The wind provisions of this code shall not apply to the design of buildings where wind design is required in accordance with Figure R301.2(4)B.
- For concrete construction, the wind provisions of this code shall apply in accordance with the limitations of Sections R404 and R608.
- For structural insulated panels, the wind provisions of this code shall apply in accordance with the limitations of Section R610.
- For cold-formed steel light-frame construction, the wind provisions of this code shall apply in accordance with the limitations of Sections R505, R603 and R804.
In regions where wind design is required in accordance with Figure R301.2(4)B, the design of buildings for wind loads shall be in accordance with one or more of the following methods:
- AF&PAWood Frame Construction Manual (WFCM).
- ICC Standard for Residential Construction in High-Wind Regions (ICC 600).
- ASCE Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures (ASCE 7).
- AISIStandard for Cold-Formed Steel Framing—Prescriptive Method For One- and Two-Family Dwellings (AISI S230).
- California Building Code.
The elements of design not addressed by the methods in Items 1 through 5 shall be in accordance with the provisions of this code.
Where ASCE 7 or the California Building Code is used for the design of the building, the wind speed map and exposure category requirements as specified in ASCE 7 and the California Building Code shall be used.
Sunrooms shall comply with AAMA/NPEA/NSA 2100. For the purpose of applying the criteria of AAMA/NPEA/NSA 2100 based on the intended use, sunrooms shall be identified as one of the following categories by the permit applicant, design professional or the property owner or owner's agent in the construction documents. Component and cladding pressures shall be used for the design of elements that do not qualify as main windforce-resisting systems. Main windforce-resisting system pressures shall be used for the design of elements assigned to provide support and stability for the overall sunroom.
Category III: A thermally isolated sunroom with enclosed walls. The openings are enclosed with translucent or transparent plastic or glass. The sunroom fenestration complies with additional requirements for air infiltration resistance and water penetration resistance. The space is nonhabitable and unconditioned.
Category IV: A thermally isolated sunroom with enclosed walls. The sunroom is designed to be heated or cooled by a separate temperature control or system and is thermally isolated from the primary structure. The sunroom fenestration complies with additional requirements for water penetration resistance, air infiltration resistance and thermal performance. The space is nonhabitable and conditioned.
Category V: A sunroom with enclosed walls. The sunroom is designed to be heated or cooled and is open to the main structure. The sunroom fenestration complies with additional requirements for water penetration resistance, air infiltration resistance and thermal performance. The space is habitable and conditioned.
Exterior glazing in buildings located in windborne debris regions shall be protected from windborne debris. Glazed opening protection for windborne debris shall meet the requirements of the Large Missile Test of ASTM E1996 and ASTM E1886 as modified in Section 301.2.1.2.1. Garage door glazed opening protection for windborne debris shall meet the requirements of an approved impact-resisting standard or ANSI/DASMA 115.
Exception: Wood structural panels with a thickness of not less than 7/16 inch (11 mm) and a span of not more than 8 feet (2438 mm) shall be permitted for opening protection. Panels shall be precut and attached to the framing surrounding the opening containing the product with the glazed opening. Panels shall be predrilled as required for the anchorage method and shall be secured with the attachment hardware provided. Attachments shall be designed to resist the component and cladding loads determined in accordance with either Table R301.2(2) or ASCE 7, with the permanent corrosion-resistant attachment hardware provided and anchors permanently installed on the building. Attachment in accordance with Table R301.2.1.2 is permitted for buildings with a mean roof height of 45 feet (13, 728 mm) or less where the ultimate design wind speed, Vult, is 180 mph (290 kph) or less.
WINDBORNE DEBRIS PROTECTION FASTENING SCHEDULE FOR WOOD STRUCTURAL PANELSa, b, c, d
|FASTENER TYPE||FASTENER SPACING (inches)a, b|
|Panel span ≤ 4 feet||4 feet < panel span ≤ 6 feet||6 feet < panel span ≤ 8 feet|
|No. 8 wood screw based anchor with 2-inch embedment length||16||10||8|
|No. 10 wood screw based anchor with 2-inch embedment length||16||12||9|
|1/4-inch lag screw based anchor with 2-inch embedment length||16||16||16|
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound = 4.448 N, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s.
- This table is based on 180 mph ultimate design wind speeds, Vult, and a 45-foot mean roof height.
- Fasteners shall be installed at opposing ends of the wood structural panel. Fasteners shall be located not less than 1 inch from the edge of the panel.
- Anchors shall penetrate through the exterior wall covering with an embedment length of not less than 2 inches into the building frame. Fasteners shall be located not less than 21/2 inches from the edge of concrete block or concrete.
