CODES

ADOPTS WITHOUT AMENDMENTS:

International Building Code 2009 (IBC 2009)

Copyright

Effective Use of the International Building Code

Preface

Ordinance

Chapter 1 Scope and Administration

Chapter 2 Definitions

Chapter 3 Use and Occupancy Classification

Chapter 4 Special Detailed Requirements Based on Use and Occupancy

Chapter 5 General Building Heights and Areas

Chapter 6 Types of Construction

Chapter 7 Fire and Smoke Protection Features

Chapter 8 Interior Finishes

Chapter 9 Fire Protection Systems

Chapter 10 Means of Egress

Chapter 11 Accessibility

Chapter 12 Interior Environment

Chapter 13 Energy Efficiency

Chapter 14 Exterior Walls

Chapter 15 Roof Assemblies and Rooftop Structures

Chapter 16 Structural Design

Chapter 17 Structural Tests and Special Inspections

Chapter 18 Soils and Foundations

Chapter 19 Concrete

Chapter 20 Aluminum

Chapter 21 Masonry

Chapter 22 Steel

Chapter 23 Wood

Chapter 24 Glass and Glazing

Chapter 25 Gypsum Board and Plaster

Chapter 26 Plastic

Chapter 27 Electrical

Chapter 28 Mechanical Systems

Chapter 29 Plumbing Systems

Chapter 30 Elevators and Conveying Systems

Chapter 31 Special Construction

Chapter 32 Encroachments Into the Public Right-Of-Way

Chapter 33 Safeguards During Construction

Chapter 34 Existing Structures

Chapter 35 Referenced Standards

Appendix A Employee Qualifications

Appendix B Board of Appeals

Appendix C Group U - Agricultural Buildings

Appendix D Fire Districts

Appendix E Supplementary Accessibility Requirements

Appendix F Rodentproofing

Appendix G Flood-Resistant Construction

Appendix H Signs

Appendix I Patio Covers

Appendix J Grading

Appendix K Administrative Provisions

In addition to the occupancy and construction requirements in this code, the provisions of this chapter apply to the special uses and occupancies described herein.

The provisions of this section shall apply to buildings or structures defined herein as covered mall buildings not exceeding three floor levels at any point nor more than three stories above grade plane. Except as specifically required by this section, covered mall buildings shall meet applicable provisions of this code.

Exceptions:

1. Foyers and lobbies of Groups B, R-1 and R-2 are not required to comply with this section.

2. Buildings need not comply with the provisions of this section when they totally comply with other applicable provisions of this code.

The following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, have the meanings shown herein.

ANCHOR BUILDING. An exterior perimeter building of a group other than H having direct access to a covered mall building but having required means of egress independent of the mall.

COVERED MALL BUILDING. A single building enclosing a number of tenants and occupants, such as retail stores, drinking and dining establishments, entertainment and amusement facilities, passenger transportation terminals, offices and other similar uses wherein two or more tenants have a main entrance into one or more malls. For the purpose of this chapter, anchor buildings shall not be considered as a part of the covered mall building. The term “covered mall building” shall include open mall buildings as defined below.

Mall. A roofed or covered common pedestrian area within a covered mall building that serves as access for two or more tenants and not to exceed three levels that are open to each other. The term “mall” shall include open malls as defined below.

Open mall. An unroofed common pedestrian way serving a number of tenants not exceeding three levels. Circulation at levels above grade shall be permitted to include open exterior balconies leading to exits discharging at grade.

Open mall building. Several structures housing a number of tenants, such as retail stores, drinking and dining establishments, entertainment and amusement facilities, offices, and other similar uses, wherein two or more tenants have a main entrance into one or more open malls. For the purpose of Chapter 4 of the International Building Code, anchor buildings are not considered as a part of the open mall building.

FOOD COURT. A public seating area located in the mall that serves adjacent food preparation tenant spaces.

GROSS LEASABLE AREA. The total floor area designed for tenant occupancy and exclusive use. The area of tenant occupancy is measured from the centerlines of joint partitions to the outside of the tenant walls. All tenant areas, including areas used for storage, shall be included in calculating gross leasable area.

Each covered mall building owner shall provide both the building and fire departments with a lease plan showing the location of each occupancy and its exits after the certificate of occupancy has been issued. No modifications or changes in occupancy or use shall be made from that shown on the lease plan without prior approval of the building official.
Each tenant space and the covered mall building shall be provided with means of egress as required by this section and this code. Where there is a conflict between the requirements of this code and the requirements of this section, the requirements of this section shall apply.
The occupant load permitted in any individual tenant space in a covered mall building shall be determined as required by this code. Means of egress requirements for individual tenant spaces shall be based on the occupant load thus determined.

In determining required means of egress of the mall, the number of occupants for whom means of egress are to be provided shall be based on gross leasable area of the covered mall building (excluding anchor buildings) and the occupant load factor as determined by the following equation.

OLF = (0.00007) (GLA) + 25 (Equation 4-1)

where:

OLF = The occupant load factor (square feet per person).

GLA = The gross leasable area (square feet).

Exception: Tenant spaces attached to a covered mall building but with a means of egress system that is totally independent of the covered mall building shall not be considered as gross leasable area for determining the required means of egress for the covered mall building.

The occupant load factor (OLF) is not required to be less than 30 and shall not exceed 50.
The occupant load of anchor buildings opening into the mall shall not be included in computing the total number of occupants for the mall.
The occupant load of a food court shall be determined in accordance with Section 1004. For the purposes of determining the means of egress requirements for the mall, the food court occupant load shall be added to the occupant load of the covered mall building as calculated above.
Wherever the distance of travel to the mall from any location within a tenant space used by persons other than employees exceeds 75 feet (22 860 mm) or the tenant space has an occupant load of 50 or more, not less than two means of egress shall be provided.
Assembly occupancies with an occupant load of 500 or more shall be so located in the covered mall building that their entrance will be immediately adjacent to a principal entrance to the mall and shall have not less than one-half of their required means of egress opening directly to the exterior of the covered mall building.
Required means of egress for anchor buildings shall be provided independently from the mall means of egress system. The occupant load of anchor buildings opening into the mall shall not be included in determining means of egress requirements for the mall. The path of egress travel of malls shall not exit through anchor buildings. Malls terminating at an anchor building where no other means of egress has been provided shall be considered as a dead-end mall.

Within each individual tenant space in a covered mall building, the maximum distance of travel from any point to an exit or entrance to the mall shall not exceed 200 feet (60 960 mm).

The maximum distance of travel from any point within a mall to an exit shall not exceed 200 feet (60 960 mm).

Where more than one exit is required, they shall be so arranged that it is possible to travel in either direction from any point in a mall to separate exits. The minimum width of an exit passageway or corridor from a mall shall be 66 inches (1676 mm).

Exception: Dead ends not exceeding a length equal to twice the width of the mall measured at the narrowest location within the dead-end portion of the mall.

Where exit passageways provide a secondary means of egress from a tenant space, doorways to the exit passageway shall be protected by 1-hour fire door assemblies that are self- or automatic- closing by smoke detection in accordance with Section 715.4.8.3.
Mechanical rooms, electrical rooms, building service areas and service elevators are permitted to open directly into exit passageways, provided the exit passageway is separated from such rooms with not less than 1-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712, or both. The minimum fire protection rating of openings in the fire barriers shall be 1 hour.
For the purpose of providing required egress, malls are permitted to be considered as corridors but need not comply with the requirements of Section 1005.1 of this code where the width of the mall is as specified in this section.
The minimum width of the mall shall be 20 feet (6096 mm). The mall width shall be sufficient to accommodate the occupant load served. There shall be a minimum of 10 feet (3048 mm) clear exit width to a height of 8 feet (2438 mm) between any projection of a tenant space bordering the mall and the nearest kiosk, vending machine, bench, display opening, food court or other obstruction to means of egress travel.
The minimum floor and roof opening width above grade shall be 20 feet (9096 mm) in open malls.
The area of any covered mall building, including anchor buildings, of Types I, II, III and IV construction, shall not be limited provided the covered mall building and attached anchor buildings and parking garages are surrounded on all sides by a permanent open space of not less than 60 feet (18 288 mm) and the anchor buildings do not exceed three stories above grade plane. The allowable height and area of anchor buildings greater than three stories above grade plane shall comply with Section 503, as modified by Sections 504 and 506. The construction type of open parking garages and enclosed parking garages shall comply with Sections 406.3 and 406.4, respectively.

The permanent open space of 60 feet (18 288 mm) shall be permitted to be reduced to not less than 40 feet (12 192 mm), provided the following requirements are met:

1. The reduced open space shall not be allowed for more than 75 percent of the perimeter of the covered mall building and anchor buildings.

2. The exterior wall facing the reduced open space shall have a minimum fire-resistance rating of 3 hours.

3. Openings in the exterior wall facing the reduced open space shall have opening protectives with a minimum fire protection rating of 3 hours.

4. Group E, H, I or R occupancies are not within the covered mall building or anchor stores.

Fire-resistance-rated separation is not required between tenant spaces and the mall. Fire-resistance-rated separation is not required between a food court and adjacent tenant spaces or the mall.

An attached garage for the storage of passenger vehicles having a capacity of not more than nine persons and open parking garages shall be considered as a separate building where it is separated from the covered mall building by not less than 2-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712, or both.

Exception: Where an open parking garage or enclosed parking garage is separated from the covered mall building or anchor building a distance greater than 10 feet (3048 mm), the provisions of Table 602 shall apply. Pedestrian walkways and tunnels that attach the open parking garage or enclosed parking garage to the covered mall building or anchor building shall be constructed in accordance with Section 3104.

Each tenant space shall be separated from other tenant spaces by a fire partition complying with Section 709. A tenant separation wall is not required between any tenant space and the mall.

An anchor building shall be separated from the covered mall building by fire walls complying with Section 706.

Exception: Anchor buildings of not more than three stories above grade plane that have an occupancy classification the same as that permitted for tenants of the covered mall building shall be separated by 2-hour fire-resistive fire barriers complying with Section 707.

Except for the separation between Group R-1 sleeping units and the mall, openings between anchor buildings of Type IA, IB, IIA and IIB construction and the mall need not be protected.
Interior wall and ceiling finishes within the mall and exits shall have a minimum flame spread index and smoke-developed index of Class B in accordance with Chapter 8. Interior floor finishes shall meet the requirements of Section 804.

The covered mall building and buildings connected shall be equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, which shall comply with the following:

1. The automatic sprinkler system shall be complete and operative throughout occupied space in the covered mall building prior to occupancy of any of the tenant spaces. Unoccupied tenant spaces shall be similarly protected unless provided with approved alternative protection.

2. Sprinkler protection for the mall shall be independent from that provided for tenant spaces or anchors. Where tenant spaces are supplied by the same system, they shall be independently controlled.

Exception: An automatic sprinkler system shall not be required in spaces or areas of open parking garages constructed in accordance with Section 406.3.

The covered mall building shall be equipped throughout with a standpipe system as required by Section 905.3.3.

Where a covered mall building contains an atrium, a smoke control system shall be provided in accordance with Section 404.5.

Exception: A smoke control system is not required in covered mall buildings when an atrium connects only two stories.

Kiosks and similar structures (temporary or permanent) shall meet the following requirements:

1. Combustible kiosks or other structures shall not be located within the mall unless constructed of any of the following materials:

1.1. Fire-retardant-treated wood complying with Section 2303.2.

1.2. Foam plastics having a maximum heat-release rate not greater than 100 kilowatts (105 Btu/h) when tested in accordance with the exhibit booth protocol in UL 1975.

1.3. Aluminum composite material (ACM) having a flame spread index of not more than 25 and a smoke-developed index of not more than 450 when tested as an assembly in the maximum thickness intended for use in accordance with ASTM E 84 or UL 723.

2. Kiosks or similar structures located within the mall shall be provided with approved fire suppression detection devices.

3. The minimum horizontal separation between kiosks or groupings thereof and other structures within the mall shall be 20 feet (6096 mm).

4. Each kiosk or similar structure or groupings thereof shall have a maximum area of 300 square feet (28 m2).

Structures intended as children’s playgrounds that exceed 10 feet (3048 mm) in height and 150 square feet (14 m2) in area shall comply with Sections 402.12.1 through 402.12.4.

Children’s playground structures shall be constructed of noncombustible materials or of combustible materials that comply with the following:

1. Fire-retardant-treated wood.

2. Light-transmitting plastics complying with Section 2606.

3. Foam plastics (including the pipe foam used in soft-contained play equipment structures) having a maximum heat-release rate not greater than 100 kilowatts when tested in accordance with UL 1975.

4. Aluminum composite material (ACM) meeting the requirements of Class A interior finish in accordance with Chapter 8 when tested as an assembly in the maximum thickness intended for use.

5. Textiles and films complying with the flame propagation performance criteria contained in NFPA 701.

6. Plastic materials used to construct rigid components of soft-contained play equipment structures (such as tubes, windows, panels, junction boxes, pipes, slides and decks) exhibiting a peak rate of heat release not exceeding 400 kW/m2 when tested in accordance with ASTM E 1354 at an incident heat flux of 50 kW/m2 in the horizontal orientation at a thickness of 6 mm.

7. Ball pool balls, used in soft-contained play equipment structures, having a maximum heat-release rate not greater than 100 kilowatts when tested in accordance with UL 1975. The minimum specimen test size shall be 36 inches by 36 inches (914 mm by 914 mm) by an average of 21 inches (533 mm) deep, and the balls shall be held in a box constructed of galvanized steel poultry netting wire mesh.

8. Foam plastics shall be covered by a fabric, coating or film meeting the flame propagation performance criteria of NFPA 701.

9. The floor covering placed under the children’s playground structure shall exhibit a Class I interior floor finish classification, as described in Section 804, when tested in accordance with NFPA 253.

Children’s playground structures located within the mall shall be provided with the same level of approved fire suppression and detection devices required for kiosks and similar structures.
Children’s playground structures shall have a minimum horizontal separation from other structures within the mall of 20 feet (6090 mm).
Children’s playground structures shall not exceed 300 square feet (28 m2) in area, unless a special investigation has demonstrated adequate fire safety.

Horizontal sliding or vertical security grilles or doors that are a part of a required means of egress shall conform to the following:

1. They shall remain in the full open position during the period of occupancy by the general public.

2. Doors or grilles shall not be brought to the closed position when there are 10 or more persons occupying spaces served by a single exit or 50 or more persons occupying spaces served by more than one exit.

3. The doors or grilles shall be openable from within without the use of any special knowledge or effort where the space is occupied.

4. Where two or more exits are required, not more than one-half of the exits shall be permitted to include either a horizontal sliding or vertical rolling grille or door.

