Storage, use and handling of compressed gases in compressed gas containers, cylinders, tanks and systems shall comply with this chapter, including those gases regulated elsewhere in this code. Partially full compressed gas containers, cylinders or tanks containing residual gases shall be considered as full for the purposes of the controls required.
- Gases used as refrigerants in refrigeration systems (see Section 606).
- Compressed natural gas (CNG) for use as a vehicular fuel shall comply with Chapter 22, NFPA 52 and the International Fuel Gas Code.
Cutting and welding gases shall also comply with Chapter 26.
Cryogenic fluids shall comply with Chapter 32. Liquefied natural gas for use as a vehicular fuel shall also comply with NFPA 52 and NFPA 59A.
Compressed gases classified as hazardous materials shall also comply with Chapter 27 for general requirements and chapters addressing specific hazards, including Chapters 35 (Flammable Gases), 37 (Highly Toxic and Toxic Materials), 40 (Oxidizers, Oxidizing Gases and Oxidizing Cryogenic Fluids) and 41 (Pyrophoric Materials).
The following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, have the meanings shown herein.
COMPRESSED GAS. A material, or mixture of materials which:
- Is a gas at 68°F (20°C) or less at 14.7 psia (101 kPa) of pressure; and
- Has a boiling point of 68°F (20°C) or less at 14.7 psia (101 kPa) which is either liquefied, nonliquefied or in solution, except those gases which have no other health- or physical-hazard properties are not considered to be compressed until the pressure in the packaging exceeds 41 psia (28 kPa) at 68°F (20°C).
The states of a compressed gas are categorized as follows:
- Nonliquefied compressed gases are gases, other than those in solution, which are in a packaging under the charged pressure and are entirely gaseous at a temperature of 68°F (20°C).
- Liquefied compressed gases are gases that, in a packaging under the charged pressure, are partially liquid at a temperature of 68°F (20°C).
- Compressed gases in solution are nonliquefied gases that are dissolved in a solvent.
- Compressed gas mixtures consist of a mixture of two or more compressed gases contained in a packaging, the hazard properties of which are represented by the properties of the mixture as a whole.
COMPRESSED GAS CONTAINER. A pressure vessel designed to hold compressed gases at pressures greater than one atmosphere at 68°F (20°C) and includes cylinders, containers and tanks.
COMPRESSED GAS SYSTEM. An assembly of equipment designed to contain, distribute or transport compressed gases. It can consist of a compressed gas container or containers, reactors and appurtenances, including pumps, compressors and connecting piping and tubing.
NESTING. A method of securing flat-bottomed compressed gas cylinders upright in a tight mass using a contiguous three-point contact system whereby all cylinders within a group have a minimum of three points of contact with other cylinders, walls or bracing.
TUBE TRAILER. A semitrailer on which a number of tubular gas cylinders have been mounted. A manifold is typically provided that connects the cylinder valves enabling gas to be discharged from one or more tubes or cylinders through a piping and control system.
Pressure relief devices shall be provided to protect containers, cylinders and tanks containing compressed gases from rupture in the event of overpressure.
Pressure relief devices shall be arranged to discharge upward and unobstructed to the open air in such a manner as to prevent any impingement of escaping gas upon the container, adjacent structures or personnel.
Piping systems shall be marked in accordance with ASME A13.1. Markings used for piping systems shall consist of the content's name and include a direction-of-flow arrow. Markings shall be provided at each valve; at wall, floor or ceiling penetrations; at each change of direction; and at a minimum of every 20 feet (6096 mm) or fraction thereof throughout the piping run.
- Piping that is designed or intended to carry more than one gas at various times shall have appropriate signs or markings posted at the manifold, along the piping and at each point of use to provide clear identification and warning.
- Piping within gas manufacturing plants, gas processing plants, refineries and similar occupancies shall be marked in an approved manner.
Compressed gas containers, cylinders and tanks shall be secured to prevent falling caused by contact, vibration or seismic activity. Securing of compressed gas containers, cylinders and tanks shall be by one of the following methods:
- Securing containers, cylinders and tanks to a fixed object with one or more restraints.
- Securing containers, cylinders and tanks on a cart or other mobile device designed for the movement of compressed gas containers, cylinders or tanks.
- Nesting of compressed gas containers, cylinders and tanks at container filling or servicing facilities or in seller's warehouses not accessible to the public. Nesting shall be allowed provided the nested containers, cylinders or tanks, if dislodged, do not obstruct the required means of egress.
- Securing of compressed gas containers, cylinders and tanks to or within a rack, framework, cabinet or similar assembly designed for such use.
Exception: Compressed gas containers, cylinders and tanks in the process of examination, filling, transport or servicing.
Compressed gas containers, cylinders and tanks designed for valve protection caps or other protective devices shall have the caps or devices attached. When outlet caps or plugs are installed, they shall be in place.
Leaking, damaged or corroded compressed gas containers, cylinders and tanks shall be removed from service. Leaking, damaged or corroded compressed gas systems shall be replaced or repaired in accordance with the following:
Vaults shall be listed by a nationally recognized testing laboratory.
The vault shall completely enclose generation, compression, storage or dispensing equipment located in the vault. There shall be no openings in the vault enclosure except those necessary for vault ventilation and access, inspection, filling, emptying or venting of equipment in the vault. The walls and floor of the vault shall be constructed of reinforced concrete at least 6 inches (152 mm) thick. The top of an above-grade vault shall be constructed of noncombustible material and shall be designed to be weaker than the walls of the vault to ensure that the thrust of any explosion occurring inside the vault is directed upward.
The top of an at- or below-grade vault shall be designed to relieve safely or contain the force of an explosion occurring inside the vault. The top and floor of the vault and the tank foundation shall be designed to withstand the anticipated loading, including loading from vehicular traffic, where applicable. The walls and floor of a vault installed below grade shall be designed to withstand anticipated soil and hydrostatic loading. Vaults shall be designed to be wind and earthquake resistant, in accordance with the International Building Code.
Compressed gas containers, cylinders and tanks, except those designed for use in a horizontal position, and all compressed gas containers, cylinders and tanks containing nonliquefied gases, shall be stored in an upright position with the valve end up. An upright position shall include conditions where the container, cylinder or tank axis is inclined as much as 45 degrees (0.80 rad) from the vertical.
- Compressed gas containers with a water volume less than 1.3 gallons (5 L) are allowed to be stored in a horizontal position.
- Cylinders, containers and tanks containing nonflammable gases or cylinders, containers and tanks containing nonliquefied flammable gases, which have been secured to a pallet for transportation purposes.
Compressed gas containers, cylinders and tanks, except those designed for use in a horizontal position, and all compressed gas containers, cylinders and tanks containing nonliquefied gases, shall be used in an upright position with the valve end up. An upright position shall include conditions where the container, cylinder or tank axis is inclined as much as 45 degrees (0.80 rad) from the vertical. Use of nonflammable liquefied gases in the inverted position when the liquid phase is used shall not be prohibited provided that the container, cylinder or tank is properly secured and the dispensing apparatus is designed for liquefied gas use.
Transfer of gases between containers, cylinders and tanks shall be performed by qualified personnel using equipment and operating procedures in accordance with CGA P-1.
Gas cabinets shall be constructed in accordance with Section 2703.8.6 and the following:
- The average velocity of ventilation at the face of access ports or windows shall not be less than 200 feet per minute (61 m/s) with a minimum of 150 feet per minute (46 m/s) at any point of the access port or window.
- They shall be connected to an exhaust system.
- They shall be internally sprinklered.