CODES

ADOPTS WITHOUT AMENDMENTS:

International Fire Code 2009 (IFC 2009)

Copyright

Preface

Effective Use of the International Fire Code

Ordinance

Chapter 1 Scope and Administration

Chapter 2 Definitions

Chapter 3 General Requirements

Chapter 4 Emergency Planning and Preparedness

Chapter 5 Fire Service Features

Chapter 6 Building Services and Systems

Chapter 7 Fire-Resistance-Rated Construction

Chapter 8 Interior Finish, Decorative Materials and Furnishings

Chapter 9 Fire Protection Systems

Chapter 10 Means of Egress

Chapter 11 Aviation Facilities

Chapter 12 Dry Cleaning

Chapter 13 Combustible Dust-Producing Operations

Chapter 14 Fire Safety During Construction and Demolition

Chapter 15 Flammable Finishes

Chapter 16 Fruit and Crop Ripening

Chapter 17 Fumigation and Thermal Insecticidal Fogging

Chapter 18 Semiconductor Fabrication Facilities

Chapter 19 Lumber Yards and Woodworking Facilities

Chapter 20 Manufacture of Organic Coatingsmanufacture of Organic Coatings

Chapter 21 Industrial Ovens

Chapter 22 Motor Fuel-Dispensing Facilities and Repair Garages

Chapter 23 High-Piled Combustible Storage

Chapter 24 Tents and Other Membrane Structures

Chapter 25 Tire Rebuilding and Tire Storage

Chapter 26 Welding and Other Hot Work

Chapter 27 Hazardous Materials - General Provisions

Chapter 28 Aerosols

Chapter 29 Combustible Fibers

Chapter 30 Compressed Gases

Chapter 31 Corrosive Materials

Chapter 32 Cryogenic Fluids

Chapter 33 Explosives and Fireworks

Chapter 34 Flammable and Combustible Liquids

Chapter 35 Flammable Gases and Flammable Cryogenic Fluids

Chapter 36 Flammable Solids

Chapter 37 Highly Toxic and Toxic Materials

Chapter 38 Liquefied Petroleum Gases

Chapter 39 Organic Peroxides

Chapter 40 Oxidizers, Oxidizing Gases and Oxidizing Cryogenic Fluids

Chapter 41 Pyrophoric Materials

Chapter 42 Pyroxylin (Cellulose Nitrate) Plastics

Chapter 43 Unstable (Reactive) Materials

Chapter 44 Water-Reactive Solids and Liquids

Chapter 45 Marinas

Chapter 46 Construction Requirements for Existing Buildings

Chapter 47 Referenced Standards

Appendix A Board of Appeals

Appendix B Fire-Flow Requirements for Buildings

Appendix C Fire Hydrant Locations and Distribution

Appendix D Fire Apparatus Access Roads

Appendix E Hazard Categories

Appendix F Hazard Ranking

Appendix G Cryogenic Fluids— Weight and Volume Equivalents

Appendix H Hazardous Materials Management Plan (HMMP) and Hazardous Materials Inventory Statement (HMIS) Instructions

Appendix I Fire Protection Systems—noncompliant Conditions

Appendix J Emergency Responder Radio Coverage

The provisions of this chapter shall govern the possession, manufacture, storage, handling, sale and use of explosives, explosive materials, fireworks and small arms ammunition.

Exceptions:

1. The Armed Forces of the United States, Coast Guard or National Guard.

2. Explosives in forms prescribed by the official United States Pharmacopoeia.

3. The possession, storage and use of small arms ammunition when packaged in accordance with DOTn packaging requirements.

4. The possession, storage and use of not more than 1 pound (0.454 kg) of commercially manufactured sporting black powder, 20 pounds (9 kg) of smokeless powder and 10,000 small arms primers for hand loading of small arms ammunition for personal consumption.

5. The use of explosive materials by federal, state and local regulatory, law enforcement and fire agencies acting in their official capacities.

6. Special industrial explosive devices which in the aggregate contain less than 50 pounds (23 kg) of explosive materials.

7. The possession, storage and use of blank industrial-power load cartridges when packaged in accordance with DOTn packaging regulations.

8. Transportation in accordance with DOTn 49 CFR Parts 100-185.

9. Items preempted by federal regulations.

In addition to the requirements of this chapter, NFPA 495 shall govern the manufacture, transportation, storage, sale, handling and use of explosive materials.
In addition to the requirements of this chapter, the operation of explosive material terminals shall conform to the provisions of NFPA 498.

The possession, manufacture, storage, sale, handling and use of fireworks are prohibited.

Exceptions:

1. Storage and handling of fireworks as allowed in Section 3304.

2. Manufacture, assembly and testing of fireworks as allowed in Section 3305.

3. The use of fireworks for fireworks displays as allowed in Section 3308.

4. The possession, storage, sale, handling and use of specific types of Division 1.4G fireworks where allowed by applicable laws, ordinances and regulations, provided such fireworks comply with CPSC 16 CFR, Parts 1500 and 1507, and DOTn 49 CFR, Parts 100-185, for consumer fireworks.

The storage, handling and use of model and high-power rockets shall comply with the requirements of NFPA 1122, NFPA 1125 and NFPA 1127.

The storage and handling of ammonium nitrate shall comply with the requirements of NFPA 490 and Chapter 40.

Exception: Storage of ammonium nitrate in magazines with blasting agents shall comply with the requirements of NFPA 495.

Permits shall be required as set forth in Section 105.6 and regulated in accordance with this section.

No person shall keep or store, nor shall any permit be issued to keep or store, any explosives at any place of habitation, or within 100 feet (30 480 mm) thereof.

Exception: Storage of smokeless propellant, black powder and small arms primers for personal use and not for resale in accordance with Section 3306.

No person shall construct a retail display nor offer for sale explosives, explosive materials or fireworks upon highways, sidewalks, public property or in Group A or E occupancies.
The fire code official is authorized to limit the quantity of explosives, explosive materials or fireworks permitted at a given location. No person, possessing a permit for storage of explosives at any place, shall keep or store an amount greater than authorized in such permit. Only the kind of explosive specified in such a permit shall be kept or stored.
Before a permit is issued, as required by Section 3301.2, the applicant shall file with the jurisdiction a corporate surety bond in the principal sum of $100,000 or a public liability insurance policy for the same amount, for the purpose of the payment of all damages to persons or property which arise from, or are caused by, the conduct of any act authorized by the permit upon which any judicial judgment results. The fire code official is authorized to specify a greater or lesser amount when, in his or her opinion, conditions at the location of use indicate a greater or lesser amount is required. Government entities shall be exempt from this bond requirement.
Before approval to do blasting is issued, the applicant for approval shall file a bond or submit a certificate of insurance in such form, amount and coverage as determined by the legal department of the jurisdiction to be adequate in each case to indemnify the jurisdiction against any and all damages arising from permitted blasting.
The permit holder shall furnish a bond or certificate of insurance in an amount deemed adequate by the fire code official for the payment of all potential damages to a person or persons or to property by reason of the permitted display, and arising from any acts of the permit holder, the agent, employees or subcontractors.

Permits shall not be issued or renewed for possession, manufacture, storage, handling, sale or use of the following materials and such materials currently in storage or use shall be disposed of in an approved manner.

1. Liquid nitroglycerin.

2. Dynamite containing more than 60-percent liquid explosive ingredient.

3. Dynamite having an unsatisfactory absorbent or one that permits leakage of a liquid explosive ingredient under any conditions liable to exist during storage.

4. Nitrocellulose in a dry and uncompressed condition in a quantity greater than 10 pounds (4.54 kg) of net weight in one package.

5. Fulminate of mercury in a dry condition and fulminate of all other metals in any condition except as a component of manufactured articles not hereinafter forbidden.

6. Explosive compositions that ignite spontaneously or undergo marked decomposition, rendering the products of their use more hazardous, when subjected for 48 consecutive hours or less to a temperature of 167°F (75°C).

7. New explosive materials until approved by DOTn, except that permits are allowed to be issued to educational, governmental or industrial laboratories for instructional or research purposes.

8. Explosive materials condemned by DOTn.

9. Explosive materials containing an ammonium salt and a chlorate.

10. Explosives not packed or marked as required by DOTn 49 CFR, Parts 100-185.

Exception: Gelatin dynamite.

Persons in charge of magazines, blasting, fireworks display or pyrotechnic special effect operations shall not be under the influence of alcohol or drugs which impair sensory or motor skills, shall be at least 21 years of age and shall demonstrate knowledge of all safety precautions related to the storage, handling or use of explosives, explosive materials or fireworks.
The fire code official is authorized to require operations permitted under the provisions of Section 3301.2 to be supervised at any time by the fire code official in order to determine compliance with all safety and fire regulations.
Whenever a new explosive material storage or manufacturing site is established, including a temporary job site, the local law enforcement agency, fire department and local emergency planning committee shall be notified 48 hours in advance, not including Saturdays, Sundays and holidays, of the type, quantity and location of explosive materials at the site.
The fire code official is authorized to remove or cause to be removed or disposed of in an approved manner, at the expense of the owner, explosives, explosive materials or fireworks offered or exposed for sale, stored, possessed or used in violation of this chapter.
The quantity of explosives and distances shall be in accordance with Sections 3301.8.1 and 3301.8.1.1.

The quantity-distance (Q-D) tables in Sections 3304.5 and 3305.3 shall be used to provide the minimum separation distances from potential explosion sites as set forth in Tables 3301.8.1(1) through 3301.8.1(3). The classification and the weight of the explosives are primary characteristics governing the use of these tables. The net explosive weight shall be determined in accordance with Sections 3301.8.1.1 through 3301.8.1.4.

