby relieved from all personal liability for any damage accruing to persons or property as a result of any act or by reason of an act or omission in the discharge of official duties.
Any suit instituted against any officer or employee because of an act performed by that officer or employee in the lawful discharge of duties and under the provisions of this code shall be defended by the legal representative of the jurisdiction until the final termination of the proceedings. The code official or any subordinate shall not be liable for costs in any action, suit or proceeding that is instituted in pursuance of the provisions of this code.
The code official is hereby authorized and directed to enforce the provisions of this code. The code official shall have the authority to render interpretations of this code and to adopt policies and procedures in order to clarify the application of its provisions. Such interpretations, policies and procedures shall be in compliance with the intent and purpose of this code. Such policies and procedures shall not have the effect of waiving requirements specifically provided for in this code.
The code official shall make all the required inspections, or shall accept reports of inspection by approved agencies or individuals. All reports of such inspections shall be in writing and be certified by a responsible officer of such approved agency or by the responsible individual. The code official is authorized to engage such expert opinion as deemed necessary to report on unusual technical issues that arise, subject to the approval of the appointing authority.
Whenever it is necessary to make an inspection to enforce the provisions of this code, or whenever the code official has reasonable cause to believe that there exists in any building or upon any premises any conditions or violations of this code that make the building or premises unsafe, insanitary, dangerous or hazardous, the code official shall have the authority to enter the building or premises at all reasonable times to inspect or to perform the duties imposed upon the code official by this code. If such building or premises is occupied, the code official shall present credentials to the occupant and request entry. If such building or premises is unoccupied, the code official shall first make a reasonable effort to locate the owner or other person having charge or control of the building or premises and request entry. If entry is refused, the code official shall have recourse to every remedy provided by law to secure entry.
When the code official shall have first obtained a proper inspection warrant or other remedy provided by law to secure entry, no owner or occupant or person having charge, care or control of any building or premises shall fail or neglect, after proper request is made as herein provided, to promptly permit entry therein by the code official for the purpose of inspection and examination pursuant to this code.
The code official shall carry proper identification when inspecting structures or premises in the performance of duties under this code.
The code official shall issue all necessary notices or orders to ensure compliance with this code.
The code official shall keep official records of applications received, permits and certificates issued, fees collected, reports of inspections, and notices and orders issued. Such records shall be retained in the official records for the period required for the retention of public records.
Whenever there are practical difficulties involved in carrying out the provisions of this code, the code official shall have the authority to grant modifications for individual cases, upon application of the owner or owner's representative, provided the code official shall first find that special individual reason makes the strict letter of this code impractical and the modification conforms to the intent and purpose of this code and that such modification does not lessen health, life and fire safety requirements. The details of action granting modifications shall be recorded and entered in the files of the plumbing inspection department.
The provisions of this code are not intended to prevent the installation of any material or to prohibit any method of construction not specifically prescribed by this code, provided that any such alternative has been approved. An alternative material or method of construction shall be approved where the code official finds that the proposed alternative material, method or equipment complies with the intent of the provisions of this code and is at least the equivalent of that prescribed in this code.
Whenever there is insufficient evidence of compliance with the provisions of this code, or evidence that a material or method does not conform to the requirements of this code, or in order to substantiate claims for alternate materials or methods, the code official shall have the authority to require tests as evidence of compliance to be made at no expense to the jurisdiction.
Test methods shall be as specified in this code or by other recognized test standards. In the absence of recognized and accepted test methods, the code official shall approve the testing procedures.
An alternative engineered design shall conform to the intent of the provisions of this code and shall provide an equivalent level of quality, strength, effectiveness, fire resistance, durability and safety. Material, equipment or components shall be designed and installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions.
The registered design professional shall submit to the code official two complete sets of signed and sealed construction documents for the alternative engineered design. The construction documents shall include floor plans and a riser diagram of the work. Where appropriate, the construction documents shall indicate the direction of flow, all pipe sizes, grade of horizontal piping, loading, and location of fixtures and appliances.
Where the code official determines that the alternative engineered design conforms to the intent of this code, the plumbing system shall be approved. If the alternative engineered design is not approved, the code official shall notify the registered design professional in writing, stating the reasons thereof.