Covered mall buildings exceeding 50,000 square feet (4645 m2) shall be provided with standby power systems that are capable of operating the emergency voice/alarm communication system.
Covered mall buildings exceeding 50,000 square feet (4645 m2) in total floor area shall be provided with an emergency voice/alarm communication system. Emergency voice/alarm communication systems serving a mall, required or otherwise, shall be accessible to the fire department. The system shall be provided in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2.
Plastic signs affixed to the storefront of any tenant space facing the mall shall be limited as specified in Sections 402.16.1 through 402.16.5.2.
Plastic signs shall not exceed 20 percent of the wall area facing the mall.
Plastic signs shall not exceed a height of 36 inches (914 mm), except that if the sign is vertical, the height shall not exceed 96 inches (2438 mm) and the width shall not exceed 36 inches (914 mm).
Plastic signs shall be located a minimum distance of 18 inches (457 mm) from adjacent tenants.
Plastics other than foam plastics used in signs shall be light-transmitting plastics complying with Section 2606.4 or shall have a self-ignition temperature of 650°F (343°C) or greater when tested in accordance with ASTM D 1929, and a flame spread index not greater than 75 and smoke-developed index not greater than 450 when tested in the manner intended for use in accordance with ASTM E 84 or UL 723 or meet the acceptance criteria of Section 803.1.2.1 when tested in accordance with NFPA 286.
Edges and backs of plastic signs in the mall shall be fully encased in metal.
Foam plastics used in signs shall have flame-retardant characteristics such that the sign has a maximum heat-release rate of 150 kilowatts when tested in accordance with UL 1975 and the foam plastics shall have the physical characteristics specified in this section. Foam plastics used in signs installed in accordance with Section 402.16 shall not be required to comply with the flame spread and smoke-developed indexes specified in Section 2603.3.
The minimum density of foam plastics used in signs shall not be less than 20 pounds per cubic foot (pcf) (320 kg/m3).
The thickness of foam plastic signs shall not be greater than 1/2 inch (12.7 mm).
Rooms or areas containing controls for air-conditioning systems, automatic fire-extinguishing systems or other detection, suppression or control elements shall be identified for use by the fire department.

High-rise buildings shall comply with Sections 403.2 through 403.6.

Exception: The provisions of Sections 403.2 through 403.6 shall not apply to the following buildings and structures:

1. Airport traffic control towers in accordance with Section 412.3.

2. Open parking garages in accordance with Section 406.3.

3. Buildings with a Group A-5 occupancy in accordance with Section 303.1.

4. Special industrial occupancies in accordance with Section 503.1.1.

5. Buildings with a Group H-1, H-2 or H-3 occupancy in accordance with Section 415.

The construction of high-rise buildings shall comply with the provisions of Sections 403.2.1 through 403.2.4.
The fire-resistance-rating reductions listed in Sections 403.2.1.1 and 403.2.1.2 shall be allowed in buildings that have sprinkler control valves equipped with supervisory initiating devices and water-flow initiating devices for each floor.

The following reductions in the minimum fire-resistance rating of the building elements in Table 601 shall be permitted as follows:

1. For buildings not greater than 420 feet (128 m) in building height, the fire-resistance rating of the building elements in Type IA construction shall be permitted to be reduced to the minimum fire-resistance ratings for the building elements in Type IB.

Exception: The required fire-resistance rating of columns supporting floors shall not be permitted to be reduced.

2. In other than Group F-1, M and S-1 occupancies, the fire-resistance rating of the building elements in Type IB construction shall be permitted to be reduced to the fire-resistance ratings in Type IIA.

3. The building height and building area limitations of a building containing building elements with reduced fire-resistance ratings shall be permitted to be the same as the building without such reductions.

For buildings not greater than 420 feet (128 m) in building height, the required fire-resistance rating of the fire barriers enclosing vertical shafts, other than exit enclosures and elevator hoistway enclosures, is permitted to be reduced to 1 hour where automatic sprinklers are installed within the shafts at the top and at alternate floor levels.
For seismic considerations, see Chapter 16.
For high-rise buildings of occupancy category III or IV in accordance with Section 1604.5, and for all buildings that are more than 420 feet (128 m) in building height, exit enclosures and elevator hoistway enclosures shall comply with Sections 403.2.3.1 through 403.2.3.4.
The wall assemblies making up the exit enclosures and elevator hoistway enclosures shall meet or exceed Soft Body Impact Classification Level 2 as measured by the test method described in ASTM C 1629/C 1629M.

The face of the wall assemblies making up the exit enclosures and elevator hoistway enclosures that are not exposed to the interior of the exit enclosure or elevator hoistway enclosure shall be constructed in accordance with one of the following methods:

1. The wall assembly shall incorporate not less than two layers of impact-resistant construction board each of which meets or exceeds Hard Body Impact Classification Level 2 as measured by the test method described in ASTM C 1629/C 1629M.

2. The wall assembly shall incorporate not less than one layer of impact-resistant construction material that meets or exceeds Hard Body Impact Classification Level 3 as measured by the test method described in ASTM C 1629/C 1629M.

3. The wall assembly incorporates multiple layers of any material, tested in tandem, that meet or exceed Hard Body Impact Classification Level 3 as measured by the test method described in ASTM C 1629/C 1629M.

Concrete or masonry walls shall be deemed to satisfy the requirements of Sections 403.2.3.1 and 403.2.3.2.
Any other wall assembly that provides impact resistance equivalent to that required by Sections 403.2.3.1 and 403.2.3.2 for Hard Body Impact Classification Level 3, as measured by the test method described in ASTM C 1629/C 1629M, shall be permitted.

The bond strength of the SFRM installed throughout the building shall be in accordance with Table 403.2.4.

TABLE 403.2.4
MINIMUM BOND STRENGTH

HEIGHT OF BUILDINGa

SFRM MINIMUM BOND STRENGTH

Up to 420 feet

430 psf

Greater than 420 feet

1,000 psf

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot (psf) = 0.0479 kW/m2.

a. Above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access.

Buildings and structures shall be equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 and a secondary water supply where required by Section 903.3.5.2.

Exception: An automatic sprinkler system shall not be required in spaces or areas of:

1. Open parking garages in accordance with Section 406.3.

2. Telecommunications equipment buildings used exclusively for telecommunications equipment, associated electrical power distribution equipment, batteries and standby engines, provided that those spaces or areas are equipped throughout with an automatic fire detection system in accordance with Section 907.2 and are separated from the remainder of the building by not less than 1-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or not less than 2-hour horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712, or both.

Each sprinkler system zone in buildings that are more than 420 feet (128 m) in building height shall be supplied by a minimum of two risers. Each riser shall supply sprinklers on alternate floors. If more than two risers are provided for a zone, sprinklers on adjacent floors shall not be supplied from the same riser.
Sprinkler risers shall be placed in exit enclosures that are remotely located in accordance with Section 1015.2.

Required fire pumps shall be supplied by connections to a minimum of two water mains located in different streets. Separate supply piping shall be provided between each connection to the water main and the pumps. Each connection and the supply piping between the connection and the pumps shall be sized to supply the flow and pressure required for the pumps to operate.

Exception: Two connections to the same main shall be permitted provided the main is valved such that an interruption can be isolated so that the water supply will continue without interruption through at least one of the connections.

The detection, alarm and emergency systems of high-rise buildings shall comply with Sections 403.4.1 through 403.4.8.
Smoke detection shall be provided in accordance with Section 907.2.13.1.
A fire alarm system shall be provided in accordance with Section 907.2.13.
An emergency voice/alarm communication system shall be provided in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2.
Emergency responder radio coverage shall be provided in accordance with Section 510 of the International Fire Code.
A fire command center complying with Section 911 shall be provided in a location approved by the fire department.

To facilitate smoke removal in post-fire salvage and overhaul operations, buildings and structures shall be equipped with natural or mechanical ventilation for removal of products of combustion in accordance with one of the following:

1. Easily identifiable, manually operable windows or panels shall be distributed around the perimeter of each floor at not more than 50-foot (15 240 mm) intervals. The area of operable windows or panels shall not be less than 40 square feet (3.7 m2) per 50 linear feet (15 240 mm) of perimeter.

Exceptions:

1. In Group R-1 occupancies, each sleeping unit or suite having an exterior wall shall be permitted to be provided with 2 square feet (0.19 m2) of venting area in lieu of the area specified in Item 1.

2. Windows shall be permitted to be fixed provided that glazing can be cleared by fire fighters.

2. Mechanical air-handling equipment providing one exhaust air change every 15 minutes for the area involved. Return and exhaust air shall be moved directly to the outside without recirculation to other portions of the building.

3. Any other approved design that will produce equivalent results.

A standby power system complying with Chapter 27 shall be provided for standby power loads specified in Section 403.4.7.2.
If the standby system is a generator set inside a building, the system shall be located in a separate room enclosed with 2-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712, or both. System supervision with manual start and transfer features shall be provided at the fire command center.

The following are classified as standby power loads:

1. Power and lighting for the fire command center required by Section 403.4.5;

2. Ventilation and automatic fire detection equipment for smokeproof enclosures; and

3. Standby power shall be provided for elevators in accordance with Sections 1007.4, 3003, 3007 and 3008.

An emergency power system complying with Chapter 27 shall be provided for emergency power loads specified in Section 403.4.8.1.

The following are classified as emergency power loads:

1. Exit signs and means of egress illumination required by Chapter 10;

2. Elevator car lighting;

3. Emergency voice/alarm communications systems;

4. Automatic fire detection systems;

5. Fire alarm systems; and

6. Electrically powered fire pumps.

The means of egress in high-rise buildings shall comply with Sections 403.5.1 through 403.5.6.
The required exit stairway enclosures shall be separated by a distance not less than 30 feet (9144 mm) or not less than one-fourth of the length of the maximum overall diagonal dimension of the building or area to be served, whichever is less. The distance shall be measured in a straight line between the nearest points of the exit stairway enclosures. In buildings with three or more exit stairway enclosures, at least two of the exit stairway enclosures shall comply with this section. Interlocking or scissor stairs shall be counted as one exit stairway.

For buildings other than Group R-2 that are more than 420 feet (128 m) in building height, one additional exit stairway meeting the requirements of Sections 1009 and 1022 shall be provided in addition to the minimum number of exits required by Section 1021.1. The total width of any combination of remaining exit stairways with one exit stairway removed shall not be less than the total width required by Section 1005.1. Scissor stairs shall not be considered the additional exit stairway required by this section.

Exception: An additional exit stairway shall not be required to be installed in buildings having elevators used for occupant self-evacuation in accordance with Section 3008.

Stairway doors other than the exit discharge doors shall be permitted to be locked from the stairway side. Stairway doors that are locked from the stairway side shall be capable of being unlocked simultaneously without unlatching upon a signal from the fire command center.
A telephone or other two-way communications system connected to an approved constantly attended station shall be provided at not less than every fifth floor in each stairway where the doors to the stairway are locked.
Every required level exit stairway serving floors more than 75 feet (22 860 mm) above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access shall comply with Sections 909.20 and 1022.9.
Luminous egress path markings shall be provided in accordance with Section 1024.
Emergency escape and rescue openings required by Section 1029 are not required.
Elevator installation and operation in high-rise buildings shall comply with Chapter 30 and Sections 403.6.1 and 403.6.2.
In buildings with an occupied floor more than 120 feet (36 576 mm) above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access, a minimum of one fire service access elevator shall be provided in accordance with Section 3007.
Where installed in accordance with Section 3008, passenger elevators for general public use shall be permitted to be used for occupant self-evacuation.
In other than Group H occupancies, and where permitted by Exception 5 in Section 708.2, the provisions of this section shall apply to buildings or structures containing vertical openings defined herein as “Atriums.”

The following word and term shall, for the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, have the meaning shown herein.

ATRIUM. An opening connecting two or more stories other than enclosed stairways, elevators, hoistways, escalators, plumbing, electrical, air-conditioning or other equipment, which is closed at the top and not defined as a mall. Stories, as used in this definition, do not include balconies within assembly groups or mezzanines that comply with Section 505.

The floor of the atrium shall not be used for other than low fire hazard uses and only approved materials and decorations in accordance with the International Fire Code shall be used in the atrium space.

Exception: The atrium floor area is permitted to be used for any approved use where the individual space is provided with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.

An approved automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout the entire building.

Exceptions:

1. That area of a building adjacent to or above the atrium need not be sprinklered provided that portion of the building is separated from the atrium portion by not less than 2-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712, or both.

2. Where the ceiling of the atrium is more than 55 feet (16 764 mm) above the floor, sprinkler protection at the ceiling of the atrium is not required.

A fire alarm system shall be provided in accordance with Section 907.2.14.

A smoke control system shall be installed in accordance with Section 909.

Exception: Smoke control is not required for atriums that connect only two stories.

Atrium spaces shall be separated from adjacent spaces by a 1-hour fire barrier constructed in accordance with Section 707 or a horizontal assembly constructed in accordance with Section 712, or both.

Exceptions:

1. A glass wall forming a smoke partition where automatic sprinklers are spaced 6 feet (1829 mm) or less along both sides of the separation wall, or on the room side only if there is not a walkway on the atrium side, and between 4 inches and 12 inches (102 mm and 305 mm) away from the glass and designed so that the entire surface of the glass is wet upon activation of the sprinkler system without obstruction. The glass shall be installed in a gasketed frame so that the framing system deflects without breaking (loading) the glass before the sprinkler system operates.

2. A glass-block wall assembly in accordance with Section 2110 and having a 3/4-hour fire protection rating.

3. The adjacent spaces of any three floors of the atrium shall not be required to be separated from the atrium where such spaces are accounted for in the design of the smoke control system.

Equipment required to provide smoke control shall be connected to a standby power system in accordance with Section 909.11.
The interior finish of walls and ceilings of the atrium shall not be less than Class B with no reduction in class for sprinkler protection.
In other than the lowest level of the atrium, where the required means of egress is through the atrium space, the portion of exit access travel distance within the atrium space shall not exceed 200 feet (60 960 mm). The travel distance requirements for areas of buildings open to the atrium and where access to the exits is not through the atrium, shall comply with the requirements of Section 1016.

The provisions of this section apply to building spaces having a floor level used for human occupancy more than 30 feet (9144 mm) below the finished floor of the lowest level of exit discharge.

Exceptions:

1. One- and two-family dwellings, sprinklered in accordance with Section 903.3.1.3.

2. Parking garages with automatic sprinkler systems in compliance with Section 405.3.

3. Fixed guideway transit systems.

4. Grandstands, bleachers, stadiums, arenas and similar facilities.

5. Where the lowest story is the only story that would qualify the building as an underground building and has an area not exceeding 1,500 square feet (139 m2) and has an occupant load less than 10.

6. Pumping stations and other similar mechanical spaces intended only for limited periodic use by service or maintenance personnel.

The underground portion of the building shall be of Type I construction.
The highest level of exit discharge serving the underground portions of the building and all levels below shall be equipped with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. Water-flow switches and control valves shall be supervised in accordance with Section 903.4.
Compartmentation shall be in accordance with Sections 405.4.1 through 405.4.3.

A building having a floor level more than 60 feet (18 288 mm) below the finished floor of the lowest level of exit discharge shall be divided into a minimum of two compartments of approximately equal size. Such compartmentation shall extend through the highest level of exit discharge serving the underground portions of the building and all levels below.

Exception: The lowest story need not be compartmented where the area does not exceed 1,500 square feet (139 m2) and has an occupant load of less than 10.