TABLE 3301.8.1(1)
APPLICATION OF SEPARATION DISTANCE (Q-D) TABLES—DIVISION 1.1, 1.2 AND 1.5 EXPLOSIVESa,b,c

ITEM

MAGAZINE

Q-D

OPERATING
BUILDING

Q-D

INHABITED
BUILDING

Q-D

PUBLIC
TRAFFIC
ROUTE

Q-D

Magazine

Table 3304.5.2(1)

IMD

Table
3305.3

ILD or IPD

TABLE 3304.5.2(1)

IBD

TABLE 3304.5.2(1)

PTR

Operating
Building

TABLE 3304.5.2(1)

ILD or IPD

Table
3305.3

ILD or IPD

TABLE 3304.5.2(1)

IBD

TABLE 3304.5.2(1)

PTR

Inhabited
Building

TABLE 3304.5.2(1)

IBD

TABLE 3304.5.2(1)

IBD

NA

NA

NA

NA

Public Traffic Route

TABLE 3304.5.2(1)

PTR

TABLE 3304.5.2(1)

PTR

NA

NA

NA

NA

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

a. The minimum separation distance (Do) shall be 60 feet. Where a building or magazine containing explosives is barricaded, the minimum distance shall be 30 feet.

b. Linear interpolation between tabular values in the referenced Q-D tables shall not be allowed. Nonlinear interpolation of the values shall be allowed subject to an approved technical opinion and report prepared in accordance with Section 104.7.2.

c. For definitions of Quantity-Distance abbreviations IBD, ILD, IMD, IPD and PTR, see Section 3302.1.

TABLE 3301.8.1(2)
APPLICATION OF SEPARATION DISTANCE (Q-D) TABLES—DIVISION 1.3 EXPLOSIVESa,b,c

ITEM

MAGAZINE

Q-D

OPERATING BUILDING

Q-D

INHABITED BUILDING

Q-D

PUBLIC TRAFFIC ROUTE

Q-D

Magazine

TABLE 3304.5.2(2)

IMD

TABLE 3304.5.2(2)

ILD or IPD

TABLE 3304.5.2(2)

IBD

TABLE 3304.5.2(2)

PTR

Operating Building

TABLE 3304.5.2(2)

ILD or

IPD

TABLE 3304.5.2(2)

ILD or IPD

TABLE 3304.5.2(2)

IBD

TABLE 3304.5.2(2)

PTR

Inhabited Building

TABLE 3304.5.2(2)

IBD

TABLE 3304.5.2(2)

IBD

NA

NA

NA

NA

Public Traffic Route

TABLE 3304.5.2(2)

PTR

TABLE 3304.5.2(2)

PTR

NA

NA

NA

NA

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

a. The minimum separation distance (Do) shall be a minimum of 50 feet.

b. Linear interpolation between tabular values in the referenced Q-D table shall be allowed.

c. For definitions of Quantity-Distance abbreviations IBD, ILD, IMD, IPD and PTR, see Section 3302.1.

TABLE 3301.8.1(3)
APPLICATION OF SEPARATION DISTANCE (Q-D) TABLES—DIVISION 1.4 EXPLOSIVESa,b,c,d

ITEM

MAGAZINE

Q-D

OPERATING BUILDING

Q-D

INHABITED BUILDING

Q-D

PUBLIC TRAFFIC ROUTE

Q-D

Magazine

TABLE 3304.5.2(3)

IMD

TABLE 3304.5.2(3)

ILD or IPD

TABLE 3304.5.2(3)

IBD

TABLE 3304.5.2(3)

PTR

Operating Building

TABLE 3304.5.2(3)

ILD or IPD

TABLE 3304.5.2(3)

ILD or IPD

TABLE 3304.5.2(3)

IBD

TABLE 3304.5.2(3)

PTR

Inhabited Building

TABLE 3304.5.2(3)

IBD

TABLE 3304.5.2(3)

IBD

NA

NA

NA

NA

Public Traffic Route

TABLE 3304.5.2(3)

PTR

TABLE 3304.5.2(3)

PTR

NA

NA

NA

NA

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

a. The minimum separation distance (Do) shall be a minimum of 50 feet.

b. Linear interpolation between tabular values in the referenced quantity-distance (Q-D) table shall not be allowed.

c. For definitions of quantity-distance abbreviations IBD, ILD, IMD, IPD and PTR, see Section 3302.1.

d. This table shall not apply to consumer fireworks, 1.4G.

The total net explosive weight of Division 1.1, 1.2 or 1.5 explosives shall be used. See Table 3304.5.2(1) or Table 3305.3 as appropriate.

Exception: When the TNT equivalence of the explosive material has been determined, the equivalence is allowed to be used to establish the net explosive weight.

Nonmass-detonating explosives shall be as follows:

1. Division 1.3 propellants. The total weight of the propellants alone shall be the net explosive weight. The net weight of propellant shall be used. See Table 3304.5.2(2).

2. Combinations of bulk metal powder and pyrotechnic compositions. The sum of the net weights of metal powders and pyrotechnic compositions in the containers shall be the net explosive weight. See Table 3304.5.2(2).

Combination of mass-detonating and nonmass-detonating explosives shall be as follows:

1. When Division 1.1 and 1.2 explosives are located in the same site, determine the distance for the total quantity considered first as 1.1 and then as 1.2. The required distance is the greater of the two. When the Division 1.1 requirements are controlling and the TNT equivalence of the 1.2 is known, the TNT equivalent weight of the 1.2 items shall be allowed to be added to the total explosive weight of Division 1.1 items to determine the net explosive weight for Division 1.1 distance determination. See Table 3304.5.2(2) or Table 3305.3 as appropriate.

2. When Division 1.1 and 1.3 explosives are located in the same site, determine the distances for the total quantity considered first as 1.1 and then as 1.3. The required distance is the greater of the two. When the Division 1.1 requirements are controlling and the TNT equivalence of the 1.3 is known, the TNT equivalent weight of the 1.3 items shall be allowed to be added to the total explosive weight of Division 1.1 items to determine the net explosive weight for Division 1.1 distance determination. See Table 3304.5.2(1), 3304.5.2(2) or 3305.3, as appropriate.

3. When Division 1.1, 1.2 and 1.3 explosives are located in the same site, determine the distances for the total quantity considered first as 1.1, next as 1.2 and finally as 1.3. The required distance is the greatest of the three. As allowed by paragraphs 1 and 2 above, TNT equivalent weights for 1.2 and 1.3 items are allowed to be used to determine the net weight of explosives for Division 1.1 distance determination. Table 3304.5.2(1) or 3305.3 shall be used when TNT equivalency is used to establish the net explosive weight.

4. For composite pyrotechnic items Division 1.1 and Division 1.3, the sum of the net weights of the pyrotechnic composition and the explosives involved shall be used. See Tables 3304.5.2(1) and 3304.5.2(2).

Division 1.4 explosives. The total weight of the explosive material alone is the net weight. The net weight of the explosive material shall be used.

The following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, have the meanings shown herein.

AMMONIUM NITRATE. A chemical compound represented by the formula NH4NO3.

BARRICADE. A structure that consists of a combination of walls, floor and roof, which is designed to withstand the rapid release of energy in an explosion and which is fully confined, partially vented or fully vented; or other effective method of shielding from explosive materials by a natural or artificial barrier.

Artificial barricade. An artificial mound or revetment a minimum thickness of 3 feet (914 mm).

Natural barricade. Natural features of the ground, such as hills, or timber of sufficient density that the surrounding exposures that require protection cannot be seen from the magazine or building containing explosives when the trees are bare of leaves.

BARRICADED. The effective screening of a building containing explosive materials from the magazine or other building, railway or highway by a natural or an artificial barrier. A straight line from the top of any sidewall of the building containing explosive materials to the eave line of any magazine or other building or to a point 12 feet (3658 mm) above the center of a railway or highway shall pass through such barrier.

BLAST AREA. The area including the blast site and the immediate adjacent area within the influence of flying rock, missiles and concussion.

BLAST SITE. The area in which explosive materials are being or have been loaded and which includes all holes loaded or to be loaded for the same blast and a distance of 50 feet (15 240 mm) in all directions.

BLASTER. A person qualified in accordance with Section 3301.4 to be in charge of and responsible for the loading and firing of a blast.

BLASTING AGENT. A material or mixture consisting of fuel and oxidizer, intended for blasting provided that the finished product, as mixed for use or shipment, cannot be detonated by means of a No. 8 test detonator when unconfined. Blasting agents are labeled and placarded as Class 1.5 material by US DOTn.

BULLET RESISTANT. Constructed so as to resist penetration of a bullet of 150-grain M2 ball ammunition having a nominal muzzle velocity of 2,700 feet per second (fps) (824 mps) when fired from a 30-caliber rifle at a distance of 100 feet (30 480 mm), measured perpendicular to the target.

DETONATING CORD. A flexible cord containing a center core of high explosive used to initiate other explosives.

DETONATION. An exothermic reaction characterized by the presence of a shock wave in the material which establishes and maintains the reaction. The reaction zone progresses through the material at a rate greater than the velocity of sound. The principal heating mechanism is one of shock compression. Detonations have an explosive effect.

DETONATOR. A device containing any initiating or primary explosive that is used for initiating detonation. A detonator shall not contain more than 154.32 grains (10 grams) of total explosives by weight, excluding ignition or delay charges. The term includes, but is not limited to, electric blasting caps of instantaneous and delay types, blasting caps for use with safety fuses, detonating cord delay connectors, and noninstantaneous and delay blasting caps which use detonating cord, shock tube or any other replacement for electric leg wires. All types of detonators in strengths through No. 8 cap should be rated at 11/2 pounds (0.68 kg) of explosives per 1,000 caps. For strengths higher than No. 8 cap, consult the manufacturer.

DISCHARGE SITE. The immediate area surrounding the fireworks mortars used for an outdoor fireworks display.

DISPLAY SITE. The immediate area where a fireworks display is conducted. The display area includes the discharge site, the fallout area and the required separation distance from the mortars to spectator viewing areas. The display area does not include spectator viewing areas or vehicle parking areas.

