Chapter 1 - Title, Establishment of Controls and Interpretation of Regulations
A Resolution regulating the height and bulk of buildings and other structures, regulating and determining the area of yards, courts and other open spaces, and the density of population, and regulating and restricting the location of trades and industries and the location of buildings designed for specific uses within the City of New York, and for such purposes dividing the City into districts.
This Resolution shall be known and may be cited as the Zoning Resolution of the City of New York.
In all districts, after December 15, 1961, any zoning lot or other tract of land, as applicable, and anything therein or thereupon, including any development, enlargement, extension, change of use, new or existing use, conversion, alteration, site alteration, relocation, reconstruction and any building or other structure shall be subject to the regulations of this Resolution; and shall continue to be subject to the provisions of this Resolution in effect at the time of such development, enlargement, establishment of or change of use, conversion, alteration, site alteration, relocation or reconstruction, unless such provisions are modified by an amendment of this Resolution applicable to buildings or other structures or uses existing at the time of such amendment.
Where an existing use or building or other structure is non-conforming or non-complying, the provisions of Article V (Non-Conforming Uses and Non-Complying Buildings) may apply.
Each zoning district is designated by a letter indicating the general land use classification — R for Residence, C for Commercial and M for Manufacturing — followed by one or two numbers and, sometimes, a letter suffix. In residence districts, generally, the higher the first number, the greater the density permitted and the larger the building. Parking requirements usually decrease as density increases. A second number, following a hyphen (such as R3-1 or R3-2), denotes variations in use, bulk or parking regulations among districts within a common density category. In commercial and manufacturing districts, the first number denotes the intensity of permitted uses; the higher the first number, generally, the broader the scope of uses that are permitted and the more significant the land use impact of such uses. The second number, following a hyphen, denotes differences in bulk or parking regulations within a common use category. The higher the second number, generally, the larger the building permitted and/or the lower the parking requirements. Letter suffixes have been added to the designations of certain districts (such as R10A) to indicate contextual counterparts that seek to maintain, enhance or establish new neighborhood characteristics or building scale.