Any fire protection system for which an exception or reduction to the provisions of this code has been granted shall be considered to be a required system.
The following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this chapter, and as used elsewhere in this code, have the meanings shown herein.
- [F] ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE. A fire alarm system component such as a bell, horn, speaker, light or text display that provides audible, tactile or visible outputs, or any combination thereof.
- [F] ALARM SIGNAL. A signal indicating an emergency requiring immediate action, such as a signal indicative of fire.
- [F] ALARM VERIFICATION FEATURE. A feature of automatic fire detection and alarm systems to reduce unwanted alarms wherein smoke detectors report alarm conditions for a minimum period of time, or confirm alarm conditions within a given time period, after being automatically reset, in order to be accepted as a valid alarm-initiation signal.
- [F] ANNUNCIATOR. A unit containing one or more indicator lamps, alphanumeric displays or other equivalent means in which each indication provides status information about a circuit, condition or location.
- [F] AUDIBLE ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE. A notification appliance that alerts by the sense of hearing.
- [F] AUTOMATIC. As applied to fire protection devices, a device or system providing an emergency function without the necessity for human intervention and activated as a result of a predetermined temperature rise, rate of temperature rise or combustion products.
- [F] AUTOMATIC FIRE-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. An approved system of devices and equipment which automatically detects a fire and discharges an approved fire-extinguishing agent onto or in the area of a fire.
- [F] AUTOMATIC SMOKE DETECTION SYSTEM. A fire alarm system that has initiation devices that utilize smoke detectors for protection of an area such as a room or space with detectors to provide early warning of fire.
- [F] AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEM. An automatic sprinkler system, for fire protection purposes, is an integrated system of underground and overhead piping designed in accordance with fire protection engineering standards. The system includes a suitable water supply. The portion of the system above the ground is a network of specially sized or hydraulically designed piping installed in a structure or area, generally overhead, and to which automatic sprinklers are connected in a systematic pattern. The system is usually activated by heat from a fire and discharges water over the fire area.
- [F] AVERAGE AMBIENT SOUND LEVEL. The root mean square, A-weighted sound pressure level measured over a 24-hour period, or the time any person is present, whichever time period is less.
- [F] CARBON DIOXIDE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS. A system supplying carbon dioxide (CO2) from a pressurized vessel through fixed pipes and nozzles. The system includes a manual- or automatic-actuating mechanism.
- [F] CEILING LIMIT. The maximum concentration of an air-borne contaminant to which one may be exposed, as published in DOL 29 CFR Part 1910.1000.
- [F] CLEAN AGENT. Electrically nonconducting, volatile or gaseous fire extinguishant that does not leave a residue upon evaporation.
- [F] CONSTANTLY ATTENDED LOCATION. A designated location at a facility staffed by trained personnel on a continuous basis where alarm or supervisory signals are monitored and facilities are provided for notification of the fire department or other emergency services.
- [F] DELUGE SYSTEM. A sprinkler system employing open sprinklers attached to a piping system connected to a water supply through a valve that is opened by the operation of a detection system installed in the same areas as the sprinklers. When this valve opens, water flows into the piping system and discharges from all sprinklers attached thereto.
- [F] DETECTOR, HEAT. A fire detector that senses heat— either abnormally high temperature or rate of rise, or both.
- [F] DRY-CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHING AGENT. A powder composed of small particles, usually of sodium bicarbonate, potassium bicarbonate, urea-potassium-based bicarbonate, potassium chloride or monoammonium phosphate, with added particulate material supplemented by special treatment to provide resistance to packing, resistance to moisture absorption (caking) and the proper flow capabilities.
- [F] ELEVATOR GROUP. A grouping of elevators in a building located adjacent or directly across from one another that responds to a common hall call button(s).
- [F] EMERGENCY ALARM SYSTEM. A system to provide indication and warning of emergency situations involving hazardous materials.
- [F] EMERGENCY VOICE/ALARM COMMUNICATIONS. Dedicated manual or automatic facilities for originating and distributing voice instructions, as well as alert and evacuation signals pertaining to a fire emergency, to the occupants of a building.
- [F] FIRE ALARM BOX, MANUAL. See "Manual fire alarm box."
- [F] FIRE ALARM CONTROL UNIT. A system component that receives inputs from automatic and manual fire alarm devices and may be capable of supplying power to detection devices and transponder(s) or off-premises transmitter(s). The control unit may be capable of providing a transfer of power to the notification appliances and transfer of condition to relays or devices.
- [F] FIRE ALARM SIGNAL. A signal initiated by a fire alarm-initiating device such as a manual fire alarm box, automatic fire detector, waterflow switch or other device whose activation is indicative of the presence of a fire or fire signature.
- [F] FIRE ALARM SYSTEM. A system or portion of a combination system consisting of components and circuits arranged to monitor and annunciate the status of fire alarm or supervisory signal-initiating devices and to initiate the appropriate response to those signals.
- [F] FIRE AREA. The aggregate floor area enclosed and bounded by fire walls, fire barriers, exterior walls or horizontal assemblies of a building. Areas of the building not provided with surrounding walls shall be included in the fire area if such areas are included within the horizontal projection of the roof or floor next above.
- [F] FIRE COMMAND CENTER. The principal attended or unattended location where the status of detection, alarm communications and control systems is displayed, and from which the system(s) can be manually controlled.
- [F] FIRE DETECTOR, AUTOMATIC. A device designed to detect the presence of a fire signature and to initiate action.
- [F] FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM. Approved devices, equipment and systems or combinations of systems used to detect a fire, activate an alarm, extinguish or control a fire, control or manage smoke and products of a fire or any combination thereof.
- [F] FIRE SAFETY FUNCTIONS. Building and fire control functions that are intended to increase the level of life safety for occupants or to control the spread of harmful effects of fire.
- [F] FOAM-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. A special system discharging a foam made from concentrates, either mechanically or chemically, over the area to be protected.