Any owner, authorized agent or contractor who desires to construct, enlarge, alter, repair, move, demolish or change the occupancy of a building or structure, or to erect, install, enlarge, alter, repair, remove, convert or replace any plumbing system, the installation of which is regulated by this code, or to cause any such work to be done, shall first make application to the code official and obtain the required permit for the work.
The following work shall be exempt from the requirement for a permit:
- The stopping of leaks in drains, water, soil, waste or vent pipe provided, however, that if any concealed trap, drainpipe, water, soil, waste or vent pipe becomes defective and it becomes necessary to remove and replace the same with new material, such work shall be considered as new work and a permit shall be obtained and inspection made as provided in this code.
- The clearing of stoppages or the repairing of leaks in pipes, valves or fixtures, and the removal and reinstallation of water closets, provided such repairs do not involve or require the replacement or rearrangement of valves, pipes or fixtures.
Exemption from the permit requirements of this code shall not be deemed to grant authorization for any work to be done in violation of the provisions of this code or any other laws or ordinances of this jurisdiction.
Each application for a permit, with the required fee, shall be filed with the code official on a form furnished for that purpose and shall contain a general description of the proposed work and its location. The application shall be signed by the owner or an authorized agent. The permit application shall indicate the proposed occupancy of all parts of the building and of that portion of the site or lot, if any, not covered by the building or structure and shall contain such other information required by the code official.
Construction documents, engineering calculations, diagrams and other such data shall be submitted in two or more sets with each application for a permit. The code official shall require construction documents, computations and specifications to be prepared and designed by a registered design professional when required by state law. Construction documents shall be drawn to scale and shall be of sufficient clarity to indicate the location, nature and extent of the work proposed and show in detail that the work conforms to the provisions of this code. Construction documents for buildings more than two stories in height shall indicate where penetrations will be made for pipes, fittings and components and shall indicate the materials and methods for maintaining required structural safety, fire-resistance rating and fireblocking.
Before a permit is issued, the code official is authorized to inspect and evaluate the systems, equipment, buildings, devices, premises and spaces or areas to be used.
An application for a permit for any proposed work shall be deemed to have been abandoned 180 days after the date of filing, unless such application has been pursued in good faith or a permit has been issued; except that the code official shall have the authority to grant one or more extensions of time for additional periods not exceeding 180 days each. The extension shall be requested in writing and justifiable cause demonstrated.
Application for a permit shall be made by the person or agent to install all or part of any plumbing system. The applicant shall meet all qualifications established by statute, or by rules promulgated by this code, or by ordinance or by resolution. The full name and address of the applicant shall be stated in the application.
The application, construction documents and other data filed by an applicant for permit shall be reviewed by the code official. If the code official finds that the proposed work conforms to the requirements of this code and all laws and ordinances applicable thereto, and that the fees specified in Section 106.6 have been paid, a permit shall be issued to the applicant.
When the code official issues the permit where construction documents are required, the construction documents shall be endorsed in writing and stamped "APPROVED." Such approved construction documents shall not be changed, modified or altered without authorization from the code official. All work shall be done in accordance with the approved construction documents.
The code official shall have the authority to issue a permit for the construction of a part of a plumbing system before the entire construction documents for the whole system have been submitted or approved, provided adequate information and detailed statements have been filed complying with all pertinent requirements of this code. The holders of such permit shall proceed at their own risk without assurance that the permit for the entire plumbing system will be granted.
The issuance of a permit or approval of construction documents shall not be construed to be a permit for, or an approval of, any violation of any of the provisions of this code or any other ordinance of the jurisdiction. No permit presuming to give authority to violate or cancel the provisions of this code shall be valid.
The issuance of a permit based upon construction documents and other data shall not prevent the code official from thereafter requiring the correction of errors in said construction documents and other data or from preventing building operations being carried on thereunder when in violation of this code or of other ordinances of this jurisdiction.
Every permit issued by the code official under the provisions of this code shall expire by limitation and become null and void if the work authorized by such permit is not commenced within 180 days from the date of such permit, or if the work authorized by such permit is suspended or abandoned at any time after the work is commenced for a period of 180 days. Before such work can be recommenced, a new permit shall be first obtained and the fee therefor shall be one-half the amount required for a new permit for such work, provided no changes have been made or will be made in the original construction documents for such work, and provided further that such suspension or abandonment has not exceeded 1 year.