EXPLOSIVE. A chemical compound, mixture or device, the primary or common purpose of which is to function by explosion. The term includes, but is not limited to, dynamite, black powder, pellet powder, initiating explosives, detonators, safety fuses, squibs, detonating cord, igniter cord, igniters and display fireworks, 1.3G (Class B, Special).

The term “Explosive” includes any material determined to be within the scope of USC Title 18: Chapter 40 and also includes any material classified as an explosive other than consumer fireworks, 1.4G (Class C, Common) by the hazardous materials regulations of DOTn 49 CFR Parts 100-185.

High explosive. Explosive material, such as dynamite, which can be caused to detonate by means of a No. 8 test blasting cap when unconfined.

Low explosive. Explosive material that will burn or deflagrate when ignited. It is characterized by a rate of reaction that is less than the speed of sound. Examples of low explosives include, but are not limited to, black powder, safety fuse, igniters, igniter cord, fuse lighters, fireworks, 1.3G (Class B special) and propellants, 1.3C.

Mass-detonating explosives. Division 1.1, 1.2 and 1.5 explosives alone or in combination, or loaded into various types of ammunition or containers, most of which can be expected to explode virtually instantaneously when a small portion is subjected to fire, severe concussion, impact, the impulse of an initiating agent or the effect of a considerable discharge of energy from without. Materials that react in this manner represent a mass explosion hazard. Such an explosive will normally cause severe structural damage to adjacent objects. Explosive propagation could occur immediately to other items of ammunition and explosives stored sufficiently close to and not adequately protected from the initially exploding pile with a time interval short enough so that two or more quantities must be considered as one for quantity-distance purposes.

UN/DOTn Class 1 explosives. The former classification system used by DOTn included the terms “high” and “low” explosives as defined herein. The following terms further define explosives under the current system applied by DOTn for all explosive materials defined as hazard Class 1 materials. Compatibility group letters are used in concert with the Division to specify further limitations on each division noted (i.e., the letter G identifies the material as a pyrotechnic substance or article containing a pyrotechnic substance and similar materials).

Division 1.1. Explosives that have a mass explosion hazard. A mass explosion is one which affects almost the entire load instantaneously.

Division 1.2. Explosives that have a projection hazard but not a mass explosion hazard.

Division 1.3. Explosives that have a fire hazard and either a minor blast hazard or a minor projection hazard or both, but not a mass explosion hazard.

Division 1.4. Explosives that pose a minor explosion hazard. The explosive effects are largely confined to the package and no projection of fragments of appreciable size or range is to be expected. An external fire must not cause virtually instantaneous explosion of almost the entire contents of the package.

Division 1.5. Very insensitive explosives. This division is comprised of substances that have a mass explosion hazard but which are so insensitive that there is very little probability of initiation or of transition from burning to detonation under normal conditions of transport.

Division 1.6. Extremely insensitive articles which do not have a mass explosion hazard. This division is comprised of articles that contain only extremely insensitive detonating substances and which demonstrate a negligible probability of accidental initiation or propagation.

EXPLOSIVE MATERIAL. The term “explosive” material means explosives, blasting agents and detonators.

FALLOUT AREA. The area over which aerial shells are fired. The shells burst over the area, and unsafe debris and malfunctioning aerial shells fall into this area. The fallout area is the location where a typical aerial shell dud falls to the ground depending on the wind and the angle of mortar placement.

FIREWORKS. Any composition or device for the purpose of producing a visible or an audible effect for entertainment purposes by combustion, deflagration or detonation that meets the definition of 1.4G fireworks or 1.3G fireworks as set forth herein.

Fireworks, 1.4G. (Formerly known as Class C, Common Fireworks.) Small fireworks devices containing restricted amounts of pyrotechnic composition designed primarily to produce visible or audible effects by combustion. Such 1.4G fireworks which comply with the construction, chemical composition and labeling regulations of the DOTn for Fireworks, UN 0336, and the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission as set forth in CPSC 16 CFR: Parts 1500 and 1507, are not explosive materials for the purpose of this code.

Fireworks, 1.3G. (Formerly Class B, Special Fireworks.) Large fireworks devices, which are explosive materials, intended for use in fireworks displays and designed to produce audible or visible effects by combustion, deflagration or detonation. Such 1.3G fireworks include, but are not limited to, firecrackers containing more than 130 milligrams (2 grains) of explosive composition, aerial shells containing more than 40 grams of pyrotechnic composition and other display pieces which exceed the limits for classification as 1.4G fireworks. Such 1.3G fireworks are also described as Fireworks, UN0335 by the DOTn.

FIREWORKS DISPLAY. A presentation of fireworks for a public or private gathering.

HIGHWAY. A public street, public alley or public road.

INHABITED BUILDING. A building regularly occupied in whole or in part as a habitation for people, or any place of religious worship, schoolhouse, railroad station, store or other structure where people are accustomed to assemble, except any building or structure occupied in connection with the manufacture, transportation, storage or use of explosive materials.

MAGAZINE. A building, structure or container, other than an operating building, approved for storage of explosive materials.

Indoor. A portable structure, such as a box, bin or other container, constructed as required for Type 2, 4 or 5 magazines in accordance with NFPA 495, NFPA 1124 or DOTy 27 CFR Part 55 so as to be fire resistant and theft resistant.

Type 1. A permanent structure, such as a building or igloo, that is bullet resistant, fire resistant, theft resistant, weather resistant and ventilated in accordance with the requirements of NFPA 495, NFPA 1124 or DOTy 27 CFR Part 55.

Type 2. A portable or mobile structure, such as a box, skid-magazine, trailer or semitrailer, constructed in accordance with the requirements of NFPA 495, NFPA 1124 or DOTy 27 CFR, Part 55 that is fire resistant, theft resistant, weather resistant and ventilated. If used outdoors, a Type 2 magazine is also bullet resistant.

Type 3. A fire resistant, theft resistant and weather resistant “day box” or portable structure constructed in accordance with NFPA 495, NFPA 1124 or DOTy 27 CFR Part 55 used for the temporary storage of explosive materials.

Type 4. A permanent, portable or mobile structure such as a building, igloo, box, semitrailer or other mobile container that is fire resistant, theft resistant and weather resistant and constructed in accordance with NFPA 495, NFPA 1124 or DOTy 27 CFR, Part 55.

Type 5. A permanent, portable or mobile structure such as a building, igloo, box, bin, tank, semitrailer, bulk trailer, tank trailer, bulk truck, tank truck or other mobile container that is theft resistant, which is constructed in accordance with NFPA 495, NFPA 1124 or DOTy 27 CFR, Part 55.

MORTAR. A tube from which fireworks shells are fired into the air.

NET EXPLOSIVE WEIGHT (net weight). The weight of explosive material expressed in pounds. The net explosive weight is the aggregate amount of explosive material contained within buildings, magazines, structures or portions thereof, used to establish quantity-distance relationships.

OPERATING BUILDING. A building occupied in conjunction with the manufacture, transportation or use of explosive materials. Operating buildings are separated from one another with the use of intraplant or intraline distances.

OPERATING LINE. A group of buildings, facilities or workstations so arranged as to permit performance of the steps in the manufacture of an explosive or in the loading, assembly, modification and maintenance of ammunition or devices containing explosive materials.

PLOSOPHORIC MATERIAL. Two or more unmixed, commercially manufactured, prepackaged chemical substances including oxidizers, flammable liquids or solids, or similar substances that are not independently classified as explosives but which, when mixed or combined, form an explosive that is intended for blasting.

PROXIMATE AUDIENCE. An audience closer to pyrotechnic devices than allowed by NFPA 1123.

PUBLIC TRAFFIC ROUTE (PTR). Any public street, road, highway, navigable stream or passenger railroad that is used for through traffic by the general public.

PYROTECHNIC ARTICLE. A pyrotechnic device for use in the entertainment industry, which is not classified as fireworks.

PYROTECHNIC COMPOSITION. A chemical mixture that produces visible light displays or sounds through a self-propagating, heat-releasing chemical reaction which is initiated by ignition.

PYROTECHNIC SPECIAL EFFECT. A visible or audible effect for entertainment created through the use of pyrotechnic materials and devices.

PYROTECHNIC SPECIAL-EFFECT MATERIAL. A chemical mixture used in the entertainment industry to produce visible or audible effects by combustion, deflagration or detonation. Such a chemical mixture predominantly consists of solids capable of producing a controlled, self-sustaining and self-contained exothermic chemical reaction that results in heat, gas sound, light or a combination of these effects. The chemical reaction functions without external oxygen.

PYROTECHNICS. Controlled exothermic chemical reactions timed to create the effects of heat, hot gas, sound, dispersion of aerosols, emission of visible light or a combination of such effects to achieve the maximum effect from the least volume of pyrotechnic composition.

QUANTITY-DISTANCE (Q-D). The quantity of explosive material and separation distance relationships providing protection. These relationships are based on levels of risk considered acceptable for the stipulated exposures and are tabulated in the appropriate Q-D tables. The separation distances specified afford less than absolute safety:

Inhabited building distance (IBD). The minimum separation distance between an operating building or magazine containing explosive materials and an inhabited building or site boundary.

Intermagazine distance (IMD). The minimum separation distance between magazines.

Intraline distance (ILD) or Intraplant distance (IPD). The distance to be maintained between any two operating buildings on an explosives manufacturing site when at least one contains or is designed to contain explosives, or the distance between a magazine and an operating building.

Minimum separation distance (Do). The minimum separation distance between adjacent buildings occupied in conjunction with the manufacture, transportation, storage or use of explosive materials where one of the buildings contains explosive materials and the other building does not.

RAILWAY. A steam, electric or other railroad or railway that carriers passengers for hire.

READY BOX. A weather-resistant container with a self-closing or automatic-closing cover that protects fireworks shells from burning debris. Tarpaulins shall not be considered as ready boxes.