- [F] HALOGENATED EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. A fire-extinguishing system using one or more atoms of an element from the halogen chemical series: fluorine, chlorine, bromine and iodine.
- [F] INITIATING DEVICE. A system component that originates transmission of a change-of-state condition, such as in a smoke detector, manual fire alarm box or supervisory switch.
- [F] MANUAL FIRE ALARM BOX. A manually operated device used to initiate an alarm signal.
- [F] MULTIPLE-STATION ALARM DEVICE. Two or more single-station alarm devices that are capable of interconnection such that actuation of one causes all integral or separate audible alarms to operate. It also can consist of one single-station alarm device having connections to other detectors or to a manual fire alarm box.
- [F] MULTIPLE-STATION SMOKE ALARM. Two or more single-station alarm devices that are capable of interconnection such that actuation of one causes the appropriate alarm signal to operate in all interconnected alarms.
- [F] NOTIFICATION ZONE. See "Zone, notification."
- [F] NUISANCE ALARM. An alarm caused by mechanical failure, malfunction, improper installation or lack of proper maintenance, or an alarm activated by a cause that cannot be determined.
- [F] RECORD DRAWINGS. Drawings ("as builts") that document the location of all devices, appliances, wiring sequences, wiring methods and connections of the components of a fire alarm system as installed.
- [F] SINGLE-STATION SMOKE ALARM. An assembly incorporating the detector, the control equipment and the alarm-sounding device in one unit, operated from a power supply either in the unit or obtained at the point of installation.
- [F] SMOKE ALARM. A single- or multiple-station alarm responsive to smoke.
- [F] SMOKE DETECTOR. A listed device that senses visible or invisible particles of combustion.
- SMOKEPROOF ENCLOSURE. An exit stairway designed and constructed so that the movement of the products of combustion produced by a fire occurring in any part of the building into the enclosure is limited.
- [F] STANDPIPE SYSTEM, CLASSES OF. Standpipe classes are as follows:
- Class I system. A system providing 21/2-inch (64 mm) hose connections to supply water for use by fire departments and those trained in handling heavy fire streams.
- Class II system. A system providing 11/2-inch (38 mm) hose stations to supply water for use primarily by the building occupants or by the fire department during initial response.
- Class III system. A system providing 11/2-inch (38 mm) hose stations to supply water for use by building occupants and 21/2-inch (64 mm) hose connections to supply a larger volume of water for use by fire departments and those trained in handling heavy fire streams.
- [F] STANDPIPE, TYPES OF. Standpipe types are as follows:
- Automatic dry. A dry standpipe system, normally filled with pressurized air, that is arranged through the use of a device, such as dry pipe valve, to admit water into the system piping automatically upon the opening of a hose valve. The water supply for an automatic dry standpipe system shall be capable of supplying the system demand.
- Automatic wet. A wet standpipe system that has a water supply that is capable of supplying the system demand automatically.
- Manual dry. A dry standpipe system that does not have a permanent water supply attached to the system. Manual dry standpipe systems require water from a fire department pumper to be pumped into the system through the fire department connection in order to meet the system demand.
- Manual wet. A wet standpipe system connected to a water supply for the purpose of maintaining water within the system but does not have a water supply capable of delivering the system demand attached to the system. Manual-wet standpipe systems require water from a fire department pumper (or the like) to be pumped into the system in order to meet the system demand.
- Semiautomatic dry. A dry standpipe system that is arranged through the use of a device, such as a deluge valve, to admit water into the system piping upon activation of a remote control device located at a hose connection. A remote control activation device shall be provided at each hose connection. The water supply for a semiautomatic dry standpipe system shall be capable of supplying the system demand.
- [F] SUPERVISING STATION. A facility that receives signals and at which personnel are in attendance at all times to respond to these signals.
- [F] SUPERVISORY SERVICE. The service required to monitor performance of guard tours and the operative condition of fixed suppression systems or other systems for the protection of life and property.
- [F] SUPERVISORY SIGNAL. A signal indicating the need of action in connection with the supervision of guard tours, the fire suppression systems or equipment or the maintenance features of related systems.
- [F] SUPERVISORY SIGNAL-INITIATING DEVICE. An initiation device, such as a valve supervisory switch, water-level indicator or low-air pressure switch on a dry-pipe sprinkler system, whose change of state signals an off-normal condition and its restoration to normal of a fire protection or life safety system, or a need for action in connection with guard tours, fire suppression systems or equipment or maintenance features of related systems.
- [F] TIRES, BULK STORAGE OF. Storage of tires where the area available for storage exceeds 20,000 cubic feet (566 m3).
- [F] TROUBLE SIGNAL. A signal initiated by the fire alarm system or device indicative of a fault in a monitored circuit or component.
- [F] VISIBLE ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE. A notification appliance that alerts by the sense of sight.
- [F] WET-CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. A solution of water and potassium-carbonate-based chemical, potassium-acetate-based chemical or a combination thereof, forming an extinguishing agent.
- [F] WIRELESS PROTECTION SYSTEM. A system or a part of a system that can transmit and receive signals without the aid of wire.
- [F] ZONE. A defined area within the protected premises. A zone can define an area from which a signal can be received, an area to which a signal can be sent or an area in which a form of control can be executed.
- [F] ZONE, NOTIFICATION. An area within a building or facility covered by notification appliances which are activated simultaneously.
- Four or more care recipients are incapable of self- preservation.
- One or more care recipients who are incapable of self- preservation are located at other than the level of exit discharge serving such an occupancy.
|Fabrication areas||Ordinary Hazard Group 2|
|Service corridors||Ordinary Hazard Group 2|
|Storage rooms without dispensing||Ordinary Hazard Group 2|
|Storage rooms with dispensing||Extra Hazard Group 2|
|Corridors||Ordinary Hazard Group 2|
- A Group M fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 m2).
- A Group M fire area is located more than three stories above grade plane.
- The combined area of all Group M fire areas on all floors, including any mezzanines, exceeds 24,000 square feet (2230 m2).