Any permittee holding an unexpired permit shall have the right to apply for an extension of the time within which the permittee will commence work under that permit when work is unable to be commenced within the time required by this section for good and satisfactory reasons. The code official shall extend the time for action by the permittee for a period not exceeding 180 days if there is reasonable cause. No permit shall be extended more than once. The fee for an extension shall be one-half the amount required for a new permit for such work.
The code official shall have the authority to suspend or revoke a permit issued under the provisions of this code wherever the permit is issued in error or on the basis of incorrect, inaccurate or incomplete information, or in violation of any ordinance or regulation or any of the provisions of this code.
One set of approved construction documents shall be retained by the code official for a period of not less than 180 days from date of completion of the permitted work, or as required by state or local laws.
This code shall not require changes in the construction documents, construction or designated occupancy of a structure for which a lawful permit has been heretofore issued or otherwise lawfully authorized, and the construction of which has been pursued in good faith within 180 days after the effective date of this code and has not been abandoned.
The permit or a copy shall be kept on the site of the work until the completion of the project.
Any person who commences any work on a plumbing system before obtaining the necessary permits shall be subject to 100 percent of the usual permit fee in addition to the required permit fees.
The fees for all plumbing work shall be as indicated in the following schedule:
[JURISDICTION TO INSERT APPROPRIATE SCHEDULE]
The code official shall authorize the refunding of fees as follows:
- The full amount of any fee paid hereunder that was erroneously paid or collected.
- Not more than [SPECIFY PERCENTAGE] percent of the permit fee paid when no work has been done under a permit issued in accordance with this code.
- Not more than [SPECIFY PERCENTAGE] percent of the plan review fee paid when an application for a permit for which a plan review fee has been paid is withdrawn or canceled before any plan review effort has been expended.
The code official shall not authorize the refunding of any fee paid except upon written application filed by the original permittee not later than 180 days after the date of fee payment.
The code official is authorized to conduct such inspections as are deemed necessary to determine compliance with the provisions of this code. Construction or work for which a permit is required shall be subject to inspection by the code official, and such construction or work shall remain accessible and exposed for inspection purposes until approved. Approval as a result of an inspection shall not be construed to be an approval of a violation of the provisions of this code or of other ordinances of the jurisdiction. Inspections presuming to give authority to violate or cancel the provisions of this code or of other ordinances of the jurisdiction shall not be valid. It shall be the duty of the permit applicant to cause the work to remain accessible and exposed for inspection purposes. Neither the code official nor the jurisdiction shall be liable for expense entailed in the removal or replacement of any material required to allow inspection.
The code official, upon notification from the permit holder or the permit holder's agent, shall make the following inspections and such other inspections as necessary, and shall either release that portion of the construction or shall notify the permit holder or an agent of any violations that must be corrected. The holder of the permit shall be responsible for the scheduling of such inspections.
- Underground inspection shall be made after trenches or ditches are excavated and bedded, piping installed, and before any backfill is put in place.
- Rough-in inspection shall be made after the roof, framing, fireblocking, firestopping, draftstopping and bracing is in place and all sanitary, storm and water distribution piping is roughed-in, and prior to the installation of wall or ceiling membranes.
- Final inspection shall be made after the building is complete, all plumbing fixtures are in place and properly connected, and the structure is ready for occupancy.
In addition to the inspections specified above, the code official is authorized to make or require other inspections of any construction work to ascertain compliance with the provisions of this code and other laws that are enforced.
Work shall not be done beyond the point indicated in each successive inspection without first obtaining the approval of the code official. The code official, upon notification, shall make the requested inspections and shall either indicate the portion of the construction that is satisfactory as completed, or notify the permit holder or his or her agent wherein the same fails to comply with this code. Any portions that do not comply shall be corrected and such portion shall not be covered or concealed until authorized by the code official.
Prior to the approval of a closed, prefabricated plumbing system and the issuance of a plumbing permit, the code official shall require the submittal of an evaluation report on each prefabricated plumbing system indicating the complete details of the plumbing system, including a description of the system and its components, the basis upon which the plumbing system is being evaluated, test results and similar information, and other data as necessary for the code official to determine conformance to this code.