SMALL ARMS AMMUNITION. A shotgun, rifle or pistol cartridge and any cartridge for propellant-actuated devices. This definition does not include military ammunition containing bursting charges or incendiary, trace, spotting or pyrotechnic projectiles.

SMALL ARMS PRIMERS. Small percussion-sensitive explosive charges, encased in a cap, used to ignite propellant powder.

SMOKELESS PROPELLANTS. Solid propellants, commonly referred to as smokeless powders, used in small arms ammunition, cannons, rockets, propellant-actuated devices and similar articles.

SPECIAL INDUSTRIAL EXPLOSIVE DEVICE. An explosive power pack containing an explosive charge in the form of a cartridge or construction device. The term includes but is not limited to explosive rivets, explosive bolts, explosive charges for driving pins or studs, cartridges for explosive-actuated power tools and charges of explosives used in automotive air bag inflators, jet tapping of open hearth furnaces and jet perforation of oil well casings.

THEFT RESISTANT. Construction designed to deter illegal entry into facilities for the storage of explosive materials.

Records of the receipt, handling, use or disposal of explosive materials, and reports of any accidents, thefts or unauthorized activities involving explosive materials shall conform to the requirements of this section.

The permittee shall maintain a record of all transactions involving receipt, removal, use or disposal of explosive materials. Such a record shall be maintained for a period of five years, and shall be furnished to the fire code official for inspection upon request.

Exception: Where only Division 1.4G (consumer fireworks) are handled, records need only be maintained for a period of three years.

The loss, theft or unauthorized removal of explosive materials from a magazine or permitted facility shall be reported to the fire code official, local law enforcement authorities and the U.S. Department of Treasury, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms within 24 hours.

Exception: Loss of Division 1.4G (consumer fireworks) need not be reported to the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms.

Accidents involving the use of explosives, explosive materials and fireworks, which result in injuries or property damage, shall be reported to the fire code official immediately.
The pyrotechnic display operator or blaster in charge shall keep a record of all aerial shells that fail to fire or charges that fail to detonate.
Manufacturers of explosive materials and fireworks shall maintain records of chemicals, chemical compounds and mixtures required by DOL 29 CFR, Part 1910.1200, and Section 407.
Current safety rules covering the operation of magazines, as described in Section 3304.7, shall be posted on the interior of the magazine in a visible location.
Storage of explosives and explosive materials, small arms ammunition, small arms primers, propellant-actuated cartridges and smokeless propellants in magazines shall comply with the provisions of this section.

Explosives and explosive materials, and Division 1.3G fireworks shall be stored in magazines constructed, located, operated and maintained in accordance with the provisions of Section 3304 and NFPA 495 or NFPA 1124.

Exceptions:

1. Storage of fireworks at display sites in accordance with Section 3308.5 and NFPA 1123 or NFPA 1126.

2. Portable or mobile magazines not exceeding 120 square feet (11 m2) in area shall not be required to comply with the requirements of the International Building Code.

The storage of explosives and explosive materials in magazines shall comply with Table 3304.3.

TABLE 3304.3
STORAGE AMOUNTS AND MAGAZINE REQUIREMENTS FOR EXPLOSIVES, EXPLOSIVE MATERIALS AND
FIREWORKS, 1.3G MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA

NEW UN/ DOTn DIVISION

OLD DOTn CLASS

ATF/OSHA CLASS

INDOORa (pounds)

OUTDOOR (pounds)

MAGAZINE TYPE REQUIRED

Unprotected

Cabinet

Sprinklers

Sprinklers & cabinet

1

2

3

4

5

1.1b

A

High

0

0

1

2

1

X

X

X

1.2

A

High

0

0

1

2

1

X

X

X

1.2

B

Low

0

0

1

1

1

X

X

X

X

1.3

B

Low

0

0

5

10

1

X

X

X

X

1.4c

B

Low

0

0

50

100

1

X

X

X

X

1.5

C

Low

0

0

1

2

1

X

X

X

X

1.5

Blasting Agent

Blasting Agent

0

0

1

2

1

X

X

X

X

X

1.6

N/A

N/A

0

0

1

2

1

X

X

X

X

X

For SI: 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 pound per gallon = 0.12 kg per liter, 1 ounce = 28.35 g.

a. A factor of 10 pounds per gallon shall be used for converting pounds (solid) to gallons (liquid) in accordance with Section 2703.1.2.

b. Black powder shall be stored in a Type 1, 2, 3 or 4 magazine as provided for in Section 3304.3.1.

c. This table shall not apply to consumer fireworks, 1.4G.

Explosive materials classified as Division 1.1 or 1.2 or formerly classified as Class A by the U.S. Department of Transportation shall be stored in Type 1, 2 or 3 magazines.

Exceptions:

1. Black powder shall be stored in a Type 1, 2, 3 or 4 magazine.

2. Cap-sensitive explosive material that is demonstrated not to be bullet sensitive shall be stored in a Type 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 magazine.

Explosive materials that are not cap sensitive shall be stored in a Type 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 magazine.
For quantity and distance purposes, detonating cord of 50 grains per foot shall be calculated as equivalent to 8 pounds (4 kg) of high explosives per 1,000 feet (305 m). Heavier or lighter core loads shall be rated proportionally.
Detonators shall be stored in a separate magazine for blasting supplies and shall not be stored in a magazine with other explosive materials.
The use of magazines for storage of explosives and explosive materials shall comply with Sections 3304.5.1 through 3304.5.3.3.
The use of indoor magazines for storage of explosives and explosive materials shall comply with the requirements of this section.
The use of indoor magazines for storage of explosives and explosive materials shall be limited to occupancies of Group F, H, M or S, and research and development laboratories.

Indoor magazines shall comply with the following construction requirements:

1. Construction shall be fire resistant and theft resistant.

2. Exterior shall be painted red.

3. Base shall be fitted with wheels, casters or rollers to facilitate removal from the building in an emergency.

4. Lid or door shall be marked with conspicuous white lettering not less than 3 inches (76 mm) high and minimum 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) stroke, reading EXPLOSIVES—KEEP FIRE AWAY.

5. The least horizontal dimension shall not exceed the clear width of the entrance door.

Not more than 50 pounds (23 kg) of explosives or explosive materials shall be stored within an indoor magazine.

Exception: Day boxes used for the storage of in-process material in accordance with Section 3305.6.4.1.

Indoor magazines shall not be used within buildings containing Group R occupancies.
Indoor magazines shall be located within 10 feet (3048 mm) of an entrance and only on floors at or having ramp access to the exterior grade level.
Not more than two indoor magazines shall be located in the same building. Where two such magazines are located in the same building, one magazine shall be used solely for the storage of not more than 5,000 detonators.
When two magazines are located in the same building, they shall be separated by a distance of not less than 10 feet (3048 mm).

All outdoor magazines other than Type 3 shall be located so as to comply with Table 3304.5.2(2) or Table 3304.5.2(3) as set forth in Tables 3301.8.1(1) through 3301.8.1(3). Where a magazine or group of magazines, as described in Section 3304.5.2.2, contains different classes of explosive materials, and Division 1.1 materials are present, the required separations for the magazine or magazine group as a whole shall comply with Table 3304.5.2(2).

TABLE 3304.5.2(1)
AMERICAN TABLE OF DISTANCES FOR STORAGE OF EXPLOSIVES AS APPROVED BY THE INSTITUTE OF MAKERS
OF EXPLOSIVES AND REVISED JUNE 1991
a

QUANTITY OF EXPLOSIVE MATERIALSc

DISTANCES IN FEET

Inhabited buildings

Public highways with traffic volume less than 3,000 vehicles per day

Public highways with traffic volume greater than 3,000 vehicles per day and passenger railways

Separation of magazinesd

Pounds over

Pounds not over

Barricaded

Unbarricaded

Barricaded

Unbarricaded

Barricaded

Unbarricaded

Barricaded

Unbarricaded

0

5

70

140

30

60

51

102

6

12

5

10

90

180

35

70

64

128

8

16

10

20

110

220

45

90

81

162

10

20

20

30

125

250

50

100

93

186

11

22

30

40

140

280

55

110

103

206

12

24

40

50

150

300

60

120

110

220

14

28

50

75

170

340

70

140

127

254

15

30

75

100

190

380

75

150

139

278

16

32

100

125

200

400

80

160

150

300

18

36

125

150

215

430

85

170

159

318

19

38

150

200

235

470

95

190

175

350

21

42

200

250

255

510

105

210

189

378

23

46

250

300

270

540

110

220

201

402

24

48

300

400

295

590

120

240

221

442

27

54

400

500

320

640

130

260

238

476

29

58

500

600

340

680

135

270

253

506

31

62

600

700

355

710

145

290

266

532

32

64

700

800

375

750

150

300

278

556

33

66

800

900

390

780

155

310

289

578

35

70

900

1,000

400

800

160

320

300

600

36

72

1,000

1,200

425

850

165

330

318

636

39

78

1,200

1,400

450

900

170

340

336

672

41

82

1,400

1,600

470

940

175

350

351

702

43

86

1,600

1,800

490

980

180

360

366

732

44

88

1,800

2,000

505

1,010

185

370

378

756

45

90

2,000

2,500

545

1,090

190

380

408

816

49

98

2,500

3,000

580

1,160

195

390

432

864

52

104

3,000

4,000

635

1,270

210

420

474

948

58

116

4,000

5,000

685

1,370

225

450

513

1,026

61

122

5,000

6,000

730

1,460

235

470

546

1,092

65

130

6,000

7,000

770

1,540

245

490

573

1,146

68

136

7,000

8,000

800

1,600

250

500

600

1,200

72

144

8,000

9,000

835

1,670

255

510

624

1,248

75

150

9,000

10,000

865

1,730

260

520

645

1,290

78

156

10,000

12,000

875

1,750

270

540

687

1,374

82

164

(continued)