- A Group M occupancy is used for the display and sale of upholstered furniture.
- A Group S-1 fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 m2).
- A Group S-1 fire area is located more than three stories above grade plane.
- The combined area of all Group S-1 fire areas on all floors, including any mezzanines, exceeds 24,000 square feet (2230 m2).
- A Group S-1 fire area used for the storage of commercial trucks or buses where the fire area exceeds 5,000 square feet (464 m2).
- Buildings having two or more stories above grade plane, including basements, with a fire area containing a repair garage exceeding 10,000 square feet (929 m2).
- Buildings no more than one story above grade plane, with a fire area containing a repair garage exceeding 12,000 square feet (1115 m2).
- Buildings with repair garages servicing vehicles parked in basements.
- A Group S-1 fire area used for the repair of commercial trucks or buses where the fire area exceeds 5,000 square feet (464 m2).
- Where the fire area of the enclosed parking garage exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 m2); or
- Where the enclosed parking garage is located beneath other groups.
- Openings below grade that lead directly to ground level by an exterior stairway complying with Section 1009 or an outside ramp complying with Section 1010. Openings shall be located in each 50 linear feet (15 240 mm), or fraction thereof, of exterior wall in the story on at least one side. The required openings shall be distributed such that the linear distance between adjacent openings does not exceed 50 feet (15 240 mm).
- Openings entirely above the adjoining ground level totaling at least 20 square feet (1.86 m2) in each 50 linear feet (15 240 mm), or fraction thereof, of exterior wall in the story on at least one side. The required openings shall be distributed such that the linear distance between adjacent openings does not exceed 50 feet (15 240 mm).
- Airport control towers.
- Open parking structures.
- Occupancies in Group F-2.
|403.2, 403.3||High-rise buildings|
|411.4||Special amusement buildings|
|412.4.6, 4184.108.40.206, 412.6.5||Aircraft hangars|
|507||Unlimited area buildings|
|508.2.5||Incidental accessory occupancies|
|1028.6.2.3||Smoke-protected assembly seating|
|IFC||Sprinkler system requirements as set forth in Section 903.2.11.6 of the International Fire Code|
- Any room where the application of water, or flame and water, constitutes a serious life or fire hazard.
- Any room or space where sprinklers are considered undesirable because of the nature of the contents, when approved by the fire code official.
- Generator and transformer rooms separated from the remainder of the building by walls and floor/ceiling or roof/ceiling assemblies having a fire-resistance rating of not less than 2 hours.
- Rooms or areas that are of noncombustible construction with wholly noncombustible contents.
- Fire service access elevator machine rooms and machinery spaces.
Limited area sprinkler systems serving fewer than 20 sprinklers on any single connection are permitted to be connected to the domestic service where a wet automatic standpipe is not available. Limited area sprinkler systems connected to domestic water supplies shall comply with each of the following requirements:
- Automatic sprinkler systems protecting one- and two-family dwellings.
- Limited area systems serving fewer than 20 sprinklers.
- Automatic sprinkler systems installed in accordance with NFPA 13R where a common supply main is used to supply both domestic water and the automatic sprinkler system, and a separate shutoff valve for the automatic sprinkler system is not provided.
- Jockey pump control valves that are sealed or locked in the open position.
- Control valves to commercial kitchen hoods, paint spray booths or dip tanks that are sealed or locked in the open position.
- Valves controlling the fuel supply to fire pump engines that are sealed or locked in the open position.
- Trim valves to pressure switches in dry, preaction and deluge sprinkler systems that are sealed or locked in the open position.
- Underground key or hub valves in roadway boxes provided by the municipality or public utility are not required to be monitored.
- Backflow prevention device test valves located in limited area sprinkler system supply piping shall be locked in the open position. In occupancies required to be equipped with a fire alarm system, the backflow preventer valves shall be electrically supervised by a tamper switch installed in accordance with NFPA 72 and separately annunciated.
- Hazard specification for consistency with design hazard.
- Type, location and spacing of automatic- and manual-initiating devices.
- Size, placement and position of nozzles or discharge orifices.
- Location and identification of audible and visible alarm devices.
- Identification of devices with proper designations.
- Operating instructions.
A manual actuation device shall be located at or near a means of egress from the cooking area a minimum of 10 feet (3048 mm) and a maximum of 20 feet (6096 mm) from the kitchen exhaust system. The manual actuation device shall be installed not more than 48 inches (1200 mm) or less than 42 inches (1067 mm) above the floor and shall clearly identify the hazard protected. The manual actuation shall require a maximum force of 40 pounds (178 N) and a maximum movement of 14 inches (356 mm) to actuate the fire suppression system.
- Class I standpipes are allowed in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2.
- Class I manual standpipes are allowed in open parking garages where the highest floor is located not more than 150 feet (45 720 mm) above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access.
- Class I manual dry standpipes are allowed in open parking garages that are subject to freezing temperatures, provided that the hose connections are located as required for Class II standpipes in accordance with Section 905.5.
- Class I standpipes are allowed in basements equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system.
- In determining the lowest level of fire department vehicle access, it shall not be required to consider:
- Recessed loading docks for four vehicles or less; and
- Conditions where topography makes access from the fire department vehicle to the building impractical or impossible.
- Within the mall at the entrance to each exit passageway or corridor.
- At each floor-level landing within enclosed stairways opening directly on the mall.
- At exterior public entrances to the mall.
- At other locations as necessary so that the distance to reach all portions of a tenant space does not exceed 200 feet (60 960 mm) from a hose connection.
- In every required stairway, a hose connection shall be provided for each floor level above or below grade. Hose connections shall be located at an intermediate floor level landing between floors, unless otherwise approved by the fire code official.
- On each side of the wall adjacent to the exit opening of a horizontal exit.
- In every exit passageway, at the entrance from the exit passageway to other areas of a building.
Exception: Where floor areas adjacent to an exit passageway are reachable from exit stairway hose connections by a 30-foot (9144 mm) hose stream from a nozzle attached to 100 feet (30 480 mm) of hose, a hose connection shall not be required at the entrance from the exit passageway to other areas of the building.
