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1910.213 Woodworking Machinery Requirements
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Each machine shall be so constructed as to be free from sensible vibration when the largest size tool is mounted and run idle at full speed.
Arbors and mandrels shall be constructed so as to have firm and secure bearing and be free from play.
Any automatic cutoff saw that strokes continuously without the operator being able to control each stroke shall not be used.
Saw frames or tables shall be constructed with lugs cast on the frame or with an equivalent means to limit the size of the saw blade that can be mounted, so as to avoid overspeed caused by mounting a saw larger than intended.
Circular saw fences shall be so constructed that they can be firmly secured to the table or table assembly without changing their alignment with the saw. For saws with tilting tables or tilting arbors the fence shall be so constructed that it will remain in a line parallel with the saw, regardless of the angle of the saw with the table.
Circular saw gages shall be so constructed as to slide in grooves or tracks that are accurately machined, to insure exact alignment with the saw for all positions of the guide.
Hinged saw tables shall be so constructed that the table can be firmly secured in any position and in true alignment with the saw.
All belts, pulleys, gears, shafts, and moving parts shall be guarded in accordance with the specific requirements of 1910.219.
It is recommended that each power-driven woodworking machine be provided with a disconnect switch that can be locked in the off position.
The frames and all exposed, noncurrent-carrying metal parts of portable electric woodworking machinery operated at more than 90 volts to ground shall be grounded and other portable motors driving electric tools which are held in the hand while being operated shall be grounded if they operate at more than 90 volts to ground. The ground shall be provided through use of a separate ground wire and polarized plug and receptacle.
For all circular saws where conditions are such that there is a possibility of contact with the portion of the saw either beneath or behind the table, that portion of the saw shall be covered with an exhaust hood, or, if no exhaust system is required, with a guard that shall be so arranged as to prevent accidental contact with the saw.
Revolving double arbor saws shall be fully guarded in accordance with all the requirements for circular crosscut saws or with all the requirements for circular ripsaws, according to the kind of saws mounted on the arbors.
No saw, cutter head, or tool collar shall be placed or mounted on a machine arbor unless the tool has been accurately machined to size and shape to fit the arbor.
Combs (featherboards) or suitable jigs shall be provided at the workplace for use when a standard guard cannot be used, as in dadoing, grooving, jointing, moulding, and rabbeting.
A mechanical or electrical power control shall be provided on each machine to make it possible for the operator to cut off the power from each machine without leaving his position at the point of operation.
On machines driven by belts and shafting, a locking-type belt shifter or an equivalent positive device shall be used.
On applications where injury to the operator might result if motors were to restart after power failures, provision shall be made to prevent machines from automatically restarting upon restoration of power.
Power controls and operating controls should be located within easy reach of the operator while he is at his regular work location, making it unnecessary for him to reach over the cutter to make adjustments. This does not apply to constant pressure controls used only for setup purposes.
On each machine operated by electric motors, positive means shall be provided for rendering such controls or devices inoperative while repairs or adjustments are being made to the machines they control.
Each operating treadle shall be protected against unexpected or accidental tripping.
Feeder attachments shall have the feed rolls or other moving parts so covered or guarded as to protect the operator from hazardous points.
Each circular hand-fed ripsaw shall be guarded by a hood which shall completely enclose that portion of the saw above the table and that portion of the saw above the material being cut. The hood and mounting shall be arranged so that the hood will automatically adjust itself to the thickness of and remain in contact with the material being cut but it shall not offer any considerable resistance to insertion of material to saw or to passage of the material being sawed. The hood shall be made of adequate strength to resist blows and strains incidental to reasonable operation, adjusting, and handling, and shall be so designed as to protect the operator from flying splinters and broken saw teeth. It shall be made of material that is soft enough so that it will be unlikely to cause tooth breakage. The hood shall be so mounted as to insure that its operation will be positive, reliable, and in true alignment with the saw; and the mounting shall be adequate in strength to resist any reasonable side thrust or other force tending to throw it out of line.
Each hand-fed circular ripsaw shall be furnished with a spreader to prevent material from squeezing the saw or being thrown back on the operator. The spreader shall be made of hard tempered steel, or its equivalent, and shall be thinner than the saw kerf. It shall be of sufficient width to provide adequate stiffness or rigidity to resist any reasonable side thrust or blow tending to bend or throw it out of position. The spreader shall be attached so that it will remain in true alignment with the saw even when either the saw or table is tilted. The provision of a spreader in connection with grooving, dadoing, or rabbeting is not required. On the completion of such operations, the spreader shall be immediately replaced.