The compartments shall be separated from each other by a smoke barrier in accordance with Section 710. Penetrations between the two compartments shall be limited to plumbing and electrical piping and conduit that are firestopped in accordance with Section 713. Doorways shall be protected by fire door assemblies that are automatic-closing by smoke detection in accordance with Section 715.4.8.3 and are installed in accordance with NFPA 105 and Section 715.4.3. Where provided, each compartment shall have an air supply and an exhaust system independent of the other compartments.
Where elevators are provided, each compartment shall have direct access to an elevator. Where an elevator serves more than one compartment, an elevator lobby shall be provided and shall be separated from each compartment by a smoke barrier in accordance with Section 710. Doors shall be gasketed, have a drop sill and be automatic-closing by smoke detection in accordance with Section 715.4.8.3.
A smoke control system shall be provided in accordance with Sections 405.5.1 and 405.5.2.
A smoke control system is required to control the migration of products of combustion in accordance with Section 909 and the provisions of this section. Smoke control shall restrict movement of smoke to the general area of fire origin and maintain means of egress in a usable condition.
Where compartmentation is required, each compartment shall have an independent smoke control system. The system shall be automatically activated and capable of manual operation in accordance with Sections 907.2.18 and 907.2.19.
A fire alarm system shall be provided where required by Sections 907.2.18 and 907.2.19.
Means of egress shall be in accordance with Sections 405.7.1 and 405.7.2.
Each floor level shall be provided with a minimum of two exits. Where compartmentation is required by Section 405.4, each compartment shall have a minimum of one exit and shall also have an exit access doorway into the adjoining compartment.
Every required stairway serving floor levels more than 30 feet (9144 mm) below the finished floor of its level of exit discharge shall comply with the requirements for a smokeproof enclosure as provided in Section 1022.9.
A standby power system complying with Chapter 27 shall be provided standby power loads specified in Section 405.8.1.

The following loads are classified as standby power loads:

1. Smoke control system.

2. Ventilation and automatic fire detection equipment for smokeproof enclosures.

3. Fire pumps.

Standby power shall be provided for elevators in accordance with Section 3003.

The standby power system shall pick up its connected loads within 60 seconds of failure of the normal power supply.
An emergency power system complying with Chapter 27 shall be provided for emergency power loads specified in Section 405.9.1.

The following loads are classified as emergency power loads:

1. Emergency voice/alarm communications systems.

2. Fire alarm systems.

3. Automatic fire detection systems.

4. Elevator car lighting.

5. Means of egress and exit sign illumination as required by Chapter 10.

The underground building shall be equipped throughout with a standpipe system in accordance with Section 905.
Buildings or parts of buildings classified as Group U occupancies because of the use or character of the occupancy shall not exceed 1,000 square feet (93 m2) in area or one story in height except as provided in Section 406.1.2. Any building or portion thereof that exceeds the limitations specified in this section shall be classified in the occupancy group other than Group U that it most nearly resembles.

Group U occupancies used for the storage of private or pleasure-type motor vehicles where no repair work is completed or fuel is dispensed are permitted to be 3,000 square feet (279 m2) when the following provisions are met:

1. For a mixed occupancy building, the exterior wall and opening protection for the Group U portion of the building shall be as required for the major occupancy of the building. For such a mixed occupancy building, the allowable floor area of the building shall be as permitted for the major occupancy contained therein.

2. For a building containing only a Group U occupancy, the exterior wall shall not be required to have a fire-resistance rating and the area of openings shall not be limited when the fire separation distance is 5 feet (1524 mm) or more.

More than one 3,000-square-foot (279 m2) Group U occupancy shall be permitted to be in the same building, provided each 3,000-square-foot (279 m2) area is separated by fire walls complying with Section 706.

Carports shall be open on at least two sides. Carport floor surfaces shall be of approved noncombustible material. Carports not open on at least two sides shall be considered a garage and shall comply with the provisions of this section for garages.

Exception: Asphalt surfaces shall be permitted at ground level in carports.

The area of floor used for parking of automobiles or other vehicles shall be sloped to facilitate the movement of liquids to a drain or toward the main vehicle entry doorway.

Separations shall comply with the following:

1. The private garage shall be separated from the dwelling unit and its attic area by means of a minimum 1/2-inch (12.7 mm) gypsum board applied to the garage side. Garages beneath habitable rooms shall be separated from all habitable rooms above by not less than a 5/8-inch (15.9 mm) Type X gypsum board or equivalent. Door openings between a private garage and the dwelling unit shall be equipped with either solid wood doors or solid or honeycomb core steel doors not less than 13/8 inches (34.9 mm) thick, or doors in compliance with Section 715.4.3. Openings from a private garage directly into a room used for sleeping purposes shall not be permitted. Doors shall be self-closing and self-latching.

2. Ducts in a private garage and ducts penetrating the walls or ceilings separating the dwelling unit from the garage shall be constructed of a minimum 0.019-inch (0.48 mm) sheet steel and shall have no openings into the garage.

3. A separation is not required between a Group R-3 and U carport, provided the carport is entirely open on two or more sides and there are not enclosed areas above.

Automatic garage door openers, if provided, shall be listed in accordance with UL 325.
Parking garages shall be classified as either open, as defined in Section 406.3, or enclosed and shall meet the appropriate criteria in Section 406.4. Also see Section 509 for special provisions for parking garages.
The clear height of each floor level in vehicle and pedestrian traffic areas shall not be less than 7 feet (2134 mm). Vehicle and pedestrian areas accommodating van-accessible parking required by Section 1106.5 shall conform to ICC A117.1.
Guards shall be provided in accordance with Section 1013. Guards serving as vehicle barrier systems shall comply with Sections 406.2.4 and 1013.

Vehicle barrier systems not less than 2 feet 9 inches (835 mm) high shall be placed at the end of drive lanes, and at the end of parking spaces where the vertical distance to the ground or surface directly below is greater than 1 foot (305 mm). Vehicle barrier systems shall comply with the loading requirements of Section 1607.7.3.

Exception: Vehicle storage compartments in a mechanical access parking garage.

Vehicle ramps shall not be considered as required exits unless pedestrian facilities are provided. Vehicle ramps that are utilized for vertical circulation as well as for parking shall not exceed a slope of 1:15 (6.67 percent).

Parking surfaces shall be of concrete or similar noncombustible and nonabsorbent materials.

The area of floor used for parking of automobiles or other vehicles shall be sloped to facilitate the movement of liquids to a drain or toward the main vehicle entry doorway.

Exceptions:

1. Asphalt parking surfaces shall be permitted at ground level.

2. Floors of Group S-2 parking garages shall not be required to have a sloped surface.

Parking garages shall be separated from other occupancies in accordance with Section 508.1.

Connection of a parking garage with any room in which there is a fuel-fired appliance shall be by means of a vestibule providing a two-doorway separation.

Exception: A single door shall be allowed provided the sources of ignition in the appliance are at least 18 inches (457 mm) above the floor.

Openings from a parking garage directly into a room used for sleeping purposes shall not be permitted.
Except where specific provisions are made in Sections 406.3.2 through 406.3.13, other requirements of this code shall apply.

The following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, have the meanings shown herein.

MECHANICAL-ACCESS OPEN PARKING GARAGES. Open parking garages employing parking machines, lifts, elevators or other mechanical devices for vehicles moving from and to street level and in which public occupancy is prohibited above the street level.

OPEN PARKING GARAGE. A structure or portion of a structure with the openings as described in Section 406.3.3.1 on two or more sides that is used for the parking or storage of private motor vehicles as described in Section 406.3.4.

RAMP-ACCESS OPEN PARKING GARAGES. Open parking garages employing a series of continuously rising floors or a series of interconnecting ramps between floors permitting the movement of vehicles under their own power from and to the street level.

Open parking garages shall be of Type I, II or IV construction. Open parking garages shall meet the design requirements of Chapter 16. For vehicle barrier systems, see Section 406.2.4.

For natural ventilation purposes, the exterior side of the structure shall have uniformly distributed openings on two or more sides. The area of such openings in exterior walls on a tier must be at least 20 percent of the total perimeter wall area of each tier. The aggregate length of the openings considered to be providing natural ventilation shall constitute a minimum of 40 percent of the perimeter of the tier. Interior walls shall be at least 20 percent open with uniformly distributed openings.

Exception: Openings are not required to be distributed over 40 percent of the building perimeter where the required openings are uniformly distributed over two opposing sides of the building.

Mixed uses shall be allowed in the same building as an open parking garage subject to the provisions of Sections 402.7.1, 406.3.13, 508.1, 509.3, 509.4 and 509.7.

Area and height of open parking garages shall be limited as set forth in Chapter 5 for Group S-2 occupancies and as further provided for in Section 508.1.

TABLE 406.3.5
OPEN PARKING GARAGES AREA AND HEIGHT

TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION

AREA PER TIER
(square feet)

HEIGHT (in tiers)

Ramp access

Mechanical access

Automatic sprinkler system

No

Yes

IA

Unlimited

Unlimited

Unlimited

Unlimited

IB

Unlimited

12 tiers

12 tiers

18 tiers

IIA

50,000

10 tiers

10 tiers

15 tiers

IIB

50,000

8 tiers

8 tiers

12 tiers

IV

50,000

4 tiers

4 tiers

4 tiers

For SI: 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2.

When the open parking garage is used exclusively for the parking or storage of private motor vehicles, with no other uses in the building, the area and height shall be permitted to comply with Table 406.3.5, along with increases allowed by Section 406.3.6.

Exception: The grade-level tier is permitted to contain an office, waiting and toilet rooms having a total combined area of not more than 1,000 square feet (93 m2). Such area need not be separated from the open parking garage.

In open parking garages having a spiral or sloping floor, the horizontal projection of the structure at any cross section shall not exceed the allowable area per parking tier. In the case of an open parking garage having a continuous spiral floor, each 9 feet 6 inches (2896 mm) of height, or portion thereof, shall be considered a tier.

The clear height of a parking tier shall not be less than 7 feet (2134 mm), except that a lower clear height is permitted in mechanical-access open parking garages where approved by the building official.

The allowable area and height of open parking garages shall be increased in accordance with the provisions of this section. Garages with sides open on three-fourths of the building’s perimeter are permitted to be increased by 25 percent in area and one tier in height. Garages with sides open around the entire building’s perimeter are permitted to be increased by 50 percent in area and one tier in height. For a side to be considered open under the above provisions, the total area of openings along the side shall not be less than 50 percent of the interior area of the side at each tier and such openings shall be equally distributed along the length of the tier.

Allowable tier areas in Table 406.3.5 shall be increased for open parking garages constructed to heights less than the table maximum. The gross tier area of the garage shall not exceed that permitted for the higher structure. At least three sides of each such larger tier shall have continuous horizontal openings not less than 30 inches (762 mm) in clear height extending for at least 80 percent of the length of the sides and no part of such larger tier shall be more than 200 feet (60 960 mm) horizontally from such an opening. In addition, each such opening shall face a street or yard accessible to a street with a width of at least 30 feet (9144 mm) for the full length of the opening, and standpipes shall be provided in each such tier.

Open parking garages of Type II construction, with all sides open, shall be unlimited in allowable area where the building height does not exceed 75 feet (22 860 mm). For a side to be considered open, the total area of openings along the side shall not be less than 50 percent of the interior area of the side at each tier and such openings shall be equally distributed along the length of the tier. All portions of tiers shall be within 200 feet (60 960 mm) horizontally from such openings or other natural ventilation openings as defined in Section 406.3.3.1. These openings shall be permitted to be provided in courts with a minimum dimension of 20 feet (6096 mm) for the full width of the openings.

Exterior walls and openings in exterior walls shall comply with Tables 601 and 602. The distance to an adjacent lot line shall be determined in accordance with Table 602 and Section 705.
Where persons other than parking attendants are permitted, open parking garages shall meet the means of egress requirements of Chapter 10. Where no persons other than parking attendants are permitted, there shall not be less than two 36-inch-wide (914 mm) exit stairways. Lifts shall be permitted to be installed for use of employees only, provided they are completely enclosed by noncombustible materials.
Standpipes shall be installed where required by the provisions of Chapter 9.
Where required by other provisions of this code, automatic sprinkler systems and standpipes shall be installed in accordance with the provisions of Chapter 9.
Enclosure shall not be required for vertical openings except as specified in Section 406.3.8.
Ventilation, other than the percentage of openings specified in Section 406.3.3.1, shall not be required.

The following uses and alterations are not permitted:

1. Vehicle repair work.

2. Parking of buses, trucks and similar vehicles.

3. Partial or complete closing of required openings in exterior walls by tarpaulins or any other means.

4. Dispensing of fuel.

Enclosed vehicle parking garages and portions thereof that do not meet the definition of open parking garages shall be limited to the allowable heights and areas specified in Table 503 as modified by Sections 504, 506 and 507. Roof parking is permitted.
A mechanical ventilation system shall be provided in accordance with the International Mechanical Code.
Motor fuel-dispensing facilities shall be constructed in accordance with the International Fire Code and Sections 406.5.1 through 406.5.3.
The vehicle shall be fueled on noncoated concrete or other approved paving material having a resistance not exceeding 1 megohm as determined by the methodology in EN 1081.

Canopies under which fuels are dispensed shall have a clear, unobstructed height of not less than 13 feet 6 inches (4115 mm) to the lowest projecting element in the vehicle drive-through area. Canopies and their supports over pumps shall be of noncombustible materials, fire-retardant-treated wood complying with Chapter 23, wood of Type IV sizes or of construction providing 1-hour fire resistance. Combustible materials used in or on a canopy shall comply with one of the following:

1. Shielded from the pumps by a noncombustible element of the canopy, or wood of Type IV sizes;

2. Plastics covered by aluminum facing having a minimum thickness of 0.010 inch (0.30 mm) or corrosion-resistant steel having a minimum base metal thickness of 0.016 inch (0.41 mm). The plastic shall have a flame spread index of 25 or less and a smoke-developed index of 450 or less when tested in the form intended for use in accordance with ASTM E 84 or UL 723 and a self-ignition temperature of 650°F (343°C) or greater when tested in accordance with ASTM D 1929; or

3. Panels constructed of light-transmitting plastic materials shall be permitted to be installed in canopies erected over motor vehicle fuel-dispensing station fuel dispensers, provided the panels are located at least 10 feet (3048 mm) from any building on the same lot and face yards or streets not less than 40 feet (12 192 mm) in width on the other sides. The aggregate areas of plastics shall not exceed 1,000 square feet (93 m2). The maximum area of any individual panel shall not exceed 100 square feet (9.3 m2).

Canopies that are used to shelter dispensing operations where flammable compressed gases are located on the roof of the canopy shall be in accordance with the following:

1. The canopy shall meet or exceed Type I construction requirements.

2. Operations located under canopies shall be limited to refueling only.

3. The canopy shall be constructed in a manner that prevents the accumulation of hydrogen gas.

Repair garages shall be constructed in accordance with the International Fire Code and Sections 406.6.1 through 406.6.6. This occupancy shall not include motor fuel-dispensing facilities, as regulated in Section 406.5.
Mixed uses shall be allowed in the same building as a repair garage subject to the provisions of Section 508.1.
Repair garages shall be mechanically ventilated in accordance with the International Mechanical Code. The ventilation system shall be controlled at the entrance to the garage.