Except where ready access is provided to all plumbing systems, service equipment and accessories for complete inspection at the site without disassembly or dismantling, the code official shall conduct the frequency of in-plant inspections necessary to ensure conformance to the approved evaluation report or shall designate an independent, approved inspection agency to conduct such inspections. The inspection agency shall furnish the code official with the follow-up inspection manual and a report of inspections upon request, and the plumbing system shall have an identifying label permanently affixed to the system indicating that factory inspections have been performed.
The registered design professional or designated inspector shall periodically inspect and observe the alternative engineered design to determine that the installation is in accordance with the approved construction documents. All discrepancies shall be brought to the immediate attention of the plumbing contractor for correction. Records shall be kept of all inspections.
The registered design professional shall submit a final report in writing to the code official upon completion of the installation, certifying that the alternative engineered design conforms to the approved construction documents. A notice of approval for the plumbing system shall not be issued until a written certification has been submitted.
New plumbing systems and parts of existing systems that have been altered, extended or repaired shall be tested as prescribed herein to disclose leaks and defects, except that testing is not required in the following cases:
All equipment, material and labor required for testing a plumbing system or part thereof shall be furnished by the permit holder.
After the prescribed tests and inspections indicate that the work complies in all respects with this code, a notice of approval shall be issued by the code official.
The code official is authorized to, in writing, suspend or revoke a notice of approval issued under the provisions of this code wherever the notice is issued in error, or on the basis of incorrect information supplied, or where it is determined that the building or structure, premise or portion thereof is in violation of any ordinance or regulation or any of the provisions of this code.
It shall be unlawful for any person, firm or corporation to erect, construct, alter, repair, remove, demolish or utilize any plumbing system, or cause same to be done, in conflict with or in violation of any of the provisions of this code.
The code official shall serve a notice of violation or order to the person responsible for the erection, installation, alteration, extension, repair, removal or demolition of plumbing work in violation of the provisions of this code, or in violation of a detail statement or the approved construction documents thereunder, or in violation of a permit or certificate issued under the provisions of this code. Such order shall direct the discontinuance of the illegal action or condition and the abatement of the violation.
If the notice of violation is not complied with promptly, the code official shall request the legal counsel of the jurisdiction to institute the appropriate proceeding at law or in equity to restrain, correct or abate such violation, or to require the removal or termination of the unlawful occupancy of the structure in violation of the provisions of this code or of the order or direction made pursuant thereto.
Any person who shall violate a provision of this code or shall fail to comply with any of the requirements thereof or who shall erect, install, alter or repair plumbing work in violation of the approved construction documents or directive of the code official, or of a permit or certificate issued under the provisions of this code, shall be guilty of a [SPECIFY OFFENSE], punishable by a fine of not more than [AMOUNT] dollars or by imprisonment not exceeding [NUMBER OF DAYS], or both such fine and imprisonment. Each day that a violation continues after due notice has been served shall be deemed a separate offense.
Upon notice from the code official, work on any plumbing system that is being done contrary to the provisions of this code or in a dangerous or unsafe manner shall immediately cease. Such notice shall be in writing and shall be given to the owner of the property, or to the owner's agent, or to the person doing the work. The notice shall state the conditions under which work is authorized to resume. Where an emergency exists, the code official shall not be required to give a written notice prior to stopping the work. Any person who shall continue any work in or about the structure after having been served with a stop work order, except such work as that person is directed to perform to remove a violation or unsafe condition, shall be liable to a fine of not less than [AMOUNT] dollars or more than [AMOUNT] dollars.
The imposition of the penalties herein prescribed shall not preclude the legal officer of the jurisdiction from instituting appropriate action to prevent unlawful construction or to restrain, correct or abate a violation, or to prevent illegal occupancy of a building, structure or premises, or to stop an illegal act, conduct, business or utilization of the plumbing on or about any premises.
Any plumbing regulated by this code that is unsafe or that constitutes a fire or health hazard, insanitary condition, or is otherwise dangerous to human life is hereby declared unsafe. Any use of plumbing regulated by this code constituting a hazard to safety, health or public welfare by reason of inadequate maintenance, dilapidation, obsolescence, fire hazard, disaster, damage or abandonment is hereby declared an unsafe use. Any such unsafe equipment is hereby declared to be a public nuisance and shall be abated by repair, rehabilitation, demolition or removal.
