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A detailed medical and work history, with emphasis on: Past, present, and anticipated future exposure to cadmium; any history of renal, cardiovascular, respiratory, hematopoietic, reproductive, and/or musculo-skeletal system dysfunction; current usage of medication with potential nephrotoxic side-effects; and smoking history and current status; and
Biological monitoring that includes the following tests:
Cadmium in urine (CdU), standardized to grams of creatinine (g/Cr);
Beta-2 microglobulin in urine (B(2)-M), standardized to grams of creatinine (g/Cr), with pH specified, as described in Appendix F to this section; and
Cadmium in blood (CdB), standardized to liters of whole blood (lwb).

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