TABLE 3304.5.2(1)–continued
AMERICAN TABLE OF DISTANCES FOR STORAGE OF EXPLOSIVES AS APPROVED BY THE INSTITUTE OF MAKERS
OF EXPLOSIVES AND REVISED JUNE 1991
a

QUANTITY OF EXPLOSIVE MATERIALSc

DISTANCES IN FEET

Inhabited buildings

Public highways with traffic volume less than 3,000 vehicles per day

Public highways with traffic volume greater than 3,000 vehicles per day and passenger railways

Separation of magazinesd

Pounds over

Pounds not over

Barricaded

Unbarricaded

Barricaded

Unbarricaded

Barricaded

Unbarricaded

Barricaded

Unbarricaded

12,000

14,000

885

1,770

275

550

723

1,446

87

174

14,000

16,000

900

1,800

280

560

756

1,512

90

180

16,000

18,000

940

1,880

285

570

786

1,572

94

188

18,000

20,000

975

1,950

290

580

813

1,626

98

196

20,000

25,000

1,055

2,000

315

630

876

1,752

105

210

25,000

30,000

1,130

2,000

340

680

933

1,866

112

224

30,000

35,000

1,205

2,000

360

720

981

1,962

119

238

35,000

40,000

1,275

2,000

380

760

1,026

2,000

124

248

40,000

45,000

1,340

2,000

400

800

1,068

2,000

129

258

45,000

50,000

1,400

2,000

420

840

1,104

2,000

135

270

50,000

55,000

1,460

2,000

440

880

1,140

2,000

140

280

55,000

60,000

1,515

2,000

455

910

1,173

2,000

145

290

60,000

65,000

1,565

2,000

470

940

1,206

2,000

150

300

65,000

70,000

1,610

2,000

485

970

1,236

2,000

155

310

70,000

75,000

1,655

2,000

500

1,000

1,263

2,000

160

320

75,000

80,000

1,695

2,000

510

1,020

1,293

2,000

165

330

80,000

85,000

1,730

2,000

520

1,040

1,317

2,000

170

340

85,000

90,000

1,760

2,000

530

1,060

1,344

2,000

175

350

90,000

95,000

1,790

2,000

540

1,080

1,368

2,000

180

360

95,000

100,000

1,815

2,000

545

1,090

1,392

2,000

185

370

100,000

110,000

1,835

2,000

550

1,100

1,437

2,000

195

390

110,000

120,000

1,855

2,000

555

1,110

1,479

2,000

205

410

120,000

130,000

1,875

2,000

560

1,120

1,521

2,000

215

430

130,000

140,000

1,890

2,000

565

1,130

1,557

2,000

225

450

140,000

150,000

1,900

2,000

570

1,140

1,593

2,000

235

470

150,000

160,000

1,935

2,000

580

1,160

1,629

2,000

245

490

160,000

170,000

1,965

2,000

590

1,180

1,662

2,000

255

510

170,000

180,000

1,990

2,000

600

1,200

1,695

2,000

265

530

180,000

190,000

2,010

2,010

605

1,210

1,725

2,000

275

550

190,000

200,000

2,030

2,030

610

1,220

1,755

2,000

285

570

(continued)

TABLE 3304.5.2(1)–continued
AMERICAN TABLE OF DISTANCES FOR STORAGE OF EXPLOSIVES AS APPROVED BY THE INSTITUTE OF MAKERS
OF EXPLOSIVES AND REVISED JUNE 1991
a

QUANTITY OF EXPLOSIVE MATERIALSc

DISTANCES IN FEET

Inhabited buildings

Public highways with traffic volume less than 3,000 vehicles per day

Public highways with traffic volume greater than 3,000 vehicles per day and passenger railways

Separation of magazinesd

Pounds over

Pounds not over

Barricaded

Unbarricaded

Barricaded

Unbarricaded

Barricaded

Unbarricaded

Barricaded

Unbarricaded

200,000

210,000

2,055

2,055

620

1,240

1,782

2,000

295

590

210,000

230,000

2,100

2,100

635

1,270

1,836

2,000

315

630

230,000

250,000

2,155

2,155

650

1,300

1,890

2,000

335

670

250,000

275,000

2,215

2,215

670

1,340

1,950

2,000

360

720

275,000

300,000b

2,275

2,275

690

1,380

2,000

2,000

385

770

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound = 0.454 kg.

a. This table applies only to the manufacture and permanent storage of commercial explosive materials. It is not applicable to transportation of explosives or any handling or temporary storage necessary or incident thereto. It is not intended to apply to bombs, projectiles or other heavily encased explosives.

b. Storage in excess of 300,000 pounds of explosive materials in one magazine is not allowed.

c. Where a manufacturing building on an explosive materials plant site is designed to contain explosive materials, such building shall be located with respect to its proximity to inhabited buildings, public highways and passenger railways based on the maximum quantity of explosive materials permitted to be in the building at one time.

d. Where two or more storage magazines are located on the same property, each magazine shall comply with the minimum distances specified from inhabited buildings, railways and highways, and, in addition, they should be separated from each other by not less than the distances shown for separation of magazines, except that the quantity of explosives in detonator magazines shall govern in regard to the spacing of said detonator magazines from magazines containing other explosive materials. Where any two or more magazines are separated from each other by less than the specified separation of magazines distances, then two or more such magazines, as a group, shall be considered as one magazine, and the total quantity of explosive materials stored in such group shall be treated as if stored in a single magazine located on the site of any magazine in the group and shall comply with the minimum distances specified from other magazines, inhabited buildings, railways and highways.

TABLE 3304.5.2(2)
TABLE OF DISTANCES (Q-D) FOR BUILDINGS CONTAINING EXPLOSIVES—DIVISION 1.3 MASS-FIRE HAZARDa, b, c

QUANTITY OF DIVISION 1.3 EXPLOSIVES
(NET EXPLOSIVES WEIGHT)

DISTANCES IN FEET

Pounds over

Pounds not over

Inhabited Building

Distance (IBD)

Distance to Public Traffic Route (PTR)

Intermagazine Distance (IMD)

Intraline Distance (ILD) or Intraplant Distance (IPD)

0

1,000

75

75

50

50

1,000

5,000

115

115

75

75

5,000

10,000

150

150

100

100

10,000

20,000

190

190

125

125

20,000

30,000

215

215

145

145

30,000

40,000

235

235

155

155

40,000

50,000

250

250

165

165

50,000

60,000

260

260

175

175

60,000

70,000

270

270

185

185

70,000

80,000

280

280

190

190

80,000

90,000

295

295

195

195

90,000

100,000

300

300

200

200

100,000

200,000

375

375

250

250

200,000

300,000

450

450

300

300

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound = 0.454 kg.

a. Black powder, when stored in magazines, is defined as low explosive by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (BATF).

b. For quantities less than 1,000 pounds, the required distances are those specified for 1,000 pounds. The use of lesser distances is allowed when supported by approved test data and/or analysis.

c. Linear interpolation of explosive quantities between table entries is allowed.

TABLE 3304.5.2(3)
TABLE OF DISTANCES (Q-D) FOR BUILDINGS CONTAINING EXPLOSIVES —DIVISION 1.4 c

QUANTITY OF DIVISION 1.4 EXPLOSIVES (NET EXPLOSIVES WEIGHT)

DISTANCES IN FEET

Pounds over

Pounds not over

Inhabited Building
Distance (IBD)

Distance to Public Traffic Route (PTR)

Intermagazine Distancea, b (IMD)

Intraline Distance (ILD) or Intraplant Distancea (IPD)

50

Not Limited

100

100

50

50

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound = 0.454 kg.

a. A separation distance of 100 feet is required for buildings of other than Type I or Type II construction as defined in the International Building Code.

b. For earth-covered magazines, no specified separation is required.

1. Earth cover material used for magazines shall be relatively cohesive. Solid or wet clay and similar types of soil are too cohesive and shall not be used. Soil shall be free from unsanitary organic matter, trash, debris and stones heavier than 10 pounds or larger than 6 inches in diameter. Compaction and surface preparation shall be provided, as necessary, to maintain structural integrity and avoid erosion. Where cohesive material cannot be used, as in sandy soil, the earth cover over magazines shall be finished with a suitable material to ensure structural integrity.

2. The earth fill or earth cover between earth-covered magazines shall be either solid or sloped, in accordance with the requirements of other construction features, but a minimum of 2 feet of earth cover shall be maintained over the top of each magazines. To reduce erosion and facilitate maintenance operations, the cover shall have a slope of 2 horizontal to 1 vertical.

c. Restricted to articles, including articles packaged for shipment, that are not regulated as an explosive under Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms regulations, or unpacked articles used in process operations that do not propagate a detonation or deflagration between articles. This table shall not apply to consumer fireworks, 1.4G.

Where two or more storage magazines are located on the same property, each magazine shall comply with the minimum distances specified from inhabited buildings, public transportation routes and operating buildings. Magazines shall be separated from each other by not less than the intermagazine distances (IMD) shown for the separation of magazines.
Where two or more magazines are separated from each other by less than the intermagazine distances (IMD), such magazines as a group shall be considered as one magazine and the total quantity of explosive materials stored in the group shall be treated as if stored in a single magazine. The location of the group of magazines shall comply with the intermagazine distances (IMD) specified from other magazines or magazine groups, inhabited buildings (IBD), public transportation routes (PTR) and operating buildings (ILD or IPD) as required.
Type 3 magazines shall comply with Sections 3304.5.3.1 through 3304.5.3.3.
Wherever practicable, Type 3 magazines shall be located away from neighboring inhabited buildings, railways, highways and other magazines in accordance with Table 3304.5.2(2) or 3304.5.2(3) as applicable.
Type 3 magazines shall be attended when explosive materials are stored within. Explosive materials shall be removed to appropriate storage magazines for unattended storage at the end of the work day.
Not more than two Type 3 magazines shall be located at the same blasting site. Where two Type 3 magazines are located at the same blasting site, one magazine shall used solely for the storage of detonators.
Magazines shall be constructed in accordance with Sections 3304.6.1 through 3304.6.5.2.
The ground around a magazine shall be graded so that water drains away from the magazine.
Magazines requiring heat shall be heated as prescribed in NFPA 495 by either hot water radiant heating within the magazine or by indirect warm air heating.
When lighting is necessary within a magazine, electric safety flashlights or electric safety lanterns shall be used, except as provided in NFPA 495.
In other than Type 5 magazines, there shall be no exposed ferrous metal on the interior of a magazine containing packages of explosives.
Property upon which Type 1 magazines and outdoor magazines of Types 2, 4 and 5 are located shall be posted with signs stating: EXPLOSIVES—KEEP OFF. These signs shall be of contrasting colors with a minimum letter height of 3 inches (76 mm) with a minimum brush stroke of 1/2 inch (12.7 mm). The signs shall be located to minimize the possibility of a bullet shot at the sign hitting the magazine.

