About this chapter: Chapter 7 provides the technical requirements for those existing buildings that undergo Level 1 alterations as described in Section 603, which includes replacement or covering of existing materials, elements, equipment or fixtures using new materials for the same purpose. This chapter, similar to other chapters of this code, covers all building-related subjects, such as structural, mechanical, plumbing, electrical and accessibility as well as the fire and life safety issues when the alterations are classified as Level 1. The purpose of this chapter is to provide detailed requirements and provisions to identify the required improvements in the existing building elements, building spaces and building structural system. This chapter is distinguished from Chapters 8 and 9 by involving only replacement of building components with new components. In contrast, Level 2 alterations involve more space reconfiguration, and Level 3 alterations involve more extensive space reconfiguration, exceeding 50 percent of the building area.
Level 1 alterations as described in Section 602 shall comply with the requirements of this chapter. Level 1 alterations to historic buildings shall comply with this chapter, except as modified in Chapter 12.
An existing building or portion thereof shall not be altered such that the building becomes less safe than its existing condition.
Exception: Where the current level of safety or sanitation is proposed to be reduced, the portion altered shall conform to the requirements of the International Building Code.
In flood hazard areas, alterations that constitute substantial improvement shall require that the building comply with Section 1612 of the International Building Code, or Section R322 of the International Residential Code, as applicable.
Newly installed interior wall and ceiling finishes shall comply with Chapter 8 of the International Building Code.
New interior floor finish, including new carpeting used as an interior floor finish material, shall comply with Section 804 of the International Building Code.
Newly installed interior trim materials shall comply with Section 806 of the International Building Code.
In Group R-2 or R-3 buildings containing dwelling units and one- and two-family dwellings and townhouses regulated by the International Residential Code, window opening control devices or fall prevention devices complying with ASTM F2090 shall be installed where an existing window is replaced and where all of the following apply to the replacement window:
- The window is operable.
- One of the following applies:
- The window replacement includes replacement of the sash and frame.
- The window replacement includes the sash only where the existing frame remains.
- One of the following applies:
- In Group R-2 or R-3 buildings containing dwelling units, the bottom of the clear opening of the window opening is at a height less than 36 inches (915 mm) above the finished floor.
- In one- and two-family dwellings and townhouses regulated by the International Residential Code, the bottom of the clear opening of the window opening is at a height less than 24 inches (610 mm) above the finished floor.
- The window will permit openings that will allow passage of a 4-inch-diameter (102 mm) sphere when the window is in its largest opened position.
- The vertical distance from the bottom of the clear opening of the window opening to the finished grade or other surface below, on the exterior of the building, is greater than 72 inches (1829 mm).
Exception: Operable windows where the bottom of the clear opening of the window opening is located more than 75 feet (22 860 mm) above the finished grade or other surface below, on the exterior of the room, space or building, and that are provided with window fall prevention devices that comply with ASTM F2006.
Where windows are required to provide emergency escape and rescue openings in Group R-2 and R-3 occupancies and one- and two-family dwellings and townhouses regulated by the International Residential Code, replacement windows shall be exempt from the requirements of Section 1031.3 of the International Building Code and Section R310.2 of the International Residential Code, provided that the replacement window meets the following conditions:
- The replacement window is the manufacturer's largest standard size window that will fit within the existing frame or existing rough opening. The replacement window shall be permitted to be of the same operating style as the existing window or a style that provides for an equal or greater window opening area than the existing window.
- Where the replacement window is part of a change of occupancy it shall comply with Section 1011.5.6.
Window opening control devices or fall prevention devices complying with ASTM F2090 shall be permitted for use on windows required to provide emergency escape and rescue openings. After operation to release the control device allowing the window to fully open, the control device shall not reduce the net clear opening area of the window unit. Emergency escape and rescue openings shall be operational from the inside of the room without the use of keys or tools.
Bars, grilles, covers, screens or similar devices are permitted to be placed over emergency escape and rescue openings, bulkhead enclosure or window wells that serve such openings, provided all of the following conditions are met:
- The minimum net clear opening size complies with the code that was in effect at the time of construction.
- Such devices shall be releasable or removable from the inside without the use of a key, tool or force greater than that which is required for normal operation of the escape and rescue opening.
- Where such devices are installed, they shall not reduce the net clear opening of the emergency escape and rescue openings.
- Smoke alarms shall be installed in accordance with Section 907.2.11 of the International Building Code.
New work shall comply with the materials and methods requirements in the International Building Code, International Energy Conservation Code, International Mechanical Code and International Plumbing Code, as applicable, that specify material standards, detail of installation and connection, joints, penetrations and continuity of any element, component or system in the building.
The following sections of the International Fuel Gas Code shall constitute the fuel gas materials and methods requirements for Level 1 alterations.
- Chapter 3, entitled "General Regulations," except Sections 303.7 and 306.
- Chapter 4, entitled "Gas Piping Installations," except Sections 401.8 and 402.3.2.1. Sections 401.8 and 402.3 shall apply where the work being performed increases the load on the system such that the existing pipe does not meet the size required by code. Existing systems that are modified shall not require resizing as long as the load on the system is not increased and the system length is not increased even if the altered system does not meet code minimums.
- Chapter 5, entitled "Chimneys and Vents."
- Chapter 6, entitled "Specific Appliances."
Alterations shall be done in a manner that maintains the level of fire protection provided.
Alterations shall be done in a manner that maintains the level of protection provided for the means of egress.
In Group I-2, Condition 1 occupancies, where the corridor is at least 96 inches (2438 mm) wide, projections into the corridor width are permitted in accordance with Section 407.4.3 of the International Building Code.