- In covered mall buildings, adjacent to each exterior public entrance to the mall and adjacent to each entrance from an exit passageway or exit corridor to the mall.
- Where the roof has a slope less than four units vertical in 12 units horizontal (33.3-percent slope), each standpipe shall be provided with a hose connection located either on the roof or at the highest landing of a stairway with stair access to the roof. An additional hose connection shall be provided at the top of the most hydraulically remote standpipe for testing purposes.
- Where the most remote portion of a nonsprinklered floor or story is more than 150 feet (45 720 mm) from a hose connection or the most remote portion of a sprinklered floor or story is more than 200 feet (60 960 mm) from a hose connection, the fire code official is authorized to require that additional hose connections be provided in approved locations.
- Valves to underground key or hub valves in roadway boxes provided by the municipality or public utility do not require supervision.
- Valves locked in the normal position and inspected as provided in this code in buildings not equipped with a fire alarm system.
- In new and existing Group A, B, E, F, H, I, M, R-1, R-2, R-4 and S occupancies.
Exception: In new and existing Group A, B and E occupancies equipped throughout with quick response sprinklers, portable fire extinguishers shall be required only in locations specified in Items 2 through 6.
- Within 30 feet (9144 mm) of commercial cooking equipment.
- In areas where flammable or combustible liquids are stored, used or dispensed.
- On each floor of structures under construction, except Group R-3 occupancies, in accordance with Section 1415.1 of the International Fire Code.
- Where required by the International Fire Code sections indicated in Table 906.1.
- Special-hazard areas, including but not limited to laboratories, computer rooms and generator rooms, where required by the fire code official.
|309.4||Powered industrial trucks|
|1105.2||Aircraft towing vehicles|
|1105.3||Aircraft welding apparatus|
|1105.4||Aircraft fuel-servicing tank vehicles|
|1105.5||Aircraft hydrant fuel-servicing vehicles|
|1105.6||Aircraft fuel-dispensing stations|
|1107.7||Heliports and helistops|
|1208.4||Dry cleaning plants|
|1415.1||Buildings under construction or demolition|
|1909.5||Exterior lumber storage|
|2205.5||Motor fuel-dispensing facilities|
|2210.6.4||Marine motor fuel-dispensing facilities|
|2404.12||Tents and membrane structures|
|2604.2.6||Welding and other hot work|
|3403.2.1||Flammable and combustible liquids, general|
|3404.3.3.1||Indoor storage of flammable and combustible liquids|
|3404.3.7.5.2||Liquid storage rooms for flammable and combustible liquids|
|3405.4.9||Solvent distillation units|
|3406.2.7||Farms and construction sites—flammable and combustible liquids storage|
|3406.4.10.1||Bulk plants and terminals for flammable and combustible liquids|
|3406.5.4.5||Commercial, industrial, governmental or manufacturing establishments—fuel dispensing|
|3406.6.4||Tank vehicles for flammable and combustible liquids|
- The travel distance to reach an extinguisher shall not apply to the spectator seating portions of Group A-5 occupancies.
- Thirty-day inspections shall not be required and maintenance shall be allowed to be once every three years for dry-chemical or halogenated agent portable fire extinguishers that are supervised by a listed and approved electronic monitoring device, provided that all of the following conditions are met:
- Electronic monitoring shall confirm that extinguishers are properly positioned, properly charged and unobstructed.
- Loss of power or circuit continuity to the electronic monitoring device shall initiate a trouble signal.
- The extinguishers shall be installed inside of a building or cabinet in a noncorrosive environment.
- Electronic monitoring devices and supervisory circuits shall be tested every three years when extinguisher maintenance is performed.
- A written log of required hydrostatic test dates for extinguishers shall be maintained by the owner to verify that hydrostatic tests are conducted at the frequency required by NFPA 10.
- In Group I-3 occupancies, portable fire extinguishers are permitted to be located at staff locations.
| ORDINARY (Moderate)
|Minimum Rated Single Extinguisher||2-Ac||2-A||4-Aa|
|Maximum Floor Area Per Unit of A||3,000 square feet||1,500 square feet||1,000 square feet|
|Maximum Floor Area for Extinguisherb||11,250 square feet||11,250 square feet||11,250 square feet|
|Maximum Travel Distance to Extinguisher||75 feet||75 feet||75 feet|
- Two 21/2-gallon water-type extinguishers shall be deemed the equivalent of one 4-A rated extinguisher.
- Annex E.3.3 of NFPA 10 provides more details concerning application of the maximum floor area criteria.
- Two water-type extinguishers each with a 1-A rating shall be deemed the equivalent of one 2-A rated extinguisher for Light (Low) Hazard Occupancies.
|TYPE OF HAZARD||BASIC MINIMUM EXTINGUISHER RATING||MAXIMUM TRAVEL DISTANCE TO EXTINGUISHERS (feet)|
Note: For requirements on water-soluble flammable liquids and alternative sizing criteria, see Section 5.5 of NFPA 10.
Portable fire extinguishers for occupancies involving flammable or combustible liquids with a depth of greater than 0.25-inch (6.35 mm) shall be selected and placed in accordance with NFPA 10.
- Where portable fire extinguishers subject to malicious use or damage are provided with a means of ready access.
- In Group I-3 occupancies and in mental health areas in Group I-2 occupancies, access to portable fire extinguishers shall be permitted to be locked or to be located in staff locations provided the staff has keys.
- A floor plan that indicates the use of all rooms.
- Locations of alarm-initiating devices.
- Locations of alarm notification appliances, including candela ratings for visible alarm notification appliances.
- Location of fire alarm control unit, transponders and notification power supplies.
- Power connection.
- Battery calculations.
- Conductor type and sizes.
- Voltage drop calculations.
- Manufacturers' data sheets indicating model numbers and listing information for equipment, devices and materials.