At the entrance to explosive material manufacturing and storage sites, all access roads shall be posted with the following warning sign or other approved sign:

DANGER!
NEVER FIGHT EXPLOSIVE FIRES.
EXPLOSIVES ARE STORED ON THIS SITE
CALL _______.

The sign shall be weather-resistant with a reflective surface and have lettering at least 2 inches (51 mm) high.

Type 5 magazines containing Division 1.5 blasting agents shall be prominently placarded as required during transportation by DOTn 49 CFR, Part 172 and DOTy 27 CFR, Part 55.
Magazines shall be operated in accordance with Sections 3304.7.1 through 3304.7.9.
Magazines shall be kept locked in the manner prescribed in NFPA 495 at all times except during placement or removal of explosives or inspection.
Smoking, matches, flame-producing devices, open flames, firearms and firearms cartridges shall not be allowed inside of or within 50 feet (15 240 mm) of magazines.
The area located around a magazine shall be kept clear of brush, dried grass, leaves, trash, debris and similar combustible materials for a distance of 25 feet (7620 mm).
Combustible materials shall not be stored within 50 feet (15 240 mm) of magazines.
Containers of explosive materials, except fiberboard containers, and packages of damaged or deteriorated explosive materials or fireworks shall not be unpacked or repacked inside or within 50 feet (15 240 mm) of a magazine or in close proximity to other explosive materials.
Packages of explosive materials that have been opened shall be closed before being placed in a magazine.
Tools used for the opening and closing of packages of explosive materials, other than metal slitters for opening paper, plastic or fiberboard containers, shall be made of nonsparking materials.
Empty containers and paper and fiber packaging materials that previously contained explosive materials shall be disposed of or reused in a approved manner.
Metal tools, other than nonferrous transfer conveyors and ferrous metal conveyor stands protected by a coat of paint, shall not be stored in a magazine containing explosive materials or detonators.
Magazines shall be used exclusively for the storage of explosive materials, blasting materials and blasting accessories.
Corresponding grades and brands of explosive materials shall be stored together and in such a manner that the grade and brand marks are visible. Stocks shall be stored so as to be easily counted and checked. Packages of explosive materials shall be stacked in a stable manner not exceeding 8 feet (2438 mm) in height.
When explosive material is removed from a magazine for use, the oldest usable stocks shall be removed first.
Maintenance of magazines shall comply with Sections 3304.8.1 through 3304.8.3.
Magazine floors shall be regularly swept and be kept clean, dry and free of grit, paper, empty packages and rubbish. Brooms and other cleaning utensils shall not have any spark-producing metal parts. Sweepings from magazine floors shall be disposed of in accordance with the manufacturers’ approved instructions.
Explosive materials shall be removed from the magazine before making repairs to the interior of a magazine. Explosive materials shall be removed from the magazine before making repairs to the exterior of the magazine where there is a possibility of causing a fire. Explosive materials removed from a magazine under repair shall either be placed in another magazine or placed a safe distance from the magazine, where they shall be properly guarded and protected until repairs have been completed. Upon completion of repairs, the explosive materials shall be promptly returned to the magazine. Floors shall be cleaned before and after repairs.
Magazine floors stained with liquid shall be dealt with according to instructions obtained from the manufacturer of the explosive material stored in the magazine.
Magazines containing explosive materials shall be opened and inspected at maximum seven-day intervals. The inspection shall determine whether there has been an unauthorized or attempted entry into a magazine or an unauthorized removal of a magazine or its contents.
Explosive materials shall be disposed of in accordance with Sections 3304.10.1 through 3304.10.7.
The fire code official shall be notified immediately when deteriorated or leaking explosive materials are determined to be dangerous or unstable and in need of disposal.
When an explosive material has deteriorated to an extent that it is in an unstable or dangerous condition, or when a liquid has leaked from an explosive material, the person in possession of such material shall immediately contact the material’s manufacturer to obtain disposal and handling instructions.
The work of destroying explosive materials shall be directed by persons experienced in the destruction of explosive materials.
Explosive materials and fireworks recovered from blasting or display misfires shall be placed in a magazine until an experienced person has determined the proper method for disposal.
Sites for the destruction of explosive materials and fireworks shall be approved and located at the maximum practicable safe distance from inhabited buildings, public highways, operating buildings and all other exposures to ensure keeping air blast and ground vibration to a minimum. The location of disposal sites shall be no closer to magazines, inhabited buildings, railways, highways and other rights-of-way than is allowed by Tables 3304.5.2(1), 3304.5.2(2) and 3304.5.2(3). When possible, barricades shall be utilized between the destruction site and inhabited buildings. Areas where explosives are detonated or burned shall be posted with adequate warning signs.
Unless an approved burning site has been thoroughly saturated with water and has passed a safety inspection, 48 hours shall elapse between the completion of a burn and the placement of scrap explosive materials for a subsequent burn.
Once an explosive burn operation has been started, personnel shall relocate to a safe location where adequate protection from air blast and flying debris is provided. Personnel shall not return to the burn area until the person in charge has inspected the burn site and determined that it is safe for personnel to return.

The manufacture, assembly and testing of explosives, ammunition, blasting agents and fireworks shall comply with the requirements of this section and NFPA 495 or NFPA 1124.

Exceptions:

1. The hand loading of small arms ammunition prepared for personal use and not offered for resale.

2. The mixing and loading of blasting agents at blasting sites in accordance with NFPA 495.

3. The use of binary explosives or plosophoric materials in blasting or pyrotechnic special effects applications in accordance with NFPA 495 or NFPA 1126.

Emergency plans, emergency drills, employee training and hazard communication shall conform to the provisions of this section and Sections 404, 405, 406 and 407.
Detailed Hazardous Materials Management Plans (HMMP) and Hazardous Materials Inventory Statements (HMIS) complying with the requirements of Section 407 shall be prepared and submitted to the local emergency planning committee, the fire code official and the local fire department.
A copy of the required HMMP and HMIS shall be maintained on site and furnished to the fire code official on request.
Workers who handle explosives or explosive charges or dispose of explosives shall be trained in the hazards of the materials and processes in which they are to be engaged and with the safety rules governing such materials and processes.
Approved emergency procedures shall be formulated for each plant which will include personal instruction in any emergency that may be anticipated. All personnel shall be made aware of an emergency warning signal.

Explosives manufacturing buildings and fireworks manufacturing buildings, including those where explosive charges are assembled, manufactured, prepared or loaded utilizing Division 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4 or 1.5 explosives, shall be separated from all other buildings, including magazines, within the confines of the manufacturing plant, at a distance not less than those shown in Table 3305.3 or 3304.5.2(3), as appropriate.

Exception: Fireworks manufacturing buildings separated in accordance with NFPA 1124.

The quantity of explosives in an operating building shall be the net weight of all explosives contained therein. Distances shall be based on the hazard division requiring the greatest separation, unless the aggregate explosive weight is divided by approved walls or shields designed for that purpose. When dividing a quantity of explosives into smaller stacks, a suitable barrier or adequate separation distance shall be provided to prevent propagation from one stack to another.

When distance is used as the sole means of separation within a building, such distance shall be established by testing. Testing shall demonstrate that propagation between stacks will not result. Barriers provided to protect against explosive effects shall be designed and installed in accordance with approved standards.

TABLE 3305.3
MINIMUM INTRALINE (INTRAPLANT) SEPARATION DISTANCES (ILD OR IPD) BETWEEN
BARRICADED OPERATING BUILDINGS CONTAINING EXPLOSIVES—DIVISION 1.1, 1.2 OR 1.5—MASS EXPLOSION HAZARDa

NET EXPLOSIVE WEIGHT

NET EXPLOSIVE WEIGHT

Pounds over

Pounds not over

Intraline Distance (ILD) or Intraplant Distance (IPD) (feet)

Pounds over

Pounds not over

Intraline Distance (ILD) or Intraplant Distance (IPD) (feet)

0

50

30

20,000

25,000

265

50

100

40

25,000

30,000

280

100

200

50

30,000

35,000

295

200

300

60

35,000

40,000

310

300

400

65

40,000

45,000

320

400

500

70

45,000

50,000

330

500

600

75

50,000

55,000

340

600

700

80

55,000

60,000

350

700

800

85

60,000

65,000

360

800

900

90

65,000

70,000

370

900

1,000

95

70,000

75,000

385

1,000

1,500

105

75,000

80,000

390

1,500

2,000

115

80,000

85,000

395

2,000

3,000

130

85,000

90,000

400

3,000

4,000

140

90,000

95,000

410

4,000

5,000

150

95,000

100,000

415

5,000

6,000

160

100,000

125,000

450

6,000

7,000

170

125,000

150,000

475

7,000

8,000

18

150,000

175,000

500

8,000

9,000

190

175,000

200,000

525

9,000

10,000

200

200,000

225,000

550

10,000

15,000

225

225,000

250,000

575

15,000

20,000

245

250,000

275,000

600

275,000

300,000

635

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound = 0.454 kg.

a. Where a building or magazine containing explosives is not barricaded, the intraline distances shown in this table shall be doubled.