Repair garage floors shall be of concrete or similar noncombustible and nonabsorbent materials.

Exception: Slip-resistant, nonabsorbent, interior floor finishes having a critical radiant flux not more than 0.45 W/cm2, as determined by NFPA 253, shall be permitted.

Heating equipment shall be installed in accordance with the International Mechanical Code.
Repair garages used for repair of vehicles fueled by nonodorized gases, such as hydrogen and nonodorized LNG, shall be provided with an approved flammable gas detection system.
The flammable gas detection system shall be calibrated to the types of fuels or gases used by vehicles to be repaired. The gas detection system shall be designed to activate when the level of flammable gas exceeds 25 percent of the lower explosive limit. Gas detection shall also be provided in lubrication or chassis repair pits of garages used for repairing nonodorized LNG-fueled vehicles.

Activation of the gas detection system shall result in all of the following:

1. Initiation of distinct audible and visual alarm signals in the repair garage.

2. Deactivation of all heating systems located in the repair garage.

3. Activation of the mechanical ventilation system, where the system is interlocked with gas detection.

Failure of the gas detection system shall result in the deactivation of the heating system, activation of the mechanical ventilation system when the system is interlocked with the gas detection system and cause a trouble signal to sound in an approved location.
Occupancies in Group I-2 shall comply with the provisions of Sections 407.1 through 407.9 and other applicable provisions of this code.
Corridors in occupancies in Group I-2 shall be continuous to the exits and separated from other areas in accordance with Section 407.3 except spaces conforming to Sections 407.2.1 through 407.2.4.

Waiting areas and similar spaces constructed as required for corridors shall be permitted to be open to a corridor, only where all of the following criteria are met:

1. The spaces are not occupied for patient sleeping units, treatment rooms, hazardous or incidental accessory occupancies in accordance with Section 508.2.

2. The open space is protected by an automatic fire detection system installed in accordance with Section 907.

3. The corridors onto which the spaces open, in the same smoke compartment, are protected by an automatic fire detection system installed in accordance with Section 907, or the smoke compartment in which the spaces are located is equipped throughout with quick-response sprinklers in accordance with Section 903.3.2.

4. The space is arranged so as not to obstruct access to the required exits.

Spaces for doctors’ and nurses’ charting, communications and related clerical areas shall be permitted to be open to the corridor, when such spaces are constructed as required for corridors.

Areas wherein mental health patients who are not capable of self-preservation are housed, or group meeting or multipurpose therapeutic spaces other than incidental accessory occupancies in accordance with Section 508.2.5, under continuous supervision by facility staff, shall be permitted to be open to the corridor, where the following criteria are met:

1. Each area does not exceed 1,500 square feet (140 m2).

2. The area is located to permit supervision by the facility staff.

3. The area is arranged so as not to obstruct any access to the required exits.

4. The area is equipped with an automatic fire detection system installed in accordance with Section 907.2.

5. Not more than one such space is permitted in any one smoke compartment.

6. The walls and ceilings of the space are constructed as required for corridors.

Gift shops less than 500 square feet (46.5 m2) in area shall be permitted to be open to the corridor provided the gift shop and storage areas are fully sprinklered and storage areas are protected in accordance with Section 508.2.5.
Corridor walls shall be constructed as smoke partitions in accordance with Section 711.
Corridor doors, other than those in a wall required to be rated by Section 508.2.5 or for the enclosure of a vertical opening or an exit, shall not have a required fire protection rating and shall not be required to be equipped with self-closing or automatic-closing devices, but shall provide an effective barrier to limit the transfer of smoke and shall be equipped with positive latching. Roller latches are not permitted. Other doors shall conform to Section 715.4.
Locking devices that restrict access to the patient room from the corridor, and that are operable only by staff from the corridor side, shall not restrict the means of egress from the patient room except for patient rooms in mental health facilities.
Smoke barriers shall be provided to subdivide every story used by patients for sleeping or treatment and to divide other stories with an occupant load of 50 or more persons, into at least two smoke compartments. Such stories shall be divided into smoke compartments with an area of not more than 22,500 square feet (2092 m2) and the travel distance from any point in a smoke compartment to a smoke barrier door shall not exceed 200 feet (60 960 mm). The smoke barrier shall be in accordance with Section 710.
At least 30 net square feet (2.8 m2) per patient shall be provided within the aggregate area of corridors, patient rooms, treatment rooms, lounge or dining areas and other low-hazard areas on each side of each smoke barrier. On floors not housing patients confined to a bed or litter, at least 6 net square feet (0.56 m2) per occupant shall be provided on each side of each smoke barrier for the total number of occupants in adjoining smoke compartments.
A means of egress shall be provided from each smoke compartment created by smoke barriers without having to return through the smoke compartment from which means of egress originated.
Horizontal assemblies supporting smoke barriers required by this section shall be designed to resist the movement of smoke and shall comply with Section 712.9.
Smoke compartments containing patient sleeping units shall be equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. The smoke compartments shall be equipped with approved quick-response or residential sprinklers in accordance with Section 903.3.2.
A fire alarm system shall be provided in accordance with Section 907.2.6.

Corridors in nursing homes (both intermediate care and skilled nursing facilities), detoxification facilities and spaces permitted to be open to the corridors by Section 407.2 shall be equipped with an automatic fire detection system. Hospitals shall be equipped with smoke detection as required in Section 407.2.

Exceptions:

1. Corridor smoke detection is not required where patient sleeping units are provided with smoke detectors that comply with UL 268. Such detectors shall provide a visual display on the corridor side of each patient sleeping unit and an audible and visual alarm at the nursing station attending each unit.

2. Corridor smoke detection is not required where patient sleeping unit doors are equipped with automatic door-closing devices with integral smoke detectors on the unit sides installed in accordance with their listing, provided that the integral detectors perform the required alerting function.

Grounds are permitted to be fenced and gates therein are permitted to be equipped with locks, provided that safe dispersal areas having 30 net square feet (2.8 m2) for bed and litter patients and 6 net square feet (0.56 m2) for ambulatory patients and other occupants are located between the building and the fence. Such provided safe dispersal areas shall not be located less than 50 feet (15 240 mm) from the building they serve.
Hyperbaric facilities in Group I-2 occupancies shall meet the requirements contained in Chapter 20 of NFPA 99.
Occupancies in Group I-3 shall comply with the provisions of Sections 408.1 through 408.10 and other applicable provisions of this code (see Section 308.4).

The following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, have the meanings shown herein.

CELL. A room within a housing unit in a detention or correctional facility used to confine inmates or prisoners.

CELL TIER. Levels of cells vertically stacked above one another within a housing unit.

HOUSING UNIT. A dormitory or a group of cells with a common dayroom in Group I-3.

SALLYPORT. A security vestibule with two or more doors or gates where the intended purpose is to prevent continuous and unobstructed passage by allowing the release of only one door or gate at a time.

Buildings or portions of buildings in Group I-3 occupancies where security operations necessitate the locking of required means of egress shall be permitted to be classified as a different occupancy. Occupancies classified as other than Group I-3 shall meet the applicable requirements of this code for that occupancy provided provisions are made for the release of occupants at all times.

Means of egress from detention and correctional occupancies that traverse other use areas shall, as a minimum, conform to requirements for detention and correctional occupancies.

Exception: It is permissible to exit through a horizontal exit into other contiguous occupancies that do not conform to detention and correctional occupancy egress provisions but that do comply with requirements set forth in the appropriate occupancy, as long as the occupancy is not a Group H use.

Except as modified or as provided for in this section, the provisions of Chapter 10 shall apply.
Doors to resident sleeping units shall have a clear width of not less than 28 inches (711 mm).
Where doors in a means of egress are of the horizontal-sliding type, the force to slide the door to its fully open position shall not exceed 50 pounds (220 N) with a perpendicular force against the door of 50 pounds (220 N).
A hatch or trap door not less than 16 square feet (610 m2) in area through the floor and having minimum dimensions of not less than 2 feet (610 mm) in any direction shall be permitted to be used as a portion of the means of egress from guard towers.
Spiral stairways that conform to the requirements of Section 1009.9 are permitted for access to and between staff locations.
Ship ladders shall be permitted for egress from control rooms or elevated facility observation rooms in accordance with Section 1009.11.
Exits are permitted to discharge into a fenced or walled courtyard. Enclosed yards or courts shall be of a size to accommodate all occupants, a minimum of 50 feet (15 240 mm) from the building with a net area of 15 square feet (1.4 m2) per person.
A sallyport shall be permitted in a means of egress where there are provisions for continuous and unobstructed passage through the sallyport during an emergency egress condition.

One of the required exit enclosures in each building shall be permitted to have glazing installed in doors and interior walls at each landing level providing access to the enclosure, provided that the following conditions are met:

1. The exit enclosure shall not serve more than four floor levels.

2. Exit doors shall not be less than 3/4-hour fire door assemblies complying with Section 715.4

3. The total area of glazing at each floor level shall not exceed 5,000 square inches (3 m2) and individual panels of glazing shall not exceed 1,296 square inches (0.84 m2).

4. The glazing shall be protected on both sides by an automatic sprinkler system. The sprinkler system shall be designed to wet completely the entire surface of any glazing affected by fire when actuated.

5. The glazing shall be in a gasketed frame and installed in such a manner that the framing system will deflect without breaking (loading) the glass before the sprinkler system operates.

6. Obstructions, such as curtain rods, drapery traverse rods, curtains, drapes or similar materials shall not be installed between the automatic sprinklers and the glazing.

Egress doors are permitted to be locked in accordance with the applicable use condition. Doors from a refuge area to the exterior are permitted to be locked with a key in lieu of locking methods described in Section 408.4.1. The keys to unlock the exterior doors shall be available at all times and the locks shall be operable from both sides of the door.

Remote release of locks on doors in a means of egress shall be provided with reliable means of operation, remote from the resident living areas, to release locks on all required doors. In Occupancy Conditions 3 or 4, the arrangement, accessibility and security of the release mechanism(s) required for egress shall be such that with the minimum available staff at any time, the lock mechanisms are capable of being released within 2 minutes.

Exception: Provisions for remote locking and unlocking of occupied rooms in Occupancy Condition 4 are not required provided that not more than 10 locks are necessary to be unlocked in order to move occupants from one smoke compartment to a refuge area within 3 minutes. The opening of necessary locks shall be accomplished with not more than two separate keys.

Power-operated sliding doors or power-operated locks for swinging doors shall be operable by a manual release mechanism at the door, and either emergency power or a remote mechanical operating release shall be provided.

Exception: Emergency power is not required in facilities with 10 locks or less complying with the exception to Section 408.4.1.

Remote release, mechanically operated sliding doors or remote release, mechanically operated locks shall be provided with a mechanically operated release mechanism at each door, or shall be provided with a redundant remote release control.
Doors remotely unlocked under emergency conditions shall not automatically relock when closed unless specific action is taken at the remote location to enable doors to relock.
Any vertical opening shall be protected by a shaft enclosure in accordance with Section 708, or shall be in accordance with Section 408.5.1.

Openings in floors within a housing unit are permitted without a shaft enclosure, provided all of the following conditions are met:

1. The entire normally occupied areas so interconnected are open and unobstructed so as to enable observation of the areas by supervisory personnel;

2. Means of egress capacity is sufficient for all occupants from all interconnected cell tiers and areas;

3. The height difference between the floor levels of the highest and lowest cell tiers shall not exceed 23 feet (7010 mm); and

4. Egress from any portion of the cell tier to an exit or exit access door shall not require travel on more than one additional floor level within the housing unit.

Where a floor opening is permitted between communicating floor levels of a housing unit in accordance with Section 408.5.1, plumbing chases serving vertically staked individual cells contained with the housing unit shall be permitted without a shaft enclosure.

Occupancies in Group I-3 shall have smoke barriers complying with Sections 408.8 and 710 to divide every story occupied by residents for sleeping, or any other story having an occupant load of 50 or more persons, into at least two smoke compartments.

Exception: Spaces having a direct exit to one of the following, provided that the locking arrangement of the doors involved complies with the requirements for doors at the smoke barrier for the use condition involved:

1. A public way.

2. A building separated from the resident housing area by a 2-hour fire-resistance-rated assembly or 50 feet (15 240 mm) of open space.

3. A secured yard or court having a holding space 50 feet (15 240 mm) from the housing area that provides 6 square feet (0.56 m2) or more of refuge area per occupant, including residents, staff and visitors.

The maximum number of residents in any smoke compartment shall be 200. The travel distance to a door in a smoke barrier from any room door required as exit access shall not exceed 150 feet (45 720 mm). The travel distance to a door in a smoke barrier from any point in a room shall not exceed 200 feet (60 960 mm).
At least 6 net square feet (0.56 m2) per occupant shall be provided on each side of each smoke barrier for the total number of occupants in adjoining smoke compartments. This space shall be readily available wherever the occupants are moved across the smoke barrier in a fire emergency.
A means of egress shall be provided from each smoke compartment created by smoke barriers without having to return through the smoke compartment from which means of egress originates.

In occupancies in Group I-3, windows and doors in 1-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707, fire partitions constructed in accordance with Section 709 and smoke barriers constructed in accordance with Section 710 shall be permitted to have security glazing installed provided that the following conditions are met.

1. Individual panels of glazing shall not exceed 1,296 square inches (0.84 m2).

2. The glazing shall be protected on both sides by an automatic sprinkler system. The sprinkler system shall be designed to, when actuated, wet completely the entire surface of any glazing affected by fire.

3. The glazing shall be in a gasketed frame and installed in such a manner that the framing system will deflect without breaking (loading) the glass before the sprinkler system operates.

4. Obstructions, such as curtain rods, drapery traverse rods, curtains, drapes or similar materials shall not be installed between the automatic sprinklers and the glazing.

Sleeping areas and any contiguous day room, group activity space or other common spaces where residents are housed shall be separated from other spaces in accordance with Sections 408.8.1 through 408.8.4.
Each sleeping area in Occupancy Conditions 3 and 4 shall be separated from the adjacent common spaces by a smoke-tight partition where the travel distance from the sleeping area through the common space to the corridor exceeds 50 feet (15 240 mm).
Each sleeping area in Occupancy Condition 5 shall be separated from adjacent sleeping areas, corridors and common spaces by a smoke- tight partition. Additionally, common spaces shall be separated from the corridor by a smoke-tight partition.
The aggregate area of openings in a solid sleeping room face in Occupancy Conditions 2, 3, 4 and 5 shall not exceed 120 square inches (77 419 mm2). The aggregate area shall include all openings including door undercuts, food passes and grilles. Openings shall be not more than 36 inches (914 mm) above the floor. In Occupancy Condition 5, the openings shall be closeable from the room side.
Doors in openings in partitions required to be smoke tight by Section 408.8 shall be substantial doors, of construction that will resist the passage of smoke. Latches and door closures are not required on cell doors.
For the purposes of this section, a windowless building or portion of a building is one with nonopenable windows, windows not readily breakable or without windows. Windowless buildings shall be provided with an engineered smoke control system to provide a tenable environment for exiting from the smoke compartment in the area of fire origin in accordance with Section 909 for each windowless smoke compartment.
A fire alarm system shall be provided in accordance with Section 907.2.6.3.
The provisions of Sections 409.1 through 409.5 shall apply to rooms in which ribbon-type cellulose acetate or other safety film is utilized in conjunction with electric arc, xenon or other light-source projection equipment that develops hazardous gases, dust or radiation. Where cellulose nitrate film is utilized or stored, such rooms shall comply with NFPA 40.
Every motion picture machine projecting film as mentioned within the scope of this section shall be enclosed in a projection room. Appurtenant electrical equipment, such as rheostats, transformers and generators, shall be within the projection room or in an adjacent room of equivalent construction.

