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1910.147 The Control of Hazardous Energy (Lockout/Tagout)

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1910.147(a) Scope, Application, and Purpose
1910.147(a)(1) Scope
1910.147(a)(1)(i)
This standard covers the servicing and maintenance of machines and equipment in which the unexpected energization or start up of the machines or equipment, or release of stored energy, could harm employees. This standard establishes minimum performance requirements for the control of such hazardous energy.
1910.147(a)(1)(ii)
This standard does not cover the following:
1910.147(a)(1)(ii)(A)
Construction and agriculture employment
1910.147(a)(1)(ii)(B)
Employment covered by parts 1915, 1917, and 1918 of this title;
1910.147(a)(1)(ii)(C)
Installations under the exclusive control of electric utilities for the purpose of power generation, transmission and distribution, including related equipment for communication or metering;
1910.147(a)(1)(ii)(D)
Exposure to electrical hazards from work on, near, or with conductors or equipment in electric-utilization installations, which is covered by subpart S of this part; and
1910.147(a)(1)(ii)(E)
Oil and gas well drilling and servicing.
1910.147(a)(2) Application
1910.147(a)(2)(i)
This standard applies to the control of energy during servicing and/or maintenance of machines and equipment.
1910.147(a)(2)(iii)
This standard does not apply to the following:
1910.147(a)(2)(iii)(A)
Work on cord and plug connected electric equipment for which exposure to the hazards of unexpected energization or start up of the equipment is controlled by the unplugging of the equipment from the energy source and by the plug being under the exclusive control of the employee performing the servicing or maintenance.
1910.147(a)(2)(iii)(B)
Hot tap operations involving transmission and distribution systems for substances such as gas, steam, water or petroleum products when they are performed on pressurized pipelines, provided that the employer demonstrates that-
1910.147(a)(2)(iii)(B)(1)
continuity of service is essential;
1910.147(a)(2)(iii)(B)(2)
shutdown of the system is impractical; and
1910.147(a)(2)(iii)(B)(3)
documented procedures are followed, and special equipment is used which will provide proven effective protection for employees.
1910.147(a)(2)(ii)
Normal production operations are not covered by this standard (See Subpart O of this Part). Servicing and/or maintenance which takes place during normal production operations is covered by this standard only if:
1910.147(a)(2)(ii)(A)
An employee is required to remove or bypass a guard or other safety device; or
1910.147(a)(2)(ii)(B)
An employee is required to place any part of his or her body into an area on a machine or piece of equipment where work is actually performed upon the material being processed (point of operation) or where an associated danger zone exists during a machine operating cycle.

Note: Exception to paragraph (a)(2)(ii): Minor tool changes and adjustments, and other minor servicing activities, which take place during normal production operations, are not covered by this standard if they are routine, repetitive, and integral to the use of the equipment for production, provided that the work is performed using alternative measures which provide effective protection (See Subpart O of this Part).
1910.147(a)(3) Purpose
1910.147(a)(3)(i)
This section requires employers to establish a program and utilize procedures for affixing appropriate lockout devices or tagout devices to energy isolating devices, and to otherwise disable machines or equipment to prevent unexpected energization, start up or release of stored energy in order to prevent injury to employees.
1910.147(a)(3)(ii)
When other standards in this part require the use of lockout or tagout, they shall be used and supplemented by the procedural and training requirements of this section.
1910.147(b) Definitions Applicable to This Section
Affected employee. An employee whose job requires him/her to operate or use a machine or equipment on which servicing or maintenance is being performed under lockout or tagout, or whose job requires him/her to work in an area in which such servicing or maintenance is being performed.

Authorized employee. A person who locks out or tags out machines or equipment in order to perform servicing or maintenance on that machine or equipment. An affected employee becomes an authorized employee when that employee's duties include performing servicing or maintenance covered under this section.

Capable of being locked out. An energy isolating device is capable of being locked out if it has a hasp or other means of attachment to which, or through which, a lock can be affixed, or it has a locking mechanism built into it. Other energy isolating devices are capable of being locked out, if lockout can be achieved without the need to dismantle, rebuild, or replace the energy isolating device or permanently alter its energy control capability.

Energized. Connected to an energy source or containing residual or stored energy.

Energy isolating device. A mechanical device that physically prevents the transmission or release of energy, including but not limited to the following: A manually operated electrical circuit breaker; a disconnect switch; a manually operated switch by which the conductors of a circuit can be disconnected from all ungrounded supply conductors, and, in addition, no pole can be operated independently; a line valve; a block; and any similar device used to block or isolate energy. Push buttons, selector switches and other control circuit type devices are not energy isolating devices.

Energy source. Any source of electrical, mechanical, hydraulic, pneumatic, chemical, thermal, or other energy.

Hot tap. A procedure used in the repair, maintenance and services activities which involves welding on a piece of equipment (pipelines, vessels or tanks) under pressure, in order to install connections or appurtenances. it is commonly used to replace or add sections of pipeline without the interruption of service for air, gas, water, steam, and petrochemical distribution systems.

Lockout. The placement of a lockout device on an energy isolating device, in accordance with an established procedure, ensuring that the energy isolating device and the equipment being controlled cannot be operated until the lockout device is removed.

Lockout device. A device that utilizes a positive means such as a lock, either key or combination type, to hold an energy isolating device in the safe position and prevent the energizing of a machine or equipment. Included are blank flanges and bolted slip blinds.

Normal production operations. The utilization of a machine or equipment to perform its intended production function.

Servicing and/or maintenance. Workplace activities such as constructing, installing, setting up, adjusting, inspecting, modifying, and maintaining and/or servicing machines or equipment. These activities include lubrication, cleaning or unjamming of machines or equipment and making adjustments or tool changes, where the employee may be exposed to the unexpected energization or startup of the equipment or release of hazardous energy.

Setting up. Any work performed to prepare a machine or equipment to perform its normal production operation.

Tagout. The placement of a tagout device on an energy isolating device, in accordance with an established procedure, to indicate that the energy isolating device and the equipment being controlled may not be operated until the tagout device is removed.

Tagout device. A prominent warning device, such as a tag and a means of attachment, which can be securely fastened to an energy isolating device in accordance with an established procedure, to indicate that the energy isolating device and the equipment being controlled may not be operated until the tagout device is removed.
1910.147(c) General
1910.147(c)(1) Energy Control Program
The employer shall establish a program consisting of energy control procedures, employee training and periodic inspections to ensure that before any employee performs any servicing or maintenance on a machine or equipment where the unexpected energizing, startup or release of stored energy could occur and