When an operating building on an explosive materials plant site is designed to contain explosive materials, such a building shall be located away from inhabited buildings, public traffic routes and magazines in accordance with Table 3304.5.2(2) or 3304.5.2(3) as appropriate, based on the maximum quantity of explosive materials permitted to be in the building at one time (see Section 3301.8).

Exception: Fireworks manufacturing buildings constructed and operated in accordance with NFPA 1124.

In addition to the requirements of Section 3301.8 to determine the net explosive weight for materials stored or used in operating buildings, quantities of explosive materials stored in magazines located at distances less than intraline distances from the operating building shall be added to the contents of the operating building to determine the net explosive weight for the operating building.
The storage of explosive materials located in indoor magazines in operating buildings shall be limited to a net explosive weight not to exceed 50 pounds (23 kg).
The storage of explosive materials in outdoor magazines located at less than intraline distances from operating buildings shall be limited to a net explosive weight not to exceed 50 pounds (23 kg).
The storage of explosive materials in outdoor magazines in quantities exceeding 50 pounds (23 kg) net explosive weight shall be limited to storage in outdoor magazines located not less than intraline distances from the operating building in accordance with Section 3304.5.2.
The aggregate quantity of explosive materials stored in any combination of indoor magazines or outdoor magazines located at less than the intraline distances from an operating building shall not exceed 50 pounds (23 kg).

Buildings or rooms that exceed the maximum allowable quantity per control area of explosive materials shall be operated in accordance with this section and constructed in accordance with the requirements of the International Building Code for Group H occupancies.

Exception: Fireworks manufacturing buildings constructed and operated in accordance with NFPA 1124.

Explosives dust shall not be exhausted to the atmosphere.
When collecting explosives dust, a wet collector system shall be used. Wetting agents shall be compatible with the explosives. Collector systems shall be interlocked with process power supplies so that the process cannot continue without the collector systems also operating.
Explosives dust shall be removed from the collection chamber as often as necessary to prevent overloading. The entire system shall be cleaned at a frequency that will eliminate hazardous concentrations of explosives dust in pipes, tubing and ducts.
Squirrel cage blowers shall not be used for exhausting hazardous fumes, vapors or gases. Only nonferrous fan blades shall be used for fans located within the ductwork and through which hazardous materials are exhausted. Motors shall be located outside the duct.
Work stations shall be separated by distance, barrier or other approved alternatives so that fire in one station will not ignite material in another work station. Where necessary, the operator shall be protected by a personnel shield located between the operator and the explosive device or explosive material being processed. This shield and its support shall be capable of withstanding a blast from the maximum amount of explosives allowed behind it.
Operations involving explosives shall comply with Sections 3305.6.1 through 3305.6.10.
When the type of material and processing warrants, mechanical operations involving explosives in excess of 1 pound (0.454 kg) shall be carried on at isolated stations or at intraplant distances, and machinery shall be controlled from remote locations behind barricades or at separations so that workers will be at a safe distance while machinery is operating.
The work area where the screening, grinding, blending and other processing of static-sensitive explosives or pyrotechnic materials is done shall be provided with approved static controls.
Bulk explosives shall be kept in approved, nonsparking containers when not being used or processed. Explosives shall not be stored or transported in open containers.
The quantity of explosives at any particular work station shall be limited to that posted on the load limit signs for the individual work station. The total quantity of explosives for multiple workstations shall not exceed that established by the intraplant distances in Table 3305.3 or 3304.5.2(3), as appropriate.
Magazines used for storage in processing areas shall be in accordance with the requirements of Section 3304.5.1. All explosive materials shall be removed to appropriate storage magazines for unattended storage at the end of the work day. The contents of indoor magazines shall be added to the quantity of explosives contained at individual workstations and the total quantity of material stored, processed or used shall be utilized to establish the intraplant separation distances indicated by Table 3305.3 or 3304.5.2(3), as appropriate.
Approved receptacles with covers shall be provided for each location for disposing of waste material and debris. These waste receptacles shall be emptied and cleaned as often as necessary but not less than once each day or at the end of each shift.
General safety rules and operating instructions governing the particular operation or process conducted at that location shall be available at each location.
The number of occupants in each process building and in each magazine shall not exceed the number necessary for proper conduct of production operations.

Not more than 500 pounds (227 kg) of pyrotechnic or explosive composition, including not more than 10 pounds (5 kg) of salute powder shall be allowed at one time in any process building or area. All compositions not in current use shall be kept in covered nonferrous containers.

Exception: Composition that has been loaded or pressed into tubes or other containers as consumer fireworks.

The maximum number of occupants and maximum weight of pyrotechnic and explosive composition permitted in each process building shall be posted in a conspicuous location in each process building or magazine.

Fireworks, explosives or explosive charges in explosive materials manufacturing, assembly or testing shall not be stored near any source of heat.

Exception: Approved drying or curing operations.

Maintenance and repair of explosives-manufacturing facilities and areas shall comply with Section 3304.8.
Detonation of explosive materials or ignition of fireworks for testing purposes shall be done only in isolated areas at sites where distance, protection from missiles, shrapnel or flyrock, and other safeguards provides protection against injury to personnel or damage to property.
Protective clothing and equipment shall be provided to protect persons engaged in the testing, ignition or detonation of explosive materials.
When tests are being conducted or explosives are being detonated, only authorized persons shall be present. Areas where explosives are regularly or frequently detonated or burned shall be approved and posted with adequate warning signs. Warning devices shall be activated before burning or detonating explosives to alert persons approaching from any direction that they are approaching a danger zone.
Disposal of explosive materials waste from manufacturing, assembly or testing operations shall be in accordance with Section 3304.10.
Indoor storage and display of black powder, smokeless propellants and small arms ammunition shall comply with this section and NFPA 495.
Small arms ammunition shall not be stored together with Division 1.1, Division 1.2 or Division 1.3 explosives unless the storage facility is suitable for the storage of explosive materials.
Smokeless propellants shall be stored in approved shipping containers conforming to DOTn 49 CFR, Part 173.
The bulk repackaging of smokeless propellants, black powder and small arms primers shall not be performed in retail establishments.

Damaged containers shall not be repackaged.

Exception: Approved repackaging of damaged containers of smokeless propellant into containers of the same type and size as the original container.

The storage of small arms ammunition in Group R occupancies shall comply with Sections 3306.4.1 and 3306.4.2.
Propellants for personal use in quantities not exceeding 20 pounds (9 kg) of black powder or 20 pounds (9 kg) of smokeless powder shall be stored in original containers in occupancies limited to Group R-3. Smokeless powder in quantities exceeding 20 pounds (9 kg) but not exceeding 50 pounds (23 kg) kept in a wooden box or cabinet having walls of at least 1 inch (25 mm) nominal thickness shall be allowed to be stored in occupancies limited to Group R-3. Quantities exceeding these amounts shall not be stored in any Group R occupancy.
No more than 10,000 small arms primers shall be stored in occupancies limited to Group R-3.
The display and storage of small arms ammunition in Group M occupancies shall comply with this section.
Display of small arms ammunition in Group M occupancies shall comply with Sections 3306.5.1.1 through 3306.5.1.3.
No more than 20 pounds (9 kg) of smokeless propellants, each in containers of 1 pound (0.454 kg) or less capacity, shall be displayed in Group M occupancies.
No more than 1 pound (0.454 kg) of black powder shall be displayed in Group M occupancies.
No more than 10,000 small arms primers shall be displayed in Group M occupancies.
Storage of small arms ammunition shall comply with Sections 3306.5.2.1 through 3306.5.2.3.

Commercial stocks of smokeless propellants shall be stored as follows:

1. Quantities exceeding 20 pounds (9 kg), but not exceeding 100 pounds (45 kg) shall be stored in portable wooden boxes having walls of at least 1 inch (25 mm) nominal thickness.

2. Quantities exceeding 100 pounds (45 kg), but not exceeding 800 pounds (363 kg), shall be stored in nonportable storage cabinets having walls at least 1 inch (25 mm) nominal thickness. Not more than 400 pounds (182 kg) shall be stored in any one cabinet, and cabinets shall be separated by a distance of at least 25 feet (7620 mm) or by a fire partition having a fire-resistance rating of at least 1 hour.

3. Storage of quantities exceeding 800 pounds (363 kg), but not exceeding 5,000 pounds (2270 kg) in a building shall comply with all of the following:

3.1. The warehouse or storage room is unaccessible to unauthorized personnel.

3.2. Smokeless propellant shall be stored in nonportable storage cabinets having wood walls at least 1 inch (25 mm) nominal thickness and having shelves with no more than 3 feet (914 mm) of separation between shelves.

3.3. No more than 400 pounds (182 kg) is stored in any one cabinet.

3.4. Cabinets shall be located against walls of the storage room or warehouse with at least 40 feet (12 192 mm) between cabinets.

3.5. The minimum required separation between cabinets shall be 20 feet (6096 mm) provided that barricades twice the height of the cabinets are attached to the wall, midway between each cabinet. The barricades must extend a minimum of 10 feet (3048 mm) outward, be firmly attached to the wall and be constructed of steel not less than 1/4 inch thick (6.4 mm), 2-inch (51 mm) nominal thickness wood, brick or concrete block.

3.6. Smokeless propellant shall be separated from materials classified as combustible liquids, flammable liquids, flammable solids or oxidizing materials by a distance of 25 feet (7620 mm) or by a fire partition having a fire-resistance rating of 1 hour.

3.7. The building shall be equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.

4. Smokeless propellants not stored according to Item 1, 2, or 3 above shall be stored in a Type 2 or 4 magazine in accordance with Section 3304 and NFPA 495.