- Details of ceiling height and construction.
- The interface of fire safety control functions.
- Classification of the supervising station.
A minimum of one manual fire alarm box shall be provided in an approved location to initiate a fire alarm signal for fire alarm systems employing automatic fire detectors or waterflow detection devices. Where other sections of this code allow elimination of fire alarm boxes due to sprinklers, a single fire alarm box shall be installed.
- The manual fire alarm box is not required for fire alarm systems dedicated to elevator recall control and supervisory service.
- The manual fire alarm box is not required for Group R-2 occupancies unless required by the fire code official to provide a means for fire watch personnel to initiate an alarm during a sprinkler system impairment event. Where provided, the manual fire alarm box shall not be located in an area that is accessible to the public.
- A manual fire alarm system is not required in Group E occupancies with an occupant load of less than 50.
- Manual fire alarm boxes are not required in Group E occupancies where all of the following apply:
- Interior corridors are protected by smoke detectors.
- Auditoriums, cafeterias, gymnasiums and similar areas are protected by heat detectors or other approved detection devices.
- Shops and laboratories involving dusts or vapors are protected by heat detectors or other approved detection devices.
- The capability to activate the evacuation signal from a central point is provided.
- In buildings where normally occupied spaces are provided with a two-way communication system between such spaces and a constantly attended receiving station from where a general evacuation alarm can be sounded, except in locations specifically designated by the fire code official.
- Manual fire alarm boxes shall not be required in Group E occupancies where the building is equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, the notification appliances will activate on sprinkler waterflow and manual activation is provided from a normally occupied location.
- Manual fire alarm boxes in resident or patient sleeping areas of Group I-1 and I-2 occupancies shall not be required at exits if located at all nurses' control stations or other constantly attended staff locations, provided such stations are visible and continuously accessible and that travel distances required in Section 907.4.2 are not exceeded.
- Occupant notification systems are not required to be activated where private mode signaling installed in accordance with NFPA 72 is approved by the fire code official.
- Corridor smoke detection is not required in smoke compartments that contain patient sleeping units where such units are provided with smoke detectors that comply with UL 268. Such detectors shall provide a visual display on the corridor side of each patient sleeping unit and shall provide an audible and visual alarm at the nursing station attending each unit.
- Corridor smoke detection is not required in smoke compartments that contain patient sleeping units where patient sleeping unit doors are equipped with automatic door-closing devices with integral smoke detectors on the unit sides installed in accordance with their listing, provided that the integral detectors perform the required alerting function.
- Other approved smoke detection arrangements providing equivalent protection, including, but not limited to, placing detectors in exhaust ducts from cells or behind protective guards listed for the purpose, are allowed when necessary to prevent damage or tampering.
- Sleeping units in Occupancy Conditions 2 and 3 as described in Section 308.
- Smoke detectors are not required in sleeping units with four or fewer occupants in smoke compartments that are equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
- The combined Group M occupant load of all floors is 500 or more persons.
- The Group M occupant load is more than 100 persons above or below the lowest level of exit discharge.
- A manual fire alarm system is not required in covered mall buildings complying with Section 402.
- Manual fire alarm boxes are not required where the building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 and the occupant notification appliances will automatically activate throughout the notification zones upon sprinkler waterflow.
- A manual fire alarm system is not required in buildings not more than two stories in height where all individual sleeping units and contiguous attic and crawl spaces to those units are separated from each other and public or common areas by at least 1-hour fire partitions and each individual sleeping unit has an exit directly to a public way, egress court or yard.
- Manual fire alarm boxes are not required throughout the building when all of the following conditions are met:
- Any dwelling unit or sleeping unit is located three or more stories above the lowest level of exit discharge;
- Any dwelling unit or sleeping unit is located more than one story below the highest level of exit discharge of exits serving the dwelling unit or sleeping unit; or
- The building contains more than 16 dwelling units or sleeping units.
- A fire alarm system is not required in buildings not more than two stories in height where all dwelling units or sleeping units and contiguous attic and crawl spaces are separated from each other and public or common areas by at least 1-hour fire partitions and each dwelling unit or sleeping unit has an exit directly to a public way, egress court or yard.
- Manual fire alarm boxes are not required where the building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2 and the occupant notification appliances will automatically activate throughout the notification zones upon a sprinkler waterflow.
- A fire alarm system is not required in buildings that do not have interior corridors serving dwelling units and are protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, provided that dwelling units either have a means of egress door opening directly to an exterior exit access that leads directly to the exits or are served by open-ended corridors designed in accordance with Section 1026.6, Exception 4.
- A manual fire alarm system is not required in buildings not more than two stories in height where all individual sleeping units and contiguous attic and crawl spaces to those units are separated from each other and public or common areas by at least 1-hour fire partitions and each individual sleeping unit has an exit directly to a public way, exit court or yard.
- Manual fire alarm boxes are not required throughout the building when the following conditions are met:
- Manual fire alarm boxes in resident or patient sleeping areas shall not be required at exits where located at all nurses' control stations or other constantly attended staff locations, provided such stations are visible and continuously accessible and that travel distances required in Section 907.4.2.1 are not exceeded.
- Smoke detection in habitable spaces is not required where the facility is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
- An automatic smoke detection system is not required in buildings that do not have interior corridors serving sleeping units and where each sleeping unit has a means of egress door opening directly to an exit or to an exterior exit access that leads directly to an exit.
- In sleeping areas.
- In every room in the path of the means of egress from the sleeping area to the door leading from the sleeping unit.
- In each story within the sleeping unit, including basements. For sleeping units with split levels and without an intervening door between the adjacent levels, a smoke alarm installed on the upper level shall suffice for the adjacent lower level provided that the lower level is less than one full story below the upper level.
- On the ceiling or wall outside of each separate sleeping area in the immediate vicinity of bedrooms.
- In each room used for sleeping purposes.