Every projection room shall be of permanent construction consistent with the construction requirements for the type of building in which the projection room is located. Openings are not required to be protected.

The room shall have a floor area of not less than 80 square feet (7.44 m2) for a single machine and at least 40 square feet (3.7 m2) for each additional machine. Each motion picture projector, floodlight, spotlight or similar piece of equipment shall have a clear working space of not less than 30 inches by 30 inches (762 mm by 762 mm) on each side and at the rear thereof, but only one such space shall be required between two adjacent projectors. The projection room and the rooms appurtenant thereto shall have a ceiling height of not less than 7 feet 6 inches (2286 mm). The aggregate of openings for projection equipment shall not exceed 25 percent of the area of the wall between the projection room and the auditorium. Openings shall be provided with glass or other approved material, so as to close completely the opening.

Ventilation shall be provided in accordance with the International Mechanical Code.
Each projection room shall be provided with adequate air supply inlets so arranged as to provide well-distributed air throughout the room. Air inlet ducts shall provide an amount of air equivalent to the amount of air being exhausted by projection equipment. Air is permitted to be taken from the outside; from adjacent spaces within the building, provided the volume and infiltration rate is sufficient; or from the building air-conditioning system, provided it is so arranged as to provide sufficient air when other systems are not in operation.
Projection rooms are permitted to be exhausted through the lamp exhaust system. The lamp exhaust system shall be positively interconnected with the lamp so that the lamp will not operate unless there is the required airflow. Exhaust air ducts shall terminate at the exterior of the building in such a location that the exhaust air cannot be readily recirculated into any air supply system. The projection room ventilation system is permitted to also serve appurtenant rooms, such as the generator and rewind rooms.
Each projection machine shall be provided with an exhaust duct that will draw air from each lamp and exhaust it directly to the outside of the building. The lamp exhaust is permitted to serve to exhaust air from the projection room to provide room air circulation. Such ducts shall be of rigid materials, except for a flexible connector approved for the purpose. The projection lamp or projection room exhaust system, or both, is permitted to be combined but shall not be interconnected with any other exhaust or return system, or both, within the building.
Provisions shall be made for control of the auditorium lighting and the means of egress lighting systems of theaters from inside the projection room and from at least one other convenient point in the building.
Each projection room shall be provided with rewind and film storage facilities.
The provisions of Sections 410.1 through 410.7 shall apply to all parts of buildings and structures that contain stages or platforms and similar appurtenances as herein defined.

The following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this section and as used elsewhere in this code, have the meanings shown herein.

FLY GALLERY. A raised floor area above a stage from which the movement of scenery and operation of other stage effects are controlled.

GRIDIRON. The structural framing over a stage supporting equipment for hanging or flying scenery and other stage effects.

PINRAIL. A rail on or above a stage through which belaying pins are inserted and to which lines are fastened.

PLATFORM. A raised area within a building used for worship, the presentation of music, plays or other entertainment; the head table for special guests; the raised area for lecturers and speakers; boxing and wrestling rings; theater-in-the-round stages; and similar purposes wherein there are no overhead hanging curtains, drops, scenery or stage effects other than lighting and sound. A temporary platform is one installed for not more than 30 days.

PROSCENIUM WALL. The wall that separates the stage from the auditorium or assembly seating area.

STAGE. A space within a building utilized for entertainment or presentations, which includes overhead hanging curtains, drops, scenery or stage effects other than lighting and sound.

Stage construction shall comply with Sections 410.3.1 through 410.3.7.

Stages shall be constructed of materials as required for floors for the type of construction of the building in which such stages are located.

Exceptions:

1. Stages of Type IIB or IV construction with a nominal 2-inch (51 mm) wood deck, provided that the stage is separated from other areas in accordance with Section 410.3.4.

2. In buildings of Types IIA, IIIA and VA construction, a fire-resistance-rated floor is not required, provided the space below the stage is equipped with an automatic fire-extinguishing system in accordance with Section 903 or 904.

3. In all types of construction, the finished floor shall be constructed of wood or approved noncombustible materials. Openings through stage floors shall be equipped with tight-fitting, solid wood trap doors with approved safety locks.

Stage areas shall be measured to include the entire performance area and adjacent backstage and support areas not separated from the performance area by fire-resistance-rated construction. Stage height shall be measured from the lowest point on the stage floor to the highest point of the roof or floor deck above the stage.

Beams designed only for the attachment of portable or fixed theater equipment, gridirons, galleries and catwalks shall be constructed of approved materials consistent with the requirements for the type of construction of the building; and a fire-resistance rating shall not be required. These areas shall not be considered to be floors, stories, mezzanines or levels in applying this code.

Exception: Floors of fly galleries and catwalks shall be constructed of any approved material.

Where protection of openings is required, exterior exit doors shall be protected with fire door assemblies that comply with Section 715. Exterior openings that are located on the stage for means of egress or loading and unloading purposes, and that are likely to be open during occupancy of the theater, shall be constructed with vestibules to prevent air drafts into the auditorium.
Where the stage height is greater than 50 feet (15 240 mm), all portions of the stage shall be completely separated from the seating area by a proscenium wall with not less than a 2-hour fire-resistance rating extending continuously from the foundation to the roof.
Where a proscenium wall is required to have a fire-resistance rating, the stage opening shall be provided with a fire curtain complying with NFPA 80 or an approved water curtain complying with Section 903.3.1.1 or, in facilities not utilizing the provisions of smoke-protected assembly seating in accordance with Section 1028.6.2, a smoke control system complying with Section 909 or natural ventilation designed to maintain the smoke level at least 6 feet (1829 mm) above the floor of the means of egress.
Combustible materials used in sets and scenery shall meet the fire propagation performance criteria of NFPA 701, in accordance with Section 806 and the International Fire Code. Foam plastics and materials containing foam plastics shall comply with Section 2603 and the International Fire Code.
Emergency ventilation shall be provided for stages larger than 1,000 square feet (93 m2) in floor area, or with a stage height greater than 50 feet (15 240 mm). Such ventilation shall comply with Section 410.3.7.1 or 410.3.7.2.
Two or more vents constructed to open automatically by approved heat-activated devices and with an aggregate clear opening area of not less than 5 percent of the area of the stage shall be located near the center and above the highest part of the stage area. Supplemental means shall be provided for manual operation of the ventilator. Curbs shall be provided as required for skylights in Section 2610.2. Vents shall be labeled.
Smoke control in accordance with Section 909 shall be provided to maintain the smoke layer interface not less than 6 feet (1829 mm) above the highest level of the assembly seating or above the top of the proscenium opening where a proscenium wall is provided in compliance with Section 410.3.4.
Permanent platforms shall be constructed of materials as required for the type of construction of the building in which the permanent platform is located. Permanent platforms are permitted to be constructed of fire-retardant-treated wood for Types I, II and IV construction where the platforms are not more than 30 inches (762 mm) above the main floor, and not more than one-third of the room floor area and not more than 3,000 square feet (279 m2) in area. Where the space beneath the permanent platform is used for storage or any purpose other than equipment, wiring or plumbing, the floor assembly shall not be less than 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction. Where the space beneath the permanent platform is used only for equipment, wiring or plumbing, the underside of the permanent platform need not be protected.
Platforms installed for a period of not more than 30 days are permitted to be constructed of any materials permitted by the code. The space between the floor and the platform above shall only be used for plumbing and electrical wiring to platform equipment.
Dressing and appurtenant rooms shall comply with Sections 410.5.1 through 410.5.3.
The stage shall be separated from dressing rooms, scene docks, property rooms, workshops, storerooms and compartments appurtenant to the stage and other parts of the building by fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712, or both. The minimum fire-resistance rating shall be 2 hours for stage heights greater than 50 feet (15 240 mm) and 1 hour for stage heights of 50 feet (15 240 mm) or less.
Dressing rooms, scene docks, property rooms, workshops, storerooms and compartments appurtenant to the stage shall be separated from each other by not less than 1-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712, or both.
At least one approved means of egress shall be provided from each side of the stage and from each side of the space under the stage. At least one means of escape shall be provided from each fly gallery and from the gridiron. A steel ladder, alternating tread device or spiral stairway is permitted to be provided from the gridiron to a scuttle in the stage roof.

Stages shall be equipped with an automatic fire-extinguishing system in accordance with Chapter 9. Sprinklers shall be installed under the roof and gridiron and under all catwalks and galleries over the stage. Sprinklers shall be installed in dressing rooms, performer lounges, shops and storerooms accessory to such stages.

Exceptions:

1. Sprinklers are not required under stage areas less than 4 feet (1219 mm) in clear height that are utilized exclusively for storage of tables and chairs, provided the concealed space is separated from the adjacent spaces by not less than 5/8-inch (15.9 mm) Type X gypsum board.

2. Sprinklers are not required for stages 1,000 square feet (93 m2) or less in area and 50 feet (15 240 mm) or less in height where curtains, scenery or other combustible hangings are not retractable vertically. Combustible hangings shall be limited to a single main curtain, borders, legs and a single backdrop.

3. Sprinklers are not required within portable orchestra enclosures on stages.

Standpipe systems shall be provided in accordance with Section 905.

Special amusement buildings having an occupant load of 50 or more shall comply with the requirements for the appropriate Group A occupancy and Sections 411.1 through 411.8. Amusement buildings having an occupant load of less than 50 shall comply with the requirements for a Group B occupancy and Sections 411.1 through 411.8.

Exception: Amusement buildings or portions thereof that are without walls or a roof and constructed to prevent the accumulation of smoke.

For flammable decorative materials, see the International Fire Code.

The following word and term shall, for the purpose of this section and as used elsewhere in this code, have the meaning shown herein.

SPECIAL AMUSEMENT BUILDING. A special amusement building is any temporary or permanent building or portion thereof that is occupied for amusement, entertainment or educational purposes and that contains a device or system that conveys passengers or provides a walkway along, around or over a course in any direction so arranged that the means of egress path is not readily apparent due to visual or audio distractions or is intentionally confounded or is not readily available because of the nature of the attraction or mode of conveyance through the building or structure.

Special amusement buildings shall be equipped with an automatic fire detection system in accordance with Section 907.

Special amusement buildings shall be equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. Where the special amusement building is temporary, the sprinkler water supply shall be of an approved temporary means.

Exception: Automatic sprinklers are not required where the total floor area of a temporary special amusement building is less than 1,000 square feet (93 m2) and the travel distance from any point to an exit is less than 50 feet (15 240 mm).

Actuation of a single smoke detector, the automatic sprinkler system or other automatic fire detection device shall immediately sound an alarm at the building at a constantly attended location from which emergency action can be initiated including the capability of manual initiation of requirements in Section 907.2.12.2.
An emergency voice/alarm communications system shall be provided in accordance with Sections 907.2.12 and 907.5.2.2, which is also permitted to serve as a public address system and shall be audible throughout the entire special amusement building.
Exit signs shall be installed at the required exit or exit access doorways of amusement buildings in accordance with this section and Section 1011. Approved directional exit markings shall also be provided. Where mirrors, mazes or other designs are utilized that disguise the path of egress travel such that they are not apparent, approved and listed low-level exit signs that comply with Section 1011.4, and directional path markings listed in accordance with UL 1994, shall be provided and located not more than 8 inches (203 mm) above the walking surface and on or near the path of egress travel. Such markings shall become visible in an emergency. The directional exit marking shall be activated by the automatic fire detection system and the automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 907.2.12.2.
Where photo luminescent exit signs are installed, activating light source and viewing distance shall be in accordance with the listing and markings of the signs.
The interior finish shall be Class A in accordance with Section 803.1.
Aircraft-related occupancies shall comply with Sections 412.1 through 412.7 and the International Fire Code.

The following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, have the meanings shown herein.

FIXED BASE OPERATOR (FBO). A commercial business granted the right by the airport sponsor to operate on an airport and provide aeronautical services, such as fueling, hangaring, tie-down and parking, aircraft rental, aircraft maintenance and flight instruction.

HELIPORT. An area of land or water or a structural surface that is used, or intended for the use, for the landing and taking off of helicopters, and any appurtenant areas that are used, or intended for use, for heliport buildings or other heliport facilities.

HELISTOP. The same as “heliport,” except that no fueling, defueling, maintenance, repairs or storage of helicopters is permitted.

RESIDENTIAL AIRCRAFT HANGAR. An accessory building less than 2,000 square feet (186 m2) and 20 feet (6096 mm) in building height constructed on a one- or two-family property where aircraft are stored. Such use will be considered as a residential accessory use incidental to the dwelling.

TRANSIENT AIRCRAFT. Aircraft based at another location and at the transient location for not more than 90 days.

The provisions of Sections 412.3.1 through 412.3.6 shall apply to airport traffic control towers not exceeding 1,500 square feet (140 m2) per floor occupied only for the following uses:

1. Airport traffic control cab.

2. Electrical and mechanical equipment rooms.

3. Airport terminal radar and electronics rooms.

4. Office spaces incidental to the tower operation.

5. Lounges for employees, including sanitary facilities.

Airport traffic control towers shall be constructed to comply with the height and area limitations of Table 412.3.2.

TABLE 412.3.2
HEIGHT AND AREA LIMITATIONS FOR AIRPORT
TRAFFIC CONTROL TOWERS

TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION

HEIGHTa
(feet)

MAXIMUM AREA
(square feet)

IA

Unlimited

1,500

IB

240

1,500

IIA

100

1,500

IIB

85

1,500

IIIA

65

1,500

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2.

a. Height to be measured from grade plane to cab floor.

A minimum of one exit stairway shall be permitted for airport traffic control towers of any height provided that the occupant load per floor does not exceed 15. The stairway shall conform to the requirements of Section 1009. The stairway shall be separated from elevators by a minimum distance of one-half of the diagonal of the area served measured in a straight line. The exit stairway and elevator hoistway are permitted to be located in the same shaft enclosure, provided they are separated from each other by a 4-hour fire barrier having no openings. Such stairway shall be pressurized to a minimum of 0.15 inch of water column (43 Pa) and a maximum of 0.35 inch of water column (101 Pa) in the shaft relative to the building with stairway doors closed. Stairways need not extend to the roof as specified in Section 1009.11. The provisions of Section 403 do not apply.