Commercial stocks of black powder in quantities less than 50 pounds (23 kg) shall be allowed to be stored in Type 2 or 4 indoor or outdoor magazines. Quantities greater than 50 pounds (23 kg) shall be stored in outdoor Type 2 or 4 magazines. When black powder and smokeless propellants are stored together in the same magazine, the total quantity shall not exceed that permitted for black powder.

Commercial stocks of small arms primers shall be stored as follows:

1. Quantities not to exceed 750,000 small arms primers stored in a building shall be arranged such that not more than 100,000 small arms primers are stored in any one pile and piles are at least 15 feet (4572 mm) apart.

2. Quantities exceeding 750,000 small arms primers stored in a building shall comply with all of the following:

2.1. The warehouse or storage building shall not be accessible to unauthorized personnel.

2.2. Small arms primers shall be stored in cabinets. No more than 200,000 small arms primers shall be stored in any one cabinet.

2.3. Shelves in cabinets shall have vertical separation of at least 2 feet (610 mm).

2.4. Cabinets shall be located against walls of the warehouse or storage room with at least 40 feet (12 192 mm) between cabinets. The minimum required separation between cabinets shall be allowed to be reduced to 20 feet (6096 mm) provided that barricades twice the height of the cabinets are attached to the wall, midway between each cabinet. The barricades shall be firmly attached to the wall and shall be constructed of steel not less than 1/4 inch thick (6.4 mm), 2-inch (51 mm) nominal thickness wood, brick or concrete block.

2.5. Small arms primers shall be separated from materials classified as combustible liquids, flammable liquids, flammable solids or oxidizing materials by a distance of 25 feet (7620 mm) by a fire partition having a fire-resistance rating of 1 hour.

2.6. The building shall be protected throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.

3. Small arms primers not stored in accordance with Item 1 or 2 of this section shall be stored in a magazine meeting the requirements of Section 3304 and NFPA 495.

Blasting operations shall be conducted only by approved, competent operators familiar with the required safety precautions and the hazards involved and in accordance with the provisions of NFPA 495.
Blasting operations shall be performed in accordance with the instructions of the manufacturer of the explosive materials being used.
When blasting is done in a congested area or in close proximity to a structure, railway or highway, or any other installation, precautions shall be taken to minimize earth vibrations and air blast effects. Blasting mats or other protective means shall be used to prevent fragments from being thrown.
Surface-blasting operations shall only be conducted during daylight hours between sunrise and sunset. Other blasting shall be performed during daylight hours unless otherwise approved by the fire code official.

Whenever blasting is being conducted in the vicinity of utility lines or rights-of-way, the blaster shall notify the appropriate representatives of the utilities at least 24 hours in advance of blasting, specifying the location and intended time of such blasting. Verbal notices shall be confirmed with written notice.

Exception: In an emergency situation, the time limit shall not apply when approved.

Precautions shall be taken to prevent accidental discharge of electric detonators from currents induced by radar and radio transmitters, lightning, adjacent power lines, dust and snow storms, or other sources of extraneous electricity.
Precautions shall be taken to prevent accidental initiation of nonelectric detonators from stray currents induced by lightning or static electricity.
During the time that holes are being loaded or are loaded with explosive materials, blasting agents or detonators, only authorized persons engaged in drilling and loading operations or otherwise authorized to enter the site shall be allowed at the blast site. The blast site shall be guarded or barricaded and posted. Blast site security shall be maintained until after the post-blast inspection has been completed.
Holes drilled for the loading of explosive charges shall be made and loaded in accordance with NFPA 495.
After loading for a blast is completed and before firing, excess explosive materials shall be removed from the area and returned to the proper storage facilities.
The initiation of blasts shall be by means conforming to the provisions of NFPA 495.

The blaster shall supervise the connecting of the blastholes and the connection of the loadline to the power source or initiation point. Connections shall be made progressively from the blasthole back to the initiation point.

Blasting lead lines shall remain shunted (shorted) and shall not be connected to the blasting machine or other source of current until the blast is to be fired.

No blast shall be fired until the blaster has made certain that all surplus explosive materials are in a safe place in accordance with Section 3307.10, all persons and equipment are at a safe distance or under sufficient cover and that an adequate warning signal has been given.

After the blast, the following procedures shall be observed.

1. No person shall return to the blast area until allowed to do so by the blaster in charge.

2. The blaster shall allow sufficient time for smoke and fumes to dissipate and for dust to settle before returning to or approaching the blast area.

3. The blaster shall inspect the entire blast site for misfires before allowing other personnel to return to the blast area.

Where a misfire is suspected, all initiating circuits shall be traced and a search made for unexploded charges. Where a misfire is found, the blaster shall provide proper safeguards for excluding all personnel from the blast area. Misfires shall be reported to the blasting supervisor immediately. Misfires shall be handled under the direction of the person in charge of the blasting operation in accordance with NFPA 495.
Outdoor fireworks displays, use of pyrotechnics before a proximate audience and pyrotechnic special effects in motion picture, television, theatrical and group entertainment productions shall comply with Sections 3308.2 through 3308.10 and NFPA 1123 or NFPA 1126.
Prior to issuing permits for a fireworks display, plans for the fireworks display, inspections of the display site and demonstrations of the display operations shall be approved. A plan establishing procedures to follow and actions to be taken in the event that a shell fails to ignite in, or discharge from, a mortar or fails to function over the fallout area or other malfunctions shall be provided to the fire code official.
In addition to the requirements of Section 403, permit applications for outdoor fireworks displays using Division 1.3G fireworks shall include a diagram of the location at which the fireworks display will be conducted, including the site from which fireworks will be discharged; the location of buildings, highways, overhead obstructions and utilities; and the lines behind which the audience will be restrained.
Where the separation distances required in Section 3308.4 and NFPA 1123 are unavailable or cannot be secured, fireworks displays shall be conducted in accordance with NFPA 1126 for proximate audiences. Applications for use of pyrotechnics before a proximate audience shall include plans indicating the required clearances for spectators and combustibles, crowd control measures, smoke control measures and requirements for standby personnel and equipment when provision of such personnel or equipment is required by the fire code official.
Approved fireworks displays shall include only the approved fireworks 1.3G, fireworks 1.4G, fireworks 1.4S and pyrotechnic articles, 1.4G, which shall be handled by an approved, competent operator. The approved fireworks shall be arranged, located, discharged and fired in a manner that will not pose a hazard to property or endanger any person.

Spectators, spectator parking areas, and dwellings, buildings or structures shall not be located within the display site.

Exceptions:

1. This provision shall not apply to pyrotechnic special effects and fireworks displays using Division 1.4G materials before a proximate audience in accordance with NFPA 1126.

2. This provision shall not apply to unoccupied dwellings, buildings and structures with the approval of the building owner and the fire code official.

The storage of fireworks at the display site shall comply with the requirements of this section and NFPA 1123 or NFPA 1126.
Beginning as soon as fireworks have been delivered to the display site, they shall not be left unattended.
Fireworks shall be kept dry after delivery to the display site.

Shells shall be inspected by the operator or assistants after delivery to the display site. Shells having tears, leaks, broken fuses or signs of having been wet shall be set aside and shall not be fired. Aerial shells shall be checked for proper fit in mortars prior to discharge. Aerial shells that do not fit properly shall not be fired. After the fireworks display, damaged, deteriorated or dud shells shall either be returned to the supplier or destroyed in accordance with the supplier’s instructions and Section 3304.10.

Exception: Minor repairs to fuses shall be allowed. For electrically ignited displays, attachment of electric matches and similar tasks shall be allowed.

After delivery to the display site and prior to the fireworks display, all shells shall be separated according to size and their designation as salutes.

Exception: For electrically fired displays, or displays where all shells are loaded into mortars prior to the show, there is no requirement for separation of shells according to size or their designation as salutes.

Display fireworks, 1.3G, that will be temporarily stored at the site during the fireworks display shall be stored in ready boxes located upwind and at least 25 feet (7620 mm) from the mortar placement and separated according to size and their designation as salutes.

Exception: For electrically fired fireworks displays, or fireworks displays where all shells are loaded into mortars prior to the show, there is no requirement for separation of shells according to size, their designation as salutes or for the use of ready boxes.

Mortars for firing fireworks shells shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 1123 and shall be positioned so that shells are propelled away from spectators and over the fallout area. Under no circumstances shall mortars be angled toward the spectator viewing area. Prior to placement, mortars shall be inspected for defects, such as dents, bent ends, damaged interiors and damaged plugs. Defective mortars shall not be used.
Aerial shells shall be carried to mortars by the shell body. For the purpose of loading mortars, aerial shells shall be held by the thick portion of the fuse and carefully loaded into mortars.
Whenever in the opinion of the fire code official or the operator a hazardous condition exists, the fireworks display shall be discontinued immediately until such time as the dangerous situation is corrected.

After the fireworks display, the firing crew shall conduct an inspection of the fallout area for the purpose of locating unexploded aerial shells or live components. This inspection shall be conducted before public access to the site shall be allowed. Where fireworks are displayed at night and it is not possible to inspect the site thoroughly, the operator or designated assistant shall inspect the entire site at first light.

A report identifying any shells that fail to ignite in, or discharge from, a mortar or fail to function over the fallout area or otherwise malfunction, shall be filed with the fire code official.

Any shells found during the inspection required in Section 3308.9 shall not be handled until at least 15 minutes have elapsed from the time the shells were fired. The fireworks shall then be doused with water and allowed to remain for at least 5 additional minutes before being placed in a plastic bucket or fiberboard box. The disposal instructions of the manufacturer as provided by the fireworks supplier shall then be followed in disposing of the fireworks in accordance with Section 3304.10.
Where the temporary storage of consumer fireworks, 1.4G is allowed by Section 3301.1.3, Exception 4, such storage shall comply with the applicable requirements of NFPA 1124.
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