- In each story within a dwelling unit, including basements but not including crawl spaces and uninhabitable attics. In dwellings or dwelling units with split levels and without an intervening door between the adjacent levels, a smoke alarm installed on the upper level shall suffice for the adjacent lower level provided that the lower level is less than one full story below the upper level.
- Cause illumination of the means of egress with light of not less than 1 foot-candle (11 lux) at the walking surface level;
- Stop any conflicting or confusing sounds and visual distractions;
- Activate an approved directional exit marking that will become apparent in an emergency; and
- Activate a prerecorded message, audible throughout the special amusement building, instructing patrons to proceed to the nearest exit. Alarm signals used in conjunction with the prerecorded message shall produce a sound which is distinctive from other sounds used during normal operation.
- Airport traffic control towers in accordance with Sections 907.2.22 and 412.
- Open parking garages in accordance with Section 406.3.
- Buildings with an occupancy in Group A-5 in accordance with Section 303.1.
- Low-hazard special occupancies in accordance with Section 503.1.1.
- Buildings with an occupancy in Group H-1, H-2 or H-3 in accordance with Section 415.
- In Group I-1 and I-2 occupancies, the alarm shall sound at a constantly attended location and general occupant notification shall be broadcast by the emergency voice/alarm communication system.
- In each mechanical equipment, electrical, transformer, telephone equipment or similar room which is not provided with sprinkler protection.
- In each elevator machine room and in elevator lobbies.
- In the main return air and exhaust air plenum of each air-conditioning system having a capacity greater than 2,000 cubic feet per minute (cfm) (0.94 m3/s). Such detectors shall be located in a serviceable area downstream of the last duct inlet.
- At each connection to a vertical duct or riser serving two or more stories from a return air duct or plenum of an air-conditioning system. In Group R-1 and R-2 occupancies, a smoke detector is allowed to be used in each return air riser carrying not more than 5,000 cfm (2.4 m3/s) and serving not more than 10 air inlet openings.
- Mechanical equipment, electrical, transformer, telephone equipment, elevator machine or similar rooms.
- Elevator lobbies.
- The main return and exhaust air plenum of each air-conditioning system serving more than one story and located in a serviceable area downstream of the last duct inlet.
- Each connection to a vertical duct or riser serving two or more floors from return air ducts or plenums of heating, ventilating and air-conditioning systems, except that in Group R occupancies, a listed smoke detector is allowed to be used in each return air riser carrying not more than 5,000 cfm (2.4 m3/s) and serving not more than 10 air inlet openings.
- The supervisory signal at a constantly attended location is not required where duct smoke detectors activate the building's alarm notification appliances.
- In occupancies not required to be equipped with a fire alarm system, actuation of a smoke detector shall activate a visible and an audible signal in an approved location. Smoke detector trouble conditions shall activate a visible or audible signal in an approved location and shall be identified as air duct detector trouble.
- Visible alarm notification appliances are not required in alterations, except where an existing fire alarm system is upgraded or replaced, or a new fire alarm system is installed.
- Visible alarm notification appliances shall not be required in exits as defined in Section 1002.1.
- Visible alarm notification appliances shall not be required in elevator cars.
|NUMBER OF SLEEP UNITS||SLEEPING ACCOMMODATIONS WITH VISIBLE ALARMS|
|6 to 25||2|
|26 to 50||4|
|51 to 75||7|
|76 to 100||9|
|101 to 150||12|
|151 to 200||14|
|201 to 300||17|
|301 to 400||20|
|401 to 500||22|
|501 to 1,000||5% of total|
|1,001 and over||50 plus 3 for each 100 over 1,000|
- Operated at pressures less than 15 pounds per square inch gauge (psig) (103.4 kPa).
- Constantly attended.
- Provided with readily accessible emergency shutoff valves.
- When the gas-detection sampling point initiating the gas detection system alarm is within a gas cabinet or exhausted enclosure, the shutoff valve in the gas cabinet or exhausted enclosure for the specific gas detected shall automatically close.
- Where the gas-detection sampling point initiating the gas detection system alarm is within a gas room and compressed gas containers are not in gas cabinets or exhausted enclosures, the shutoff valves on all gas lines for the specific gas detected shall automatically close.
- Where the gas-detection sampling point initiating the gas detection system alarm is within a piping distribution manifold enclosure, the shutoff valve for the compressed container of specific gas detected supplying the manifold shall automatically close.
Smoke barriers shall comply with Section 710, and shall be constructed and sealed to limit leakage areas exclusive of protected openings. The maximum allowable leakage area shall be the aggregate area calculated using the following leakage area ratios:
- Walls: A/Aw = 0.00100
- Exit enclosures: A/Aw = 0.00035
- All other shafts: A/Aw = 0.00150
- Floors and roofs: A/AF = 0.00050
A = Total leakage area, square feet (m2).
AF= Unit floor or roof area of barrier, square feet (m2).
Aw= Unit wall area of barrier, square feet (m2).
The leakage area ratios shown do not include openings due to doors, operable windows or similar gaps. These shall be included in calculating the total leakage area.
- Passive smoke control systems with automatic-closing devices actuated by spot-type smoke detectors listed for releasing service installed in accordance with Section 907.3.
- Fixed openings between smoke zones that are protected utilizing the airflow method.
- In Group I-2, where such doors are installed across corridors, a pair of opposite-swinging doors without a center mullion shall be installed having vision panels with fire protection-rated glazing materials in fire protection-rated frames, the area of which shall not exceed that tested. The doors shall be close-fitting within operational tolerances and shall not have undercuts, louvers or grilles. The doors shall have head and jamb stops, astragals or rabbets at meeting edges and shall be automatic-closing by smoke detection in accordance with Section 7220.127.116.11. Positive-latching devices are not required.
- Group I-3.
- Openings between smoke zones with clear ceiling heights of 14 feet (4267 mm) or greater and bank-down capacity of greater than 20 minutes as determined by the design fire size.
The minimum pressure difference across a smoke barrier shall be 0.05-inch water gage (0.0124 kPa) in fully sprinklered buildings.