Exception: Smokeproof enclosures as set forth in Section 1022.9 are not required where required stairways are pressurized.

Airport traffic control towers shall be provided with an automatic fire detection system installed in accordance with Section 907.2.

A standby power system that conforms to Chapter 27 shall be provided in airport traffic control towers more than 65 feet (19 812 mm) in height. Power shall be provided to the following equipment:

1. Pressurization equipment, mechanical equipment and lighting.

2. Elevator operating equipment.

3. Fire alarm and smoke detection systems.

Airport traffic control towers need not be accessible as specified in the provisions of Chapter 11.
Aircraft hangars shall be in accordance with Sections 412.4.1 through 412.4.6.
Exterior walls located less than 30 feet (9144 mm) from lot lines or a public way shall have a fire-resistance rating not less than 2 hours.
Where hangars have basements, floors over basements shall be of Type IA construction and shall be made tight against seepage of water, oil or vapors. There shall be no opening or communication between basements and the hangar. Access to basements shall be from outside only.

Floors shall be graded and drained to prevent water or fuel from remaining on the floor. Floor drains shall discharge through an oil separator to the sewer or to an outside vented sump.

Exception: Aircraft hangars with individual lease spaces not exceeding 2,000 square feet (186 m2) each in which servicing, repairing or washing is not conducted and fuel is not dispensed shall have floors that are graded toward the door, but shall not require a separator.

Heating equipment shall be placed in another room separated by 2-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712, or both. Entrance shall be from the outside or by means of a vestibule providing a two-doorway separation.

Exceptions:

1. Unit heaters and vented infrared radiant heating equipment suspended at least 10 feet (3048 mm) above the upper surface of wings or engine enclosures of the highest aircraft that are permitted to be housed in the hangar and at least 8 feet (2438 mm) above the floor in shops, offices and other sections of the hangar communicating with storage or service areas.

2. A single interior door shall be allowed, provided the sources of ignition in the appliances are at least 18 inches (457 mm) above the floor.

The process of “doping,” involving use of a volatile flammable solvent, or of painting, shall be carried on in a separate detached building equipped with automatic fire-extinguishing equipment in accordance with Section 903.

Aircraft hangars shall be provided with a fire suppression system designed in accordance with NFPA 409, based upon the classification for the hangar given in Table 412.4.6.

[F] TABLE 412.4.6
HANGAR FIRE SUPPRESSION REQUIREMENTSa, b, c

MAXIMUM SINGLE FIRE AREA, SQ. FT.

TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION

IA

IB

IIA

IIB

IIIA

IIIB

IV

VA

VB

≥ 40,001

Group I

Group I

Group I

Group I

Group I

Group I

Group I

Group I

Group I

40,000

Group II

Group II

Group II

Group II

Group II

Group II

Group II

Group II

Group II

30,000

Group III

Group II

Group II

Group II

Group II

Group II

Group II

Group II

Group II

20,000

Group III

Group III

Group II

Group II

Group II

Group II

Group II

Group II

Group II

15,000

Group III

Group III

Group III

Group II

Group III

Group II

Group III

Group II

Group II

12,000

Group III

Group III

Group III

Group III

Group III

Group III

Group III

Group II

Group II

8,000

Group III

Group III

Group III

Group III

Group III

Group III

Group III

Group III

Group II

5,000

Group III

Group III

Group III

Group III

Group III

Group III

Group III

Group III

Group III

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2.

a. Aircraft hangars with a door height greater than 28 feet shall be provided with fire suppression for a Group I hangar regardless of maximum fire area.

b. Groups shall be as classified in accordance with NFPA 409.

c. Membrane structures complying with Section 3102 shall be classified as a Group IV hangar.

Exception: When a fixed base operator has separate repair facilities on site, Group II hangars operated by a fixed base operator used for storage of transient aircraft only shall have a fire suppression system, but the system is exempt from foam requirements.

Any Group III aircraft hangar according to Table 412.4.6 that contains hazardous operations including, but not limited to, the following shall be provided with a Group I or II fire suppression system in accordance with NFPA 409 as applicable:

1. Doping.

2. Hot work including, but not limited to, welding, torch cutting and torch soldering.

3. Fuel transfer.

4. Fuel tank repair or maintenance not including defueled tanks in accordance with NFPA 409, inerted tanks or tanks that have never been fueled.

5. Spray finishing operations.

6. Total fuel capacity of all aircraft within the unsprinklered single fire area in excess of 1,600 gallons (6057 L).

7. Total fuel capacity of all aircraft within the maximum single fire area in excess of 7,500 gallons (28 390 L) for a hangar with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.

Maximum single fire areas established in accordance with hangar classification and construction type in Table 412.4.6 shall be separated by 2-hour fire walls constructed in accordance with Section 706.
Residential aircraft hangars as defined in Section 412.2 shall comply with Sections 412.5.1 through 412.5.2.
A hangar shall not be attached to a dwelling unless separated by a fire barrier having a fire-resistance rating of not less than 1 hour. Such separation shall be continuous from the foundation to the underside of the roof and unpierced except for doors leading to the dwelling unit. Doors into the dwelling unit must be equipped with self-closing devices and conform to the requirements of Section 715 with at least a 4-inch (102 mm) noncombustible raised sill. Openings from a hanger directly into a room used for sleeping purposes shall not be permitted.
A hangar shall provide two means of egress. One of the doors into the dwelling shall be considered as meeting only one of the two means of egress.
Smoke alarms shall be provided within the hangar in accordance with Section 907.2.21.

Electrical, mechanical and plumbing drain, waste and vent (DWV) systems installed within the hangar shall be independent of the systems installed within the dwelling. Building sewer lines shall be permitted to be connected outside the structures.

Exception: Smoke detector wiring and feed for electrical subpanels in the hangar.

Residential aircraft hangars shall not exceed 2,000 square feet (186 m2) in area and 20 feet (6096 mm) in building height.
Aircraft painting operations where flammable liquids are used in excess of the maximum allowable quantities per control area listed in Table 307.7(1) shall be conducted in an aircraft paint hangar that complies with the provisions of Sections 412.6.1 through 412.6.6.
Aircraft paint hangars shall be classified as Group H-2. Aircraft paint hangars shall comply with the applicable requirements of this code and the International Fire Code for such occupancy.
The aircraft paint hangar shall be of Type I or II construction.
Only those flammable liquids necessary for painting operations shall be permitted in quantities less than the maximum allowable quantities per control area in Table 307.1(1). Spray equipment cleaning operations shall be conducted in a liquid use, dispensing and mixing room.
Storage of flammable liquids shall be in a liquid storage room.
Aircraft paint hangars shall be provided with fire suppression as required by NFPA 409.
Aircraft paint hangars shall be provided with ventilation as required in the International Mechanical Code.
Heliports and helistops shall be permitted to be erected on buildings or other locations where they are constructed in accordance with Sections 412.7.1 through 412.7.4.
The landing area for helicopters less than 3,500 pounds (1588 kg) shall be a minimum of 20 feet (6096 mm) in length and width. The landing area shall be surrounded on all sides by a clear area having a minimum average width at roof level of 15 feet (4572 mm) but with no width less than 5 feet (1524 mm).
Helicopter landing areas and the supports thereof on the roof of a building shall be noncombustible construction. Landing areas shall be designed to confine any flammable liquid spillage to the landing area itself and provisions shall be made to drain such spillage away from any exit or stairway serving the helicopter landing area or from a structure housing such exit or stairway. For structural design requirements, see Section 1605.4.
The means of egress from heliports and helistops shall comply with the provisions of Chapter 10. Landing areas located on buildings or structures shall have two or more means of egress. For landing areas less than 60 feet (18 288 mm) in length or less than 2,000 square feet (186 m2) in area, the second means of egress is permitted to be a fire escape, alternating tread device or ladder leading to the floor below.
Rooftop heliports and helistops shall comply with NFPA 418.
High-piled stock or rack storage in any occupancy group shall comply with the International Fire Code.

Attic, under-floor and concealed spaces used for storage of combustible materials shall be protected on the storage side as required for 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction. Openings shall be protected by assemblies that are self-closing and are of noncombustible construction or solid wood core not less than 13/4 inch (45 mm) in thickness.

Exceptions:

1. Areas protected by approved automatic sprinkler systems.

2. Group R-3 and U occupancies.

The provisions of Sections 414.1 through 414.7 shall apply to buildings and structures occupied for the manufacturing, processing, dispensing, use or storage of hazardous materials.
Buildings and structures with an occupancy in Group H shall also comply with the applicable provisions of Section 415 and the International Fire Code.
The safe design of hazardous material occupancies is material dependent. Individual material requirements are also found in Sections 307 and 415, and in the International Mechanical Code and the International Fire Code.
Level 2 and 3 aerosol products shall be stored and displayed in accordance with the International Fire Code. See Section 311.2 and the International Fire Code for occupancy group requirements.

A report shall be submitted to the building official identifying the maximum expected quantities of hazardous materials to be stored, used in a closed system and used in an open system, and subdivided to separately address hazardous material classification categories based on Tables 307.1(1) and 307.1(2). The methods of protection from such hazards, including but not limited to control areas, fire protection systems and Group H occupancies shall be indicated in the report and on the construction documents. The opinion and report shall be prepared by a qualified person, firm or corporation approved by the building official and provided without charge to the enforcing agency.

For buildings and structures with an occupancy in Group H, separate floor plans shall be submitted identifying the locations of anticipated contents and processes so as to reflect the nature of each occupied portion of every building and structure.

Control areas shall comply with Sections 414.2.1 through 414.2.5 and the International Fire Code.
Control areas shall be separated from each other by fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712, or both.

The percentage of maximum allowable quantities of hazardous materials per control area permitted at each floor level within a building shall be in accordance with Table 414.2.2.

[F] TABLE 414.2.2
DESIGN AND NUMBER OF CONTROL AREAS

FLOOR LEVEL

PERCENTAGE OF THE MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREAa

NUMBER OF CONTROL
AREAS PER FLOOR

FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING
FOR FIRE BARRIERS IN HOURSb

Above grade plane

Higher than 9
7-9
6
5
4
3
2
1

5
5
12.5
12.5
12.5
50
75
100

1
2
2
2
2
2
3
4

2
2
2
2
2
1
1
1

Below grade plane

1
2
Lower than 2

75
50
Not Allowed

3
2
Not Allowed

1
1
Not Allowed

a. Percentages shall be of the maximum allowable quantity per control area shown in Tables 307.1(1) and 307.1(2), with all increases allowed in the notes to those tables.

b. Fire barriers shall include walls and floors as necessary to provide separation from other portions of the building.

The maximum number of control areas within a building shall be in accordance with Table 414.2.2.

The re- quired fire-resistance rating for fire barriers shall be in accordance with Table 414.2.2. The floor assembly of the control area and the construction supporting the floor of the control area shall have a minimum 2-hour fire-resistance rating.

Exception: The floor assembly of the control area and the construction supporting the floor of the control area are allowed to be 1-hour fire-resistance rated in buildings of Types IIA, IIIA and VA construction, provided that both of the following conditions exist:

1. The building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1; and

2. The building is three stories or less above grade plane.

The aggregate quantity of nonflammable solid and nonflammable or noncombustible liquid hazardous materials permitted within a single control area of a Group M display and storage area, a Group S storage area or an outdoor control area is permitted to exceed the maximum allowable quantities per control area specified in Tables 307.1(1) and 307.1(2) without classifying the building or use as a Group H occupancy, provided that the materials are displayed and stored in accordance with the International Fire Code and quantities do not exceed the maximum allowable specified in Table 414.2.5(1).

In Group M occupancy wholesale and retail sales uses, indoor storage of flammable and combustible liquids shall not exceed the maximum allowable quantities per control area as indicated in Table 414.2.5(2), provided that the materials are displayed and stored in accordance with the International Fire Code.

The maximum quantity of aerosol products in Group M occupancy retail display areas, storage areas adjacent to retail display areas and retail storage areas shall be in accordance with the International Fire Code.

Rooms, areas or spaces of Group H in which explosive, corrosive, combustible, flammable or highly toxic dusts, mists, fumes, vapors or gases are or may be emitted due to the processing, use, handling or storage of materials shall be mechanically ventilated as required by the International Fire Code and the International Mechanical Code.

Ducts conveying explosives or flammable vapors, fumes or dusts shall extend directly to the exterior of the building without entering other spaces. Exhaust ducts shall not extend into or through ducts and plenums.

Exception: Ducts conveying vapor or fumes having flammable constituents less than 25 percent of their lower flammable limit (LFL) are permitted to pass through other spaces.

Emissions generated at workstations shall be confined to the area in which they are generated as specified in the International Fire Code and the International Mechanical Code.

The location of supply and exhaust openings shall be in accordance with the International Mechanical Code. Exhaust air contaminated by highly toxic material shall be treated in accordance with the International Fire Code.

A manual shutoff control for ventilation equipment required by this section shall be provided outside the room adjacent to the principal access door to the room. The switch shall be of the break-glass type and shall be labeled: VENTILATION SYSTEM EMERGENCY SHUTOFF.

Systems involving hazardous materials shall be suitable for the intended application. Controls shall be designed to prevent materials from entering or leaving process or reaction systems at other than the intended time, rate or path. Automatic controls, where provided, shall be designed to be fail safe.

The inside storage, dispensing and use of hazardous materials in excess of the maximum allowable quantities per control area of Tables 307.1(1) and 307.1(2) shall be in accordance with Sections 414.5.1 through 414.5.5 of this code and the International Fire Code.

[F] TABLE 414.2.5(1)
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER INDOOR AND OUTDOOR CONTROL AREA IN GROUP M AND S OCCUPANCIES
NONFLAMMABLE SOLIDS AND NONFLAMMABLE AND NONCOMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS d, e, f

CONDITION

MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA

Materiala

Class

Solids
pounds

Liquids
gallons

A. Health-hazard materials—nonflammable and noncombustible solids and liquids

1. Corrosivesb, c

Not Applicable

9,750

975

2. Highly toxics

Not Applicable

20b, c

2b, c

3. Toxicsb, c

Not Applicable

1,000

100

B. Physical-hazard materials—nonflammable and noncombustible solids and liquids

1. Oxidizersb, c

4

Not Allowed

Not Allowed

3

1,150g

115

2

2,250h

225

1

18,000i, j

1,800i, j

2. Unstable (reactives)b, c

4

Not Allowed

Not Allowed

3

550

55

2

1,150

115

1

Not Limited

Not Limited

3. Water (reactives)

3b, c

550

55

2b, c

1,150

115

1

Not Limited

Not Limited

For SI: 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 gallon = 3.785 L.

a. Hazard categories are as specified in the International Fire Code.

b. Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent in buildings that are sprinklered in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. When Note c also applies, the increase for both notes shall be applied accumulatively.

c. Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent when stored in approved storage cabinets, in accordance with the International Fire Code. When Note b also applies, the increase for both notes shall be applied accumulatively.

d. See Table 414.2.2 for design and number of control areas.

e. Allowable quantities for other hazardous material categories shall be in accordance with Section 307.

f. Maximum quantities shall be increased 100 percent in outdoor control areas.

g. Maximum amounts are permitted to be increased to 2,250 pounds when individual packages are in the original sealed containers from the manufacturer or packager and do not exceed 10 pounds each.

h. Maximum amounts are permitted to be increased to 4,500 pounds when individual packages are in the original sealed containers from the manufacturer or packager and do not exceed 10 pounds each.

i. The permitted quantities shall not be limited in a building equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.

j. Quantities are unlimited in an outdoor control area.