- Panels attached to masonry or masonry/stucco shall be attached using vibration-resistant anchors having an ultimate withdrawal capacity of not less than 1,500 pounds.
The text of Section 2.2 of ASTM E1996 shall be substituted as follows:
2.2 ASCE Standard:
ASCE 7-10 American Society of Civil Engineers Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures
The text of Section 6.2.2 of ASTM E1996 shall be substituted as follows:
6.2.2 Unless otherwise specified, select the wind zone based on the ultimate design wind speed, Vult, as follows:
126.96.36.199 Wind Zone 1—130 mph ≤ ultimate design wind speed, Vult < 140 mph.
188.8.131.52 Wind Zone 2—140 mph ≤ ultimate design wind speed, Vult < 150 mph at greater than 1 mile (1.6 km) from the coastline. The coastline shall be measured from the mean high water mark.
184.108.40.206 Wind Zone 3—150 mph (58 m/s) ≤ ultimate design wind speed, Vult ≤ 170 mph (76 m/s), or 140 mph (54 m/s) ≤ ultimate design wind speed, Vult ≤ 170 mph (76 m/s) and within 1 mile (1.6 km) of the coastline. The coastline shall be measured from the mean high water mark.
220.127.116.11 Wind Zone 4—ultimate design wind speed, Vult > 170 mph (76 m/s).
Where referenced documents are based on nominal design wind speeds and do not provide the means for conversion between ultimate design wind speeds and nominal design wind speeds, the ultimate design wind speeds, Vult, of Figure R301.2(4)A shall be converted to nominal design wind speeds, Vasd, using Table R301.2.1.3.
WIND SPEED CONVERSIONSa
For SI: 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s.
- Linear interpolation is permitted.
For each wind direction considered, an exposure category that adequately reflects the characteristics of ground surface irregularities shall be determined for the site at which the building or structure is to be constructed. For a site located in the transition zone between categories, the category resulting in the largest wind forces shall apply. Account shall be taken of variations in ground surface roughness that arise from natural topography and vegetation as well as from constructed features. For a site where multiple detached one- and two-family dwellings, townhouses or other structures are to be constructed as part of a subdivision or master-planned community, or are otherwise designated as a developed area by the authority having jurisdiction, the exposure category for an individual structure shall be based upon the site conditions that will exist at the time when all adjacent structures on the site have been constructed, provided that their construction is expected to begin within one year of the start of construction for the structure for which the exposure category is determined. For any given wind direction, the exposure in which a specific building or other structure is sited shall be assessed as being one of the following categories:
- Exposure B. Urban and suburban areas, wooded areas or other terrain with numerous closely spaced obstructions having the size of single-family dwellings or larger. Exposure B shall be assumed unless the site meets the definition of another type exposure.
- Exposure C. Open terrain with scattered obstructions, including surface undulations or other irregularities, having heights generally less than 30 feet (9144 mm) extending more than 1,500 feet (457 m) from the building site in any quadrant. This exposure shall also apply to any building located within Exposure B type terrain where the building is directly adjacent to open areas of Exposure C type terrain in any quadrant for a distance of more than 600 feet (183 m). This category includes flat, open country and grasslands.
- Exposure D. Flat, unobstructed areas exposed to wind flowing over open water, smooth mud flats, salt flats and unbroken ice for a distance of not less than 5,000 feet (1524 m). This exposure shall apply only to those buildings and other structures exposed to the wind coming from over the unobstructed area. Exposure D extends downwind from the edge of the unobstructed area a distance of 600 feet (183 m) or 20 times the height of the building or structure, whichever is greater.
In areas designated in Table R301.2(1) as having local historical data documenting structural damage to buildings caused by wind speed-up at isolated hills, ridges and escarpments that are abrupt changes from the general topography of the area, topographic wind effects shall be considered in the design of the building in accordance with Section R301.2.1.5.1 or in accordance with the provisions of ASCE 7. See Figure R301.2.1.5.1(1) for topographic features for wind speed-up effect.
- The average slope of the top half of the hill, ridge or escarpment is 10 percent or greater.
- The hill, ridge or escarpment is 60 feet (18 288 mm) or greater in height for Exposure B, 30 feet (9144 mm) or greater in height for Exposure C, and 15 feet (4572 mm) or greater in height for Exposure D.
- The hill, ridge or escarpment is isolated or unobstructed by other topographic features of similar height in the upwind direction for a distance measured from its high point of 100 times its height or 2 miles (3.2 km), whichever is less. See Figure R301.2.1.5.1(3) for upwind obstruction.
- The hill, ridge or escarpment protrudes by a factor of two or more above the height of other upwind topographic features located in any quadrant within a radius of 2 miles (3.2 km) measured from its high point.