In buildings permitted to be other than fully sprinklered, the smoke control system shall be designed to achieve pressure differences at least two times the maximum calculated pressure difference produced by the design fire.
The maximum air pressure difference across a smoke barrier shall be determined by required door-opening or closing forces. The actual force required to open exit doors when the system is in the smoke control mode shall be in accordance with Section 1008.1.2. Opening and closing forces for other doors shall be determined by standard engineering methods for the resolution of forces and reactions. The calculated force to set a side-hinged, swinging door in motion shall be determined by:
F = Fdc + K(WA ΔP)/2(W-d) (Equation 9-1)
A = Door area, square feet (m2).
d = Distance from door handle to latch edge of door, feet (m).
F = Total door opening force, pounds (N).
Fdc= Force required to overcome closing device, pounds (N).
K = Coefficient 5.2 (1.0).
W = Door width, feet (m).
ΔP = Design pressure difference, inches of water (Pa).
The minimum average velocity through a fixed opening shall not be less than:
v = 217.2 [h (Tf - To)/(Tf + 460)]1/2 (Equation 9-2)
For SI: v = 119.9 [h (Tf - To)/Tf]1/2
h = Height of opening, feet (m).
Tf = Temperature of smoke, °F (K).
To = Temperature of ambient air, °F (K).
v = Air velocity, feet per minute (m/s).
Components of exhaust fans shall be rated and certified by the manufacturer for the probable temperature rise to which the components will be exposed. This temperature rise shall be computed by:
Ts = (Qc/mc) + (Ta) (Equation 9-3)
c = Specific heat of smoke at smoke layer temperature, Btu/lb x °F (kJ/kg × K).
m = Exhaust rate, pounds per second (kg/s).
Qc= Convective heat output of fire, Btu/s (kW).
Ta= Ambient temperature, °F (K).
Ts= Smoke temperature, °F (K).
Duct materials and joints shall be capable of withstanding the probable temperatures and pressures to which they are exposed as determined in accordance with Section 909.10.1. Ducts shall be constructed and supported in accordance with the International Mechanical Code. Ducts shall be leak tested to 1.5 times the maximum design pressure in accordance with nationally accepted practices. Measured leakage shall not exceed 5 percent of design flow. Results of such testing shall be a part of the documentation procedure. Ducts shall be supported directly from fire-resistance-rated structural elements of the building by substantial, noncombustible supports.
Control systems for mechanical smoke control systems shall include provisions for verification. Verification shall include positive confirmation of actuation, testing, manual override, the presence of power downstream of all disconnects and, through a preprogrammed weekly test sequence, report abnormal conditions audibly, visually and by printed report.
Control-air tubing shall be hard- drawn copper, Type L, ACR in accordance with ASTM B 42, ASTM B 43, ASTM B 68, ASTM B 88, ASTM B 251 and ASTM B 280. Fittings shall be wrought copper or brass, solder type in accordance with ASME B 16.18 or ASME B16.22. Changes in direction shall be made with appropriate tool bends. Brass compression-type fittings shall be used at final connection to devices; other joints shall be brazed using a BCuP5 brazing alloy with solidus above 1,100°F (593°C) and liquids below 1,500°F (816°C). Brazing flux shall be used on copper-to-brass joints only.
- Tubing shall be listed by an approved agency for flame and smoke characteristics.
- Tubing and connected devices shall be completely enclosed within a galvanized or paint-grade steel enclosure having a minimum thickness of 0.0296 inch (0.7534 mm) (No. 22 gage). Entry to the enclosure shall be by copper tubing with a protective grommet of neoprene or teflon or by suitable brass compression to male barbed adapter.
- Tubing shall be identified by appropriately documented coding.
- Tubing shall be neatly tied and supported within the enclosure. Tubing bridging cabinets and doors or moveable devices shall be of sufficient length to avoid tension and excessive stress. Tubing shall be protected against abrasion. Tubing serving devices on doors shall be fastened along hinges.
Fans within the building shall be shown on the fire-fighter's control panel. A clear indication of the direction of airflow and the relationship of components shall be displayed. Status indicators shall be provided for all smoke control equipment, annunciated by fan and zone, and by pilot-lamp-type indicators as follows:
- Fans, dampers and other operating equipment in their normal status—WHITE.
- Fans, dampers and other operating equipment in their off or closed status—RED.
- Fans, dampers and other operating equipment in their on or open status—GREEN.
- Fans, dampers and other operating equipment in a fault status—YELLOW/AMBER.
The fire-fighter's control panel shall provide control capability over the complete smoke-control system equipment within the building as follows:
- ON-AUTO-OFF control over each individual piece of operating smoke control equipment that can also be controlled from other sources within the building. This includes stairway pressurization fans; smoke exhaust fans; supply, return and exhaust fans; elevator shaft fans and other operating equipment used or intended for smoke control purposes.
- OPEN-AUTO-CLOSE control over individual dampers relating to smoke control and that are also controlled from other sources within the building.
- ON-OFF or OPEN-CLOSE control over smoke control and other critical equipment associated with a fire or smoke emergency and that can only be controlled from the fire-fighter's control panel.
The fire- fighter's control panel actions shall be as follows:
- ON-OFF and OPEN-CLOSE control actions shall have the highest priority of any control point within the building. Once issued from the fire-fighter's control panel, no automatic or manual control from any other control point within the building shall contradict the control action. Where automatic means are provided to interrupt normal, nonemergency equipment operation or produce a specific result to safeguard the building or equipment (i.e., duct freezestats, duct smoke detectors, high-temperature cutouts, temperature-actuated linkage and similar devices), such means shall be capable of being overridden by the fire-fighter's control panel. The last control action as indicated by each fire-fighter's control panel switch position shall prevail. In no case shall control actions require the smoke control system to assume more than one configuration at any one time. Exception: Power disconnects required by NFPA 70.