Addition, alteration or reconfiguration of nonfixed and movable cases, counters and partitions not over 5 feet 9 inches (1753 mm) in height shall maintain the required means of egress path.
In Group E occupancies, Group B educational occupancies and Group I-4 occupancies, egress doors with locking arrangements designed to keep intruders from entering the room shall comply with Section 1010.2.8 of the International Building Code.
Materials and methods of application used for recovering or replacing an existing roof covering shall comply with the requirements of Chapter 15 of the International Building Code.
- Roof replacement or roof recover of existing low-slope roof coverings shall not be required to meet the minimum design slope requirement of 1/4 unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (2-percent slope) in Section 1507 of the International Building Code for roofs that provide positive roof drainage.
- Recovering or replacing an existing roof covering shall not be required to meet the requirement for secondary (emergency overflow) drains or scuppers in Section 1502 of the International Building Code for roofs that provide for positive roof drainage. For the purposes of this exception, existing secondary drainage or scupper systems required in accordance with this code shall not be removed unless they are replaced by secondary drains or scuppers designed and installed in accordance with Section 1502 of the International Building Code.
Roof replacement shall include the removal of all existing layers of roof coverings down to the roof deck.
Exception: Where the existing roof assembly includes an ice barrier membrane that is adhered to the roof deck, the existing ice barrier membrane shall be permitted to remain in place and covered with an additional layer of ice barrier membrane in accordance with Section 1507 of the International Building Code.
The installation of a new roof covering over an existing roof covering shall be permitted where any of the following conditions occur:
- The new roof covering is installed in accordance with the roof covering manufacturer's approved instructions.
- Complete and separate roofing systems, such as standing-seam metal roof panel systems, that are designed to transmit the roof loads directly to the building's structural system and that do not rely on existing roofs and roof coverings for support, shall not require the removal of existing roof coverings.
- Metal panel, metal shingle and concrete and clay tile roof coverings shall be permitted to be installed over existing wood shake roofs when applied in accordance with Section 705.3.
- The application of a new protective roof coating over an existing protective roof coating, a metal roof panel, built-up roof, spray polyurethane foam roofing system, metal roof shingles, mineral-surfaced roll roofing, modified bitumen roofing or, thermoset and thermoplastic single-ply roofing shall be permitted without tear off of existing roof coverings.
A roof recover shall not be permitted where any of the following conditions occur:
- Where the existing roof or roof covering is water soaked or has deteriorated to the point that the existing roof or roof covering is not adequate as a base for additional roofing.
- Where the existing roof covering is slate, clay, cement or asbestos-cement tile.
- Where the existing roof has two or more applications of any type of roof covering.
Where the application of a new roof covering over wood shingle or shake roofs creates a combustible concealed space, the entire existing surface shall be covered with gypsum board, mineral fiber, glass fiber or other approved materials securely fastened in place.
Existing slate, clay or cement tile shall be permitted for reinstallation, except that damaged, cracked or broken slate or tile shall not be reinstalled. Existing vent flashing, metal edgings, drain outlets, collars and metal counterflashings shall not be reinstalled where rusted, damaged or deteriorated. Existing ballast that is damaged, cracked or broken shall not be reinstalled. Existing aggregate surfacing materials from built-up roofs shall not be reinstalled.
Flashings shall be reconstructed in accordance with approved manufacturer's installation instructions. Metal flashing to which bituminous materials are to be adhered shall be primed prior to installation.
Where alteration work includes replacement of equipment that is supported by the building or where a reroofing permit is required, the provisions of this section shall apply.
Any existing gravity load-carrying structural element for which an alteration causes an increase in design dead, live or snow load, including snow drift effects, of more than 5 percent shall be replaced or altered as needed to carry the gravity loads required by the International Building Code for new structures.
- Buildings of Group R occupancy with not more than five dwelling or sleeping units used solely for residential purposes where the altered building complies with the conventional light-frame construction methods of the International Building Code or the provisions of the International Residential Code.
- Buildings in which the increased dead load is due entirely to the addition of a second layer of roof covering weighing 3 pounds per square foot (0.1437 kN/m2) or less over an existing single layer of roof covering.
The requirements of this section shall apply to alteration work requiring reroof permits.
Where a permit is issued for reroofing for more than 25 percent of the roof area of a building assigned to Seismic Design Category D, E or F that has parapets constructed of unreinforced masonry, the work shall include installation of parapet bracing unless an evaluation demonstrates compliance of such items. Reduced seismic forces shall be permitted.
Where roofing materials are removed from more than 50 percent of the roof diaphragm or section of a building located where the ultimate design wind speed, Vult, determined in accordance with Figure 1609.3(1) of the International Building Code, is greater than 130 mph (58 m/s), roof diaphragms, connections of the roof diaphragm to roof framing members, and roof-to-wall connections shall be evaluated for the wind loads specified in the International Building Code, including wind uplift. If the diaphragms and connections in their current condition are not capable of resisting 75 percent of those wind loads, they shall be replaced or strengthened in accordance with the loads specified in the International Building Code.
Exception: Buildings that have been demonstrated to comply with the wind load provisions in ASCE 7—88 or later editions.
In Group I-2 facilities, ambulatory care facilities and outpatient clinics, any altered portion of an existing electrical systems shall be required to meet installation and equipment requirements in NFPA 99.
Level 1 alterations to existing buildings or structures do not require the entire building or structure to comply with the energy requirements of the International Energy Conservation Code or International Residential Code. The alterations shall conform to the energy requirements of the International Energy Conservation Code or International Residential Code as they relate to new construction only.