Whenever the code official determines that any plumbing, or portion thereof, regulated by this code has become hazardous to life, health or property or has become insanitary, the code official shall order in writing that such plumbing either be removed or restored to a safe or sanitary condition. A time limit for compliance with such order shall be specified in the written notice. No person shall use or maintain defective plumbing after receiving such notice.
The code official shall have the authority to authorize disconnection of utility service to the building, structure or system regulated by the technical codes in case of an emergency, where necessary, to eliminate an immediate danger to life or property. Where possible, the owner and occupant of the building, structure or service system shall be notified of the decision to disconnect utility service prior to taking such action. If not notified prior to disconnecting, the owner or occupant of the building, structure or service systems shall be notified in writing, as soon as practical thereafter.
No person shall make connections from any energy, fuel, power supply or water distribution system or supply energy, fuel or water to any equipment regulated by this code that has been disconnected or ordered to be disconnected by the code official or the use of which has been ordered to be discontinued by the code official until the code official authorizes the reconnection and use of such equipment.
Any person shall have the right to appeal a decision of the code official to the board of appeals. An application for appeal shall be based on a claim that the true intent of this code or the rules legally adopted thereunder have been incorrectly interpreted, the provisions of this code do not fully apply, or an equally good or better form of construction is proposed. The application shall be filed on a form obtained from the code official within 20 days after the notice was served.
The board of appeals shall consist of five members appointed by the chief appointing authority as follows: one for 5 years, one for 4 years, one for 3 years, one for 2 years and one for 1 year. Thereafter, each new member shall serve for 5 years or until a successor has been appointed.
The board of appeals shall consist of five individuals, one from each of the following professions or disciplines:
- Registered design professional who is a registered architect; or a builder or superintendent of building construction with at least 10 years' experience, 5 years of which shall have been in responsible charge of work.
- Registered design professional with structural engineering or architectural experience.
- Registered design professional with mechanical and plumbing engineering experience; or a mechanical and plumbing contractor with at least 10 years' experience, 5 years of which shall have been in responsible charge of work.
- Registered design professional with electrical engineering experience; or an electrical contractor with at least 10 years' experience, 5 years of which shall have been in responsible charge of work.
- Registered design professional with fire protection engineering experience; or a fire protection contractor with at least 10 years' experience, 5 years of which shall have been in responsible charge of work.
The chief appointing authority shall appoint two alternate members who shall be called by the board chairman to hear appeals during the absence or disqualification of a member. Alternate members shall possess the qualifications required for board membership, and shall be appointed for 5 years or until a successor has been appointed.
The board shall annually select one of its members to serve as chairman.
A member shall not hear an appeal in which that member has any personal, professional or financial interest.
The chief administrative officer shall designate a qualified clerk to serve as secretary to the board. The secretary shall file a detailed record of all proceedings in the office of the chief administrative officer.
Compensation of members shall be determined by law.
The board shall meet upon notice from the chairman, within 10 days of the filing of an appeal or at stated periodic meetings.
All hearings before the board shall be open to the public. The appellant, the appellant's representative, the code official and any person whose interests are affected shall be given an opportunity to be heard.
The board shall adopt and make available to the public through the secretary procedures under which a hearing will be conducted. The procedures shall not require compliance with strict rules of evidence, but shall mandate that only relevant information be received.
When five members are not present to hear an appeal, either the appellant or the appellant's representative shall have the right to request a postponement of the hearing.
The board shall modify or reverse the decision of the code official by a concurring vote of three members.
The decision of the board shall be by resolution. Certified copies shall be furnished to the appellant and to the code official.
Any person, whether or not a previous party of the appeal, shall have the right to apply to the appropriate court for a writ of certiorari to correct errors of law. Application for review shall be made in the manner and time required by law following the filing of the decision in the office of the chief administrative officer.
Temporary equipment, systems and uses shall conform to the structural strength, fire safety, means of egress, accessibility, light, ventilation and sanitary requirements of this code as necessary to ensure the public health, safety and general welfare.
The code official is authorized to give permission to temporarily supply utilities before an installation has been fully completed and the final certificate of completion has been issued. The part covered by the temporary certificate shall comply with the requirements specified for temporary lighting, heat or power in the code.