- Only the AUTO position of each three-position fire-fighter's control panel switch shall allow automatic or manual control action from other control points within the building. The AUTO position shall be the NORMAL, nonemergency, building control position. Where a fire-fighter's control panel is in the AUTO position, the actual status of the device (on, off, open, closed) shall continue to be indicated by the status indicator described above. When directed by an automatic signal to assume an emergency condition, the NORMAL position shall become the emergency condition for that device or group of devices within the zone. In no case shall control actions require the smoke control system to assume more than one configuration at any one time.
Special inspections shall be conducted in accordance with the following:
- During erection of ductwork and prior to concealment for the purposes of leakage testing and recording of device location.
- Prior to occupancy and after sufficient completion for the purposes of pressure-difference testing, flow measurements, and detection and control verification.
Buildings, or portions thereof, required by this code to comply with this section shall not be issued a certificate of occupancy until such time that the fire code official determines that the provisions of this section have been fully complied with and that the fire department has received satisfactory instruction on the operation, both automatic and manual, of the system.
- Equipment, control wiring, power wiring and ductwork shall be located exterior to the building and directly connected to the smokeproof enclosure or connected to the smokeproof enclosure by ductwork enclosed by not less than 2-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712, or both.
- Equipment, control wiring, power wiring and ductwork shall be located within the smokeproof enclosure with intake or exhaust directly from and to the outside or through ductwork enclosed by not less than 2-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712, or both.
- Equipment, control wiring, power wiring and ductwork shall be located within the building if separated from the remainder of the building, including other mechanical equipment, by not less than 2-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712, or both.
- Control wiring and power wiring utilizing a 2-hour rated cable or cable system.
- Where encased with not less than 2 inches (51 mm) of concrete.
Where required by this code or otherwise installed, smoke and heat vents, or mechanical smoke exhaust systems, and draft curtains shall conform to the requirements of this section.
- Frozen food warehouses used solely for storage of Class I and II commodities where protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system.
- Where areas of buildings are equipped with early suppression fast-response (ESFR) sprinklers, automatic smoke and heat vents shall not be required within these areas.
|OCCUPANCY GROUP AND
FORMED BY DRAFT
VENTS TO WALL
|Group F-1 and S-1||—||0.2 × Hd
but ≥ 4
(see Section 910.2.2)
Class I-IV commodities
|> 20 ≤ 40||6||8,000||1:75||100||55|
(see Section 910.2.2)
Class I-IV commodities
|> 20 ≤ 40||4||3,000||1:50||100||50|
(see Section 910.2.2)
|> 20 ≤ 30||6||6,000||1:40||90||45|
(see Section 910.2.2)
|> 20 ≤ 30||4||2,000||1:30||75||40|
- Additional requirements for rack storage heights in excess of those indicated shall be in accordance with Chapter 23 of the International Fire Code. For solid-piled storage heights in excess of those indicated, an approved engineered design shall be used.
- Vents adjacent to walls or draft curtains shall be located within a horizontal distance not greater than the maximum distance specified in this column as measured perpendicular to the wall or draft curtain that forms the perimeter of the draft curtained area.
- Where draft curtains are not required, the vent area to floor area ratio shall be calculated based on a minimum draft curtain depth of 6 feet (Option 1).
- "H" is the height of the vent, in feet, above the floor.
Where installed in buildings not provided with an approved automatic sprinkler system, smoke and heat vents shall operate automatically by actuation of a heat-responsive device rated at between 100°F (38°C) and 220°F (104°C) above ambient.
Where required by Table 910.3, draft curtains shall be installed on the underside of the roof in accordance with this section.
Fans shall have a maximum individual capacity of 30,000 cfm (14.2 m3/s). The aggregate capacity of smoke exhaust fans shall be determined by the equation:
C = A × 300 (Equation 9-4)
C = Capacity of mechanical ventilation required, in cubic feet per minute (m3/s).
A = Area of roof vents provided in square feet (m2) in accordance with Table 910.3.
- The emergency voice/alarm communication system control unit.
- The fire department communications system.
- Fire detection and alarm system annunciator.
- Annunciator unit visually indicating the location of the elevators and whether they are operational.
- Status indicators and controls for air distribution systems.
- The fire-fighter's control panel required by Section 909.16 for smoke control systems installed in the building.
- Controls for unlocking stairway doors simultaneously.
- Sprinkler valve and waterflow detector display panels.
- Emergency and standby power status indicators.
- A telephone for fire department use with controlled access to the public telephone system.
- Fire pump status indicators.
- Schematic building plans indicating the typical floor plan and detailing the building core, means of egress, fire protection systems, fire-fighting equipment and fire department access and the location of fire walls, fire barriers, fire partitions, smoke barriers and smoke partitions.
- Work table.
- Generator supervision devices, manual start and transfer features.
- Public address system, where specifically required by other sections of this code.
- Elevator fire recall switch in accordance with ASME A17.1.
- Elevator emergency or standby power selector switch(es), where emergency or standby power is provided.
Immediate access to fire department connections shall be maintained at all times and without obstruction by fences, bushes, trees, walls or any other fixed or moveable object. Access to fire department connections shall be approved by the fire chief.
Fire pumps shall be located in rooms that are separated from all other areas of the building by 2-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or 2-hour horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712, or both.
- In other than high-rise buildings, separation by 1-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or 1-hour horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712, or both, shall be permitted in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2.
- Separation is not required for fire pumps physically separated in accordance with NFPA 20.
Where provided, the fire pump suction, discharge and bypass valves, and isolation valves on the backflow prevention device or assembly shall be supervised open by one of the following methods:
- Central-station, proprietary or remote-station signaling service.
- Local signaling service that will cause the sounding of an audible signal at a constantly attended location.
- Locking valves open.
- Sealing of valves and approved weekly recorded inspection where valves are located within fenced enclosures under the control of the owner.
Door or window openings to a hoistway or shaftway from the interior of the building shall be plainly marked with the word "SHAFTWAY" in red letters at least 6 inches (152 mm) high on a white background. Such warning signs shall be placed so as to be readily discernible.