Each hand-fed circular ripsaw shall be provided with nonkickback fingers or dogs so located as to oppose the thrust or tendency of the saw to pick up the material or to throw it back toward the operator. They shall be designed to provide adequate holding power for all the thicknesses of materials being cut.
Each circular resaw (other than self-feed saws with a roller or wheel at back of the saw) shall be provided with a spreader fastened securely behind the saw. The spreader shall be slightly thinner than the saw kerf and slightly thicker than the saw disk.
Feed rolls and saws shall be protected by a hood or guard to prevent the hands of the operator from coming in contact with the in-running rolls at any point. The guard shall be constructed of heavy material, preferably metal, and the bottom of the guard shall come down to within three-eighths inch of the plane formed by the bottom or working surfaces of the feed rolls. This distance (three-eighths inch) may be increased to three-fourths inch, provided the lead edge of the hood is extended to be not less than 5 1/2 inches in front of the nip point between the front roll and the work.
Each self-feed circular ripsaw shall be provided with sectional non-kickback fingers for the full width of the feed rolls. They shall be located in front of the saw and so arranged as to be in continual contact with the wood being fed.
The requirements of this paragraph are also applicable to sliding cutoff saws mounted above the table.
Each swing cutoff saw shall be provided with a hood that will completely enclose the upper half of the saw, the arbor end, and the point of operation at all positions of the saw. The hood shall be constructed in such a manner and of such material that it will protect the operator from flying splinters and broken saw teeth. Its hood shall be so designed that it will automatically cover the lower portion of the blade, so that when the saw is returned to the back of the table the hood will rise on top of the fence, and when the saw is moved forward the hood will drop on top of and remain in contact with the table or material being cut.
Each swing cutoff saw shall be provided with an effective device to return the saw automatically to the back of the table when released at any point of its travel. Such a device shall not depend for its proper functioning upon any rope, cord, or spring. If there is a counterweight, the bolts supporting the bar and counterweight shall be provided with cotter pins; and the counterweight shall be prevented from dropping by either a bolt passing through both the bar and counterweight, or a bolt put through the extreme end of the bar, or, where the counterweight does not encircle the bar, a safety chain attached to it.
Limit chains or other equally effective devices shall be provided to prevent the saw from swinging beyond the front or back edges of the table, or beyond a forward position where the gullets of the lowest saw teeth will rise above the table top.
Inverted swing cutoff saws shall be provided with a hood that will cover the part of the saw that protrudes above the top of the table or above the material being cut. It shall automatically adjust itself to the thickness of and remain in contact with the material being cut.
The upper hood shall completely enclose the upper portion of the blade down to a point that will include the end of the saw arbor. The upper hood shall be constructed in such a manner and of such material that it will protect the operator from flying splinters, broken saw teeth, etc., and will deflect sawdust away from the operator. The sides of the lower exposed portion of the blade shall be guarded to the full diameter of the blade by a device that will automatically adjust itself to the thickness of the stock and remain in contact with stock being cut to give maximum protection possible for the operation being performed
Each radial saw used for ripping shall be provided with nonkickback fingers or dogs located on both sides of the saw so as to oppose the thrust or tendency of the saw to pick up the material or to throw it back toward the operator. They shall be designed to provide adequate holding power for all the thicknesses of material being cut.
An adjustable stop shall be provided to prevent the forward travel of the blade beyond the position necessary to complete the cut in repetitive operations.
Installation shall be in such a manner that the front end of the unit will be slightly higher than the rear, so as to cause the cutting head to return gently to the starting position when released by the operator.
Ripping and ploughing shall be against the direction in which the saw turns. The direction of the saw rotation shall be conspicuously marked on the hood. In addition, a permanent label not less than 1 1/2 inches by 3/4 inch shall be affixed to the rear of the guard at approximately the level of the arbor, reading as follows: "Danger: Do Not Rip or Plough From This End".
All portions of the saw blade shall be enclosed or guarded, except for the working portion of the blade between the bottom of the guide rolls and the table. Bandsaw wheels shall be fully encased. The outside periphery of the enclosure shall be solid. The front and back of the band wheels shall be either enclosed by solid material or by wire mesh or perforated metal. Such mesh or perforated metal shall be not less than 0.037 inch (U.S. Gage No. 20), and the openings shall be not greater than three-eighths inch. Solid material used for this purpose shall be of an equivalent strength and firmness. The guard for the portion of the blade between the sliding guide and the upper-saw-wheel guard shall protect the saw blade at the front and outer side. This portion of the guard shall be self-adjusting to raise and lower with the guide. The upper-wheel guard shall be made to conform to the travel of the saw on the wheel.
Each bandsaw machine shall be provided with a tension control device to indicate a proper tension for the standard saws used on the machine, in order to assist in the elimination of saw breakage due to improper tension.
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