About this chapter: Chapter 12 provides some exceptions from code requirements when the building in question has historic value. The most important criterion for application of this chapter is that the building must be essentially accredited as being of historic significance by a state or local authority after careful review of the historical value of the building. Most, if not all, states have such authorities, as do many local jurisdictions. The agencies with such authority can be located at the state or local government level or through the local chapter of the American Institute of Architects (AIA). Other considerations include the structural condition of the building (i.e., is the building structurally sound), its proposed use, its impact on life safety and how the intent of the code, if not the letter, will be achieved.
This chapter is intended to provide means for the preservation of historic buildings. Historic buildings shall comply with the provisions of this chapter relating to their repair, alteration, relocation and change of occupancy.
A historic building undergoing alteration or change of occupancy shall be investigated and evaluated. If it is intended that the building meet the requirements of this chapter, a written report shall be prepared and filed with the code official by a registered design professional where such a report is necessary in the opinion of the code official. Such report shall be in accordance with Chapter 1 and shall identify each required safety feature that is in compliance with this chapter and where compliance with other chapters of these provisions would be damaging to the contributing historic features. For buildings assigned to Seismic Design Category D, E or F, a structural evaluation describing, at a minimum, the vertical and horizontal elements of the lateral force-resisting system and any strengths or weaknesses therein shall be prepared. Additionally, the report shall describe each feature that is not in compliance with these provisions and shall demonstrate how the intent of these provisions is complied with in providing an equivalent level of safety.
Where a building in Group R-3 is used for Group A, B or M purposes such as museum tours, exhibits and other public assembly activities, or for museums less than 3,000 square feet (279 m2), the code official is authorized to determine that the occupancy is Group B where life safety conditions can be demonstrated in accordance with Section 1201.2. Adequate means of egress in such buildings, including, but not limited to, a means of maintaining doors in an open position to permit egress, a limit on building occupancy to an occupant load permitted by the means of egress capacity, a limit on occupancy of certain areas or floors, or supervision by a person knowledgeable in the emergency exiting procedures, shall be provided.
In flood hazard areas, if all proposed work, including repairs, work required because of a change of occupancy, and alterations, constitutes substantial improvement, then the existing building shall comply with Section 1612 of the International Building Code, or Section R322 of the International Residential Code, as applicable.
Exception: If a historic building will continue to be a historic building after the proposed work is completed, then the proposed work is not considered a substantial improvement. For the purposes of this exception, a historic building is any of the following:
- Listed or preliminarily determined to be eligible for listing in the National Register of Historic Places.
- Determined by the Secretary of the US Department of Interior to contribute to the historical significance of a registered historic district or a district preliminarily determined to qualify as a historic district.
- Designated as historic under a state or local historic preservation program that is approved by the Department of Interior.
Conditions determined by the code official to be unsafe shall be remedied. Work shall not be required beyond what is required to remedy the unsafe conditions.
Repairs to any portion of a historic building or structure shall be permitted with original or like materials and original methods of construction, subject to the provisions of this chapter. Hazardous materials, such as asbestos and lead-based paint, shall not be used where the code for new construction would not permit their use in buildings of similar occupancy, purpose and location.
Replacement of existing or missing features using original materials shall be permitted. Partial replacement for repairs that match the original in configuration, height and size shall be permitted.
Replacement glazing in hazardous locations shall comply with the safety glazing requirements of Chapter 24 of the International Building Code.
Exception: Glass block walls, louvered windows and jalousies repaired with like materials.
Historic buildings undergoing alterations, changes of occupancy or that are moved shall comply with Section 1203.
Every historic building that does not conform to the construction requirements specified in this code for the occupancy or use and that constitutes a distinct fire hazard as defined herein shall be provided with an approved automatic fire-extinguishing system as determined appropriate by the code official. However, an automatic fire-extinguishing system shall not be used to substitute for, or act as an alternative to, the required number of exits from any facility.
Existing door openings and corridor and stairway widths less than those specified elsewhere in this code may be approved, provided that, in the opinion of the code official, there is sufficient width and height for a person to pass through the opening or traverse the means of egress. Where approved by the code official, the front or main exit doors need not swing in the direction of the path of exit travel, provided that other approved means of egress having sufficient capacity to serve the total occupant load are provided.
In buildings with automatic sprinkler systems of Group R-1, R-2 or R-3, existing transoms in corridors and other fire-resistance-rated walls may be maintained if fixed in the closed position. A sprinkler shall be installed on each side of the transom.
The existing interior finishes shall be accepted where it is demonstrated that they are the historic finishes.
In buildings of three stories or less, exit enclosure construction shall limit the spread of smoke by the use of tight-fitting doors and solid elements. Such elements are not required to have a fire-resistance rating.
Where 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction is required by these provisions, it need not be provided, regardless of construction or occupancy, where the existing wall and ceiling finish is wood or metal lath and plaster.