TABLE [F] 414.2.5(2)
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY OF FLAMMABLE AND COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS
IN WHOLESALE AND RETAIL SALES OCCUPANCIES PER CONTROL AREAa

TYPE OF LIQUID

MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA (gallons)

Sprinklered in accordance with note b densities and arrangements

Sprinklered in accordance with Tables 3404.3.6.3(4) through 3404.3.6.3(8) and Table 3404.3.7.5.1 of the International Fire Code

Nonsprinklered

Class IA

60

60

30

Class IB, IC, II and IIIA

7,500c

15,000c

1,600

Class IIIB

Unlimited

Unlimited

13,200

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2, 1 gallon = 3.785 L, 1 gallon per minute per square foot = 40.75 L/min/m2.

a. Control areas shall be separated from each other by not less than a 1-hour fire barrier wall.

b. To be considered as sprinklered, a building shall be equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system with a design providing minimum densities as follows:

1. For uncartoned commodities on shelves 6 feet or less in height where the ceiling height does not exceed 18 feet, quantities are those permitted with a minimum sprinkler design density of Ordinary Hazard Group 2.

2. For cartoned, palletized or racked commodities where storage is 4 feet 6 inches or less in height and where the ceiling height does not exceed 18 feet, quantities are those permitted with a minimum sprinkler design density of 0.21 gallon per minute per square foot over the most remote 1,500-square-foot area.

c. Where wholesale and retail sales or storage areas exceed 50,000 square feet in area, the maximum allowable quantities are allowed to be increased by 2 percent for each 1,000 square feet of area in excess of 50,000 square feet, up to a maximum of 100 percent of the table amounts. A control area separation is not required. The cumulative amounts, including amounts attained by having an additional control area, shall not exceed 30,000 gallons.

Explosion control shall be provided in accordance with the International Fire Code as required by Table 414.5.1 where quantities of hazardous materials specified in that table exceed the maximum allowable quantities in Table 307.1(1) or where a structure, room or space is occupied for purposes involving explosion hazards as required by Section 415 or the International Fire Code.

[F] TABLE 414.5.1
EXPLOSION CONTROL REQUIREMENTS
a

MATERIAL

CLASS

EXPLOSION CONTROL METHODS

Barricade construction

Explosion (deflagration) venting
or explosion (deflagration) prevention systems
b

HAZARD CATEGORY

Combustible dustsc

Not Required

Required

Cryogenic flammables

Not Required

Required

Explosives

Division 1.1
Division 1.2
Division 1.3
Division 1.4
Division 1.5
Division 1.6

Required
Required
Not Required
Not Required
Required
Required

Not Required
Not Required
Required
Required
Not Required
Not Required

Flammable gas

Gaseous
Liquefied

Not Required
Not Required

Required
Required

Flammable liquid

IAd
IBe

Not Required
Not Required

Required
Required

Organic peroxides

U
I

Required
Required

Not Permitted
Not Permitted

Oxidizer liquids and solids

4

Required

Not Permitted

Pyrophoric gas

Not Required

Required

Unstable (reactive)

4
3 Detonable
3 Nondetonable

Required
Required
Not Required

Not Permitted
Not Permitted
Required

Water-reactive liquids and solids

3
2g

Not Required
Not Required

Required
Required

SPECIAL USES

Acetylene generator rooms

Not Required

Required

Grain processing

Not Required

Required

Liquefied petroleum gas-distribution facilities

Not Required

Required

Where explosion hazards existf

Detonation
Deflagration

Required
Not Required

Not Permitted
Required

a. See Section 414.1.3.

b. See the International Fire Code.

c. As generated during manufacturing or processing. See definition of “Combustible dust” in Chapter 3.

d. Storage or use.

e. In open use or dispensing.

f. Rooms containing dispensing and use of hazardous materials when an explosive environment can occur because of the characteristics or nature of the hazardous materials or as a result of the dispensing or use process.

g. A method of explosion control shall be provided when Class 2 water-reactive materials can form potentially explosive mixtures.

Monitor control equipment shall be provided where required by the International Fire Code.
Group H occupancies shall be provided with an automatic fire detection system in accordance with Section 907.2.

Where mechanical ventilation, treatment systems, temperature control, alarm, detection or other electrically operated systems are required, such systems shall be provided with an emergency or standby power system in accordance with Chapter 27.

Exceptions:

1. Mechanical ventilation for storage of Class IB and Class IC flammable and combustible liquids in closed containers not exceeding 6.5 gallons (25 L) capacity.

2. Storage areas for Class 1 and 2 oxidizers.

3. Storage areas for Class II, III, IV and V organic peroxides.

4. Storage, use and handling areas for asphyxiant, irritant and radioactive gases.

5. For storage, use and handling areas for highly toxic or toxic materials, see Sections 3704.2.2.8 and 3704.3.4.2 of the International Fire Code.

6. Standby power for mechanical ventilation, treatment systems and temperature control systems shall not be required where an approved fail-safe engineered system is installed.

Rooms, buildings or areas occupied for the storage of solid and liquid hazardous materials shall be provided with a means to control spillage and to contain or drain off spillage and fire protection water discharged in the storage area where required in the International Fire Code. The methods of spill control shall be in accordance with the International Fire Code.
The outdoor storage, dispensing and use of hazardous materials shall be in accordance with the International Fire Code.
Where weather protection is provided for sheltering outdoor hazardous material storage or use areas, such areas shall be considered outdoor storage or use when the weather protection structure complies with Sections 414.6.1.1 through 414.6.1.3.

Walls shall not obstruct more than one side of the structure.

Exception: Walls shall be permitted to obstruct portions of multiple sides of the structure, provided that the obstructed area does not exceed 25 percent of the structure’s perimeter.

The distance from the structure to buildings, lot lines, public ways or means of egress to a public way shall not be less than the distance required for an outside hazardous material storage or use area without weather protection.

The overhead structure shall be of approved noncombustible construction with a maximum area of 1,500 square feet (140 m2).

Exception: The increases permitted by Section 506 apply.

Emergency alarms for the detection and notification of an emergency condition in Group H occupancies shall be provided as set forth herein.
An approved manual emergency alarm system shall be provided in buildings, rooms or areas used for storage of hazardous materials. Emergency alarm-initiating devices shall be installed outside of each interior exit or exit access door of storage buildings, rooms or areas. Activation of an emergency alarm-initiating device shall sound a local alarm to alert occupants of an emergency situation involving hazardous materials.
Where hazardous materials having a hazard ranking of 3 or 4 in accordance with NFPA 704 are transported through corridors or exit enclosures, there shall be an emergency telephone system, a local manual alarm station or an approved alarm-initiating device at not more than 150-foot (45 720 mm) intervals and at each exit and exit access doorway throughout the transport route. The signal shall be relayed to an approved central, proprietary or remote station service or constantly attended on-site location and shall also initiate a local audible alarm.
Emergency alarm systems shall be supervised by an approved central, proprietary or remote station service or shall initiate an audible and visual signal at a constantly attended on-site location.
The provisions of Sections 415.1 through 415.8 shall apply to the storage and use of hazardous materials in excess of the maximum allowable quantities per control area listed in Section 307.1. Buildings and structures with an occupancy in Group H shall also comply with the applicable provisions of Section 414 and the International Fire Code.

The following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in the code, have the meanings shown herein.

[F] CONTINUOUS GAS DETECTION SYSTEM. A gas detection system where the analytical instrument is maintained in continuous operation and sampling is performed without interruption. Analysis is allowed to be performed on a cyclical basis at intervals not to exceed 30 minutes.

[F] DETACHED BUILDING. A separate single-story building, without a basement or crawl space, used for the storage or use of hazardous materials and located an approved distance from all structures.

[F] EMERGENCY CONTROL STATION. An approved location on the premises where signals from emergency equipment are received and which is staffed by trained personnel.

[F] EXHAUSTED ENCLOSURE. An appliance or piece of equipment that consists of a top, a back and two sides providing a means of local exhaust for capturing gases, fumes, vapors and mists. Such enclosures include laboratory hoods, exhaust fume hoods and similar appliances and equipment used to locally retain and exhaust the gases, fumes, vapors and mists that could be released. Rooms or areas provided with general ventilation, in themselves, are not exhausted enclosures.

[F] FABRICATION AREA. An area within a semiconductor fabrication facility and related research and development areas in which there are processes using hazardous production materials. Such areas are allowed to include ancillary rooms or areas such as dressing rooms and offices that are directly related to the fabrication area processes.

[F] FLAMMABLE VAPORS OR FUMES. The concentration of flammable constituents in air that exceed 25 percent of their lower flammable limit (LFL).

[F] GAS CABINET. A fully enclosed, noncombustible enclosure used to provide an isolated environment for compressed gas cylinders in storage or use. Doors and access ports for exchanging cylinders and accessing pressure-regulating controls are allowed to be included.

[F] GAS ROOM. A separately ventilated, fully enclosed room in which only compressed gases and associated equipment and supplies are stored or used.

[F] HAZARDOUS PRODUCTION MATERIAL (HPM). A solid, liquid or gas associated with semiconductor manufacturing that has a degree-of-hazard rating in health, flammability or instability of Class 3 or 4 as ranked by NFPA 704 and which is used directly in research, laboratory or production processes which have as their end product materials that are not hazardous.

[F] HPM FLAMMABLE LIQUID. An HPM liquid that is defined as either a Class I flammable liquid or a Class II or Class IIIA combustible liquid.

[F] HPM ROOM. A room used in conjunction with or serving a Group H-5 occupancy, where HPM is stored or used and which is classified as a Group H-2, H-3 or H-4 occupancy.

[F] IMMEDIATELY DANGEROUS TO LIFE AND HEALTH (IDLH). The concentration of air-borne contaminants which poses a threat of death, immediate or delayed permanent adverse health effects, or effects that could prevent escape from such an environment. This contaminant concentration level is established by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) based on both toxicity and flammability. It generally is expressed in parts per million by volume (ppm v/v) or milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m3). If adequate data do not exist for precise establishment of IDLH concentrations, an independent certified industrial hygienist, industrial toxicologist, appropriate regulatory agency or other source approved by the building official shall make such determination.

[F] LIQUID. A material that has a melting point that is equal to or less than 68°F (20°C) and a boiling point that is greater than 68°F (20°C) at 14.7 pounds per square inch absolute (psia) (101 kPa). When not otherwise identified, the term “liquid” includes both flammable and combustible liquids.

[F] LIQUID STORAGE ROOM. A room classified as a Group H-3 occupancy used for the storage of flammable or combustible liquids in a closed condition.

[F] LIQUID USE, DISPENSING AND MIXING ROOM. A room in which Class I, II and IIIA flammable or combustible liquids are used, dispensed or mixed in open containers.

[F] LOWER FLAMMABLE LIMIT (LFL). The minimum concentration of vapor in air at which propagation of flame will occur in the presence of an ignition source. The LFL is sometimes referred to as “LEL” or “lower explosive limit.”

[F] NORMAL TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE (NTP). A temperature of 70°F (21°C) and a pressure of 1 atmosphere [14.7 psia (101 kPa)].

[F] PHYSIOLOGICAL WARNING THRESHOLD LEVEL. A concentration of air-borne contaminants, normally expressed in parts per million (ppm) or milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m3), that represents the concentration at which persons can sense the presence of the contaminant due to odor, irritation or other quick-acting physiological response. When used in conjunction with the permissible exposure limit (PEL) the physiological warning threshold levels are those consistent with the classification system used to establish the PEL. See the definition of “Permissible exposure limit (PEL)” in the International Fire Code.

[F] SERVICE CORRIDOR. A fully enclosed passage used for transporting HPM and purposes other than required means of egress.

[F] SOLID. A material that has a melting point, decomposes or sublimes at a temperature greater than 68°F (20°C).

[F] STORAGE, HAZARDOUS MATERIALS.

1. The keeping, retention or leaving of hazardous materials in closed containers, tanks, cylinders or similar vessels, or

2. Vessels supplying operations through closed connections to the vessel.

[F] USE (MATERIAL). Placing a material into action, including solids, liquids and gases.

[F] WORKSTATION. A defined space or an independent principal piece of equipment using HPM within a fabrication area where a specific function, laboratory procedure or research activity occurs. Approved or listed hazardous materials storage cabinets, flammable liquid storage cabinets or gas cabinets serving a workstation are included as part of the workstation. A workstation is allowed to contain ventilation equipment, fire protection devices, detection devices, electrical devices and other processing and scientific equipment.

Group H occupancies shall be located on property in accordance with the other provisions of this chapter. In Groups H-2 and H-3, not less than 25 percent of the perimeter wall of the occupancy shall be an exterior wall.

Exceptions:

1. Liquid use, dispensing and mixing rooms having a floor area of not more than 500 square feet (46.5 m2) need not be located on the outer perimeter of the building where they are in accordance with the International Fire Code and NFPA 30.

2. Liquid storage rooms having a floor area of not more than 1,000 square feet (93 m2) need not be located on the outer perimeter where they are in accordance with the International Fire Code and NFPA 30.

3. Spray paint booths that comply with the International Fire Code need not be located on the outer perimeter.

Regardless of any other provisions, buildings containing Group H occupancies shall be set back to the minimum fire separation distance as set forth in Items 1 through 4 below. Distances shall be measured from the walls enclosing the occupancy to lot lines, including those on a public way. Distances to assumed lot lines established for the purpose of determining exterior wall and opening protection are not to be used to establish the minimum fire separation distance for buildings on sites where explosives are manufactured or used when separation is provided in accordance with the quantity distance tables specified for explosive materials in the International Fire Code.

1. Group H-1. Not less than 75 feet (22 860 mm) and not less than required by the International Fire Code.

Exceptions:

1. Fireworks manufacturing buildings separated in accordance with NFPA 1124.

2. Buildings containing the following materials when separated in accordance with Table 415.3.1:

2.1. Organic peroxides, unclassified detonable.

2.2. Unstable reactive materials, Class 4.

2.3. Unstable reactive materials, Class 3 detonable.

2.4. Detonable pyrophoric materials.

2. Group H-2. Not less than 30 feet (9144 mm) where the area of the occupancy exceeds 1,000 square feet (93 m2) and it is not required to be located in a detached building.

3. Groups H-2 and H-3. Not less than 50 feet (15 240 mm) where a detached building is required (see Table 415.3.2).

4. Groups H-2 and H-3. Occupancies containing materials with explosive characteristics shall be separated as required by the International Fire Code. Where separations are not specified, the distances required shall not be less than the distances required by Table 415.3.1.

[F] TABLE 415.3.1
MINIMUM SEPARATION DISTANCES FOR BUILDINGS CONTAINING EXPLOSIVE MATERIALS

QUANTITY OF EXPLOSIVE MATERIALa

MINIMUM DISTANCE (feet)

Lot linesb and inhabited buildingsc

Separation of magazinesd, e, f

Pounds over

Pounds not over

Barricadedd

Unbarricaded

2

5

70

140

12

5

10

90

180

16

10

20

110

220

20

20

30

125

250

22

30

40

140

280

24

40

50

150

300

28

50

75

170

340

30

75

100

190

380

32

100

125

200

400

36

125

150

215

430

38

150

200

235

470

42

200

250

255

510

46

250

300

270

540

48

300

400

295

590

54

400

500

320

640

58

500

600

340

680

62

600

700

355

710

64

700

800

375

750

66

800

900

390

780

70

900

1,000

400

800

72

1,000

1,200

425

850

78

1,200

1,400

450

900

82

1,400

1,600

470

940

86

1,600

1,800

490

980

88

1,800

2,000

505

1,010

90

2,000

2,500

545

1,090

98

2,500

3,000

580

1,160

104

3,000

4,000

635

1,270

116

4,000

5,000

685

1,370

122

5,000

6,000

730

1,460

130

6,000

7,000

770

1,540

136

7,000

8,000

800

1,600

144

8,000

9,000

835

1,670

150

9,000

10,000

865

1,730

156

10,000

12,000

875

1,750

164

12,000

14,000

885

1,770

174

14,000

16,000

900

1,800

180

16,000

18,000

940

1,880

188

18,000

20,000

975

1,950

196

20,000

25,000

1,055

2,000

210

25,000

30,000

1,130

2,000

224

30,000

35,000

1,205

2,000

238

35,000

40,000

1,275

2,000

248

(continued)

TABLE 415.3.1—continued
MINIMUM SEPARATION DISTANCES FOR BUILDINGS CONTAINING EXPLOSIVE MATERIALS

QUANTITY OF EXPLOSIVE MATERIALa

MINIMUM DISTANCE (feet)

Lot linesb and inhabited buildingsc

Separation of magazinesd, e, f

Pounds over

Pounds not over

Barricadedd

Unbarricaded

40,000

45,000

1,340

2,000

258

45,000

50,000

1,400

2,000

270

50,000

55,000

1,460

2,000

280

55,000

60,000

1,515

2,000

290

60,000

65,000

1,565

2,000

300

65,000

70,000

1,610

2,000

310

70,000

75,000

1,655

2,000

320

75,000

80,000

1,695

2,000

330

80,000

85,000

1,730

2,000

340

85,000

90,000

1,760

2,000

350

90,000

95,000

1,790

2,000

360

95,000

100,000

1,815

2,000

370

100,000

110,000

1,835

2,000

390

110,000

120,000

1,855

2,000

410

120,000

130,000

1,875

2,000

430

130,000

140,000

1,890

2,000

450

140,000

150,000

1,900

2,000

470

150,000

160,000

1,935

2,000

490

160,000

170,000

1,965

2,000

510

170,000

180,000

1,990

2,000

530

180,000

190,000

2,010

2,010

550

190,000

200,000

2,030

2,030

570

200,000

210,000

2,055

2,055

590

210,000

230,000

2,100

2,100

630

230,000

250,000

2,155

2,155

670

250,000

275,000

2,215

2,215

720

275,000

300,000

2,275

2,275

770

For SI: 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2.

a. The number of pounds of explosives listed is the number of pounds of trinitrotoluene (TNT) or the equivalent pounds of other explosive.

b. The distance listed is the distance to lot line, including lot lines at public ways.

c. For the purpose of this table, an inhabited building is any building on the same lot that is regularly occupied by people. Where two or more buildings containing explosives or magazines are located on the same lot, each building or magazine shall comply with the minimum distances specified from inhabited buildings and, in addition, they shall be separated from each other by not less than the distance shown for “Separation of magazines,” except that the quantity of explosive materials contained in detonator buildings or magazines shall govern in regard to the spacing of said detonator buildings or magazines from buildings or magazines containing other explosive materials. If any two or more buildings or magazines are separated from each other by less than the specified “Separation of Magazines” distances, then such two or more buildings or magazines, as a group, shall be considered as one building or magazine, and the total quantity of explosive materials stored in such group shall be treated as if the explosive were in a single building or magazine located on the site of any building or magazine of the group, and shall comply with the minimum distance specified from other magazines or inhabited buildings.

d. Barricades shall effectively screen the building containing explosives from other buildings, public ways or magazines. Where mounds or revetted walls of earth are used for barricades, they shall not be less than 3 feet in thickness. A straight line from the top of any side wall of the building containing explosive materials to the eave line of any other building, magazine or a point 12 feet above the centerline of a public way shall pass through the barricades.

e. Magazine is a building or structure, other than an operating building, approved for storage of explosive materials. Portable or mobile magazines not exceeding 120 square feet in area need not comply with the requirements of this code, however, all magazines shall comply with the International Fire Code.

f. The distance listed is permitted to be reduced by 50 percent where approved natural or artificial barriers are provided in accordance with the requirements in Note d.

The storage of hazardous materials in excess of those amounts listed in Table 415.3.2 shall be in accordance with the applicable provisions of Sections 415.4 and 415.5. Where a detached building is required by Table 415.3.2, there are no requirements for wall and opening protection based on fire separation distance.

[F] TABLE 415.3.2
DETACHED BUILDING REQUIRED

A DETACHED BUILDING IS REQUIRED WHEN THE QUANTITY OF MATERIAL EXCEEDS THAT LISTED HEREIN

Material

Class

Solids and Liquids (tons)a, b

Gases (cubic feet)a, b

Explosives

Division 1.1
Division 1.2
Division 1.3
Division 1.4
Division 1.4c
Division 1.5
Division 1.6

Maximum Allowable Quantity
Maximum Allowable Quantity
Maximum Allowable Quantity
Maximum Allowable Quantity
1
Maximum Allowable Quantity
Maximum Allowable Quantity

Not Applicable

Oxidizers

Class 4

Maximum Allowable Quantity

Maximum Allowable Quantity

Unstable (reactives) detonable

Class 3 or 4

Maximum Allowable Quantity

Maximum Allowable Quantity

Oxidizer, liquids and solids

Class 3
Class 2

1,200
2,000

Not Applicable
Not Applicable

Organic peroxides

Detonable
Class I
Class II
Class III

Maximum Allowable Quantity
Maximum Allowable Quantity
25
50

Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Not Applicable

Unstable (reactives) nondetonable

Class 3
Class 2

1
25

2,000
10,000

Water reactives

Class 3
Class 2

1
25

Not Applicable
Not Applicable

Pyrophoric gases

Not Applicable

Not Applicable

2,000

For SI: 1 ton = 906 kg, 1 cubic foot = 0.02832 m3, 1 pound = 0.454 kg.

a. For materials that are detonable, the distance to other buildings or lot lines shall be as specified in Table 415.3.1 based on trinitrotoluene (TNT) equivalence of the material. For materials classified as explosives, see Chapter 33 the International Fire Code. For all other materials, the distance shall be as indicated in Section 415.3.1.

b. “Maximum Allowable Quantity” means the maximum allowable quantity per control area set forth in Table 307.7(1).

c. Limited to Division 1.4 materials and articles, including articles packaged for shipment, that are not regulated as an explosive under Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (BATF) regulations or unpackaged articles used in process operations that do not propagate a detonation or deflagration between articles, providing the net explosive weight of individual articles does not exceed 1 pound.

Group H-1 occupancies shall be in buildings used for no other purpose, shall not exceed one story in height and be without basements, crawl spaces or other under-floor spaces. Roofs shall be of lightweight construction with suitable thermal insulation to prevent sensitive material from reaching its decomposition temperature. Group H-1 occupancies containing materials that are in themselves both physical and health hazards in quantities exceeding the maximum allowable quantities per control area in Table 307.1.(2) shall comply with requirements for both Group H-1 and H-4 occupancies.
Floors in storage areas for organic peroxides, pyrophoric materials and unstable (reactive) materials shall be of liquid-tight, noncombustible construction.

Groups H-2 and H-3 occupancies containing quantities of hazardous materials in excess of those set forth in Table 415.3.2 shall be in buildings used for no other purpose, shall not exceed one story in height and shall be without basements, crawl spaces or other under-floor spaces.

Groups H-2 and H-3 occupancies containing water-reactive materials shall be resistant to water penetration. Piping for conveying liquids shall not be over or through areas containing water reactives, unless isolated by approved liquid-tight construction.

Exception: Fire protection piping.

Floors in storage areas for organic peroxides, oxidizers, pyrophoric materials, unstable (reactive) materials and water-reactive solids and liquids shall be of liquid-tight, noncombustible construction.
Rooms or areas used for the storage of water-reactive solids and liquids shall be constructed in a manner that resists the penetration of water through the use of waterproof materials. Piping carrying water for other than approved automatic fire sprinkler systems shall not be within such rooms or areas.
Occupancies in Group H-2 shall be constructed in accordance with Sections 415.6.1 through 415.6.4 and the International Fire Code.
The provisions of Sections 415.6.1.1 through 415.6.1.6 shall apply to buildings in which materials that produce combustible dusts are stored or handled. Buildings that store or handle combustible dusts shall comply with the applicable provisions of NFPA 61, NFPA 85, NFPA 120, NFPA 484, NFPA 654, NFPA 655 and NFPA 664, and the International Fire Code.
Buildings shall be constructed in compliance with the height and area limitations of Table 503 for Group H-2; except that where erected of Type I or II construction, the heights and areas of grain elevators and similar structures shall be unlimited, and where of Type IV construction, the maximum height shall be 65 feet (19 812 mm) and except further that, in isolated areas, the maximum height of Type IV structures shall be increased to 85 feet (25 908 mm).
Every room or space occupied for grinding or other operations that produce combustible dusts shall be enclosed with fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712, or both. The minimum fire-resistance rating shall be 2 hours where the area is not more than 3,000 square feet (279 m2), and 4 hours where the area is greater than 3,000 square feet (279 m2).
Conveyors, chutes, piping and similar equipment passing through the enclosures of rooms or spaces shall be constructed dirt tight and vapor tight, and be of approved noncombustible materials complying with Chapter 30.
Explosion control shall be provided as specified in the International Fire Code, or spaces shall be equipped with the equivalent mechanical ventilation complying with the International Mechanical Code.
Grain elevators, malt houses and buildings for similar occupancies shall not be located within 30 feet (9144 mm) of interior lot lines or structures on the same lot, except where erected along a railroad right-of-way.
Coal pockets located less than 30 feet (9144 mm) from interior lot lines or from structures on the same lot shall be constructed of not less than Type IB construction. Where more than 30 feet (9144 mm) from interior lot lines, or where erected along a railroad right-of-way, the minimum type of construction of such structures not more than 65 feet (19 812 mm) in building height shall be Type IV.
The storage, handling, processing and transporting of flammable and combustible liquids in Groups H-2 and H-3 occupancies shall be in accordance with Sections 415.6.2.1 through 415.6.2.10, the International Mechanical Code and the International Fire Code.
Where the storage tank area is located in a building of two or more occupancies and the quantity of liquid exceeds the maximum allowable quantity for one control area, the use shall be completely separated from adjacent occupancies in accordance with the requirements of Section 508.4.
Where storage tanks are located within a building no more than one story above grade plane, the height limitation of Section 503 shall not apply for Group H.
Storage tanks shall be noncombustible and protected from physical damage. Fire barriers or horizontal assemblies or both around the storage tank(s) shall be permitted as the method of protection from physical damage.
Storage tanks shall be approved tanks conforming to the requirements of the International Fire Code.
Group H shall be equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system, installed in accordance with Section 903.

A liquid-tight containment area compatible with the stored liquid shall be provided. The method of spill control, drainage control and secondary containment shall be in accordance with the International Fire Code.

Exception: Rooms where only double-wall storage tanks conforming to Section 415.6.2.3 are used to store Class I, II and IIIA flammable and combustible liquids shall not be required to have a leakage containment area.

An approved automatic alarm shall be provided to indicate a leak in a storage tank and room. The alarm shall sound an audible signal, 15 dBa above the ambient sound level, at every point of entry into the room in which the leaking storage tank is located. An approved sign shall be posted on every entry door to the tank storage room indicating the potential hazard of the interior room environment, or the sign shall state: WARNING, WHEN ALARM SOUNDS, THE ENVIRONMENT WITHIN THE ROOM MAY BE HAZARDOUS. The leakage alarm shall also be supervised in accordance with Chapter 9 to transmit a trouble signal.
Storage tank vents for Class I, II or IIIA liquids shall terminate to the outdoor air in accordance with the International Fire Code.
Storage tank areas storing Class I, II or IIIA liquids shall be provided with mechanical ventilation. The mechanical ventilation system shall be in accordance with the International Mechanical Code and the International Fire Code.
Where Class I liquids are being stored, explosion venting shall be provided in accordance with the International Fire Code.
Tank openings other than vents from tanks inside buildings shall be designed to ensure that liquids or vapor concentrations are not released inside the building.
The construction and installation of liquefied petroleum gas facilities shall be in accordance with the requirements of this code, the International Fire Code, the International Mechanical Code, the International Fuel Gas Code and NFPA 58.
The construction and installation of dry cleaning plants shall be in accordance with the requirements of this code, the International Mechanical Code, the International Plumbing Code and NFPA 32. Dry cleaning solvents and systems shall be classified in accordance with the International Fire Code.
Groups H-3 and H-4 shall be constructed in accordance with the applicable provisions of this code and the International Fire Code.
The storage, handling, processing and transporting of flammable and combustible liquids in Group H-3 occupancies shall be in accordance with Section 415.6.2.
When gas rooms are provided, such rooms shall be separated from other areas by not less than 1-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712, or both.
Floors in storage areas for corrosive liquids and highly toxic or toxic materials shall be of liquid-tight, noncombustible construction.
Highly toxic solids and liquids not stored in approved hazardous materials storage cabinets shall be isolated from other hazardous materials storage by not less than 1-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712, or both.
In addition to the requirements set forth elsewhere in this code, Group H-5 shall comply with the provisions of Sections 415.8.1 through 415.8.11 and the International Fire Code.

The aggregate quantities of hazardous materials stored and used in a single fabrication area shall not exceed the quantities set forth in Table 415.8.2.1.1.

Exception: The quantity limitations for any hazard category in Table 415.8.2.1.1 shall not apply where the fabrication area contains quantities of hazardous materials not exceeding the maximum allowable quantities per control area established by Tables 307.1(1) and 307.1(2).

[F] TABLE 415.8.2.1.1
QUANTITY LIMITS FOR HAZARDOUS MATERIALS IN A SINGLE FABRICATION AREA IN GROUP H-5
a

HAZARD CATEGORY

SOLIDS
(pounds per square feet)

LIQUIDS
(gallons per square feet)

GAS
(feet3 @ NTP/square feet)

PHYSICAL-HAZARD MATERIALS

Combustible dust

Note b

Not Applicable <