Historic glazing materials are permitted in interior walls required to have a 1-hour fire-resistance rating where the opening is provided with approved smoke seals and the area affected is provided with an automatic sprinkler system.
Grand stairways shall be accepted without complying with the handrail and guard requirements. Existing handrails and guards at all stairways shall be permitted to remain, provided they are not structurally dangerous.
Existing guards shall comply with the requirements of Section 404.
The spacing between existing intermediate railings or openings in existing ornamental patterns shall be accepted. Missing elements or members of a guard may be replaced in a manner that will preserve the historic appearance of the building or structure.
Where exit sign or egress path marking location would damage the historic character of the building, alternative exit signs are permitted with approval of the code official. Alternative signs shall identify the exits and egress path.
Every historic building that cannot be made to conform to the construction requirements specified in the International Building Code for the occupancy or use and that constitutes a distinct fire hazard shall be deemed to be in compliance if provided with an approved automatic fire-extinguishing system.
Exception: Where the code official approves an alternative life-safety system.
Historic buildings undergoing a change of occupancy shall comply with the applicable provisions of Chapter 10, except as specifically permitted in this chapter. Where Chapter 10 requires compliance with specific requirements of Chapter 7, Chapter 8 or Chapter 9 and where those requirements are subject to the exceptions in Section 1202, the same exceptions shall apply to this section.
The allowable floor area for historic buildings undergoing a change of occupancy shall be permitted to exceed by 20 percent the allowable areas specified in Chapter 5 of the International Building Code.
Historic structures undergoing a change of use to a higher-hazard category in accordance with Section 1011.7 may use alternative methods to comply with the fire-resistance and exterior opening protective requirements. Such alternatives shall comply with Section 1201.2.
Required occupancy separations of 1 hour may be omitted where the building is provided with an approved automatic sprinkler system throughout.
Regardless of occupancy or use group, roof-covering materials not less than Class C, where tested in accordance with ASTM E108 or UL 790, shall be permitted where a fire-retardant roof covering is required.
Existing door openings and corridor and stairway widths less than those that would be acceptable for nonhistoric buildings under these provisions shall be approved, provided that, in the opinion of the code official, there is sufficient width and height for a person to pass through the opening or traverse the exit and that the capacity of the exit system is adequate for the occupant load, or where other operational controls to limit occupancy are approved by the code official.
Where approved by the code official, existing front doors need not swing in the direction of exit travel, provided that other approved exits having sufficient capacity to serve the total occupant load are provided.
In corridor walls required by these provisions to be fire-resistance rated, existing transoms may be maintained if fixed in the closed position, and fixed wired glass set in a steel frame or other approved glazing shall be installed on one side of the transom.
Exception: Transoms conforming to Section 1203.4 shall be accepted.
Where interior finish materials are required to comply with the fire test requirements of Section 803.1 of the International Building Code, existing nonconforming materials shall be permitted to be surfaced with an approved fire-retardant coating to achieve the required classification. Compliance with this section shall be demonstrated by testing the fire-retardant coating on the same material and achieving the required fire classification. Where the same material is not available, it shall be permitted to test on a similar material.
Exception: Existing nonconforming materials need not be surfaced with an approved fire-retardant coating where the building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with the International Building Code and the nonconforming materials can be substantiated as being historic in character.
Where 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction is required by these provisions, it need not be provided, regardless of construction or occupancy, where the existing wall and ceiling finish is wood lath and plaster.
Existing stairways shall comply with the requirements of these provisions. The code official shall grant alternatives for stairways and guards if alternative stairways are found to be acceptable or are judged to meet the intent of these provisions. Existing stairways shall comply with Section 1203.
Exception: For buildings less than 3,000 square feet (279 m2), existing conditions are permitted to remain at all stairways and guards.
The code official may accept alternative exit sign locations where the location of such signs would damage the historic character of the building or structure. Such signs shall identify the exits and exit path.
Existing historic stairways in buildings changed to a Group R-1 or R-2 occupancy shall be accepted where it can be shown that the stairway can support a 75-pounds-per-square-foot (366 kg/m2) live load.
Where it is determined by the code official that compliance with the natural light requirements of Section 1010.1 will lead to loss of historic character or historic materials in the building, the existing level of natural lighting shall be considered to be acceptable.
Historic buildings shall comply with the applicable structural provisions for the work as classified in Chapter 6.
- The code official shall be authorized to accept existing floors and existing live loads and to approve operational controls that limit the live load on any floor.
- Repair of substantial structural damage is not required to comply with Sections 405.2.3 and 405.2.4. Substantial structural damage shall be repaired in accordance with Section 405.2.1.
Conditions determined by the code official to be dangerous shall be remedied. Work shall not be required beyond what is required to remedy the dangerous condition.
Foundations of relocated historic buildings and structures shall comply with the International Building Code. Relocated historic buildings shall otherwise be considered a historic building for the purposes of this code. Relocated historic buildings and structures shall be sited so that exterior wall and opening requirements comply with the International Building Code or with the compliance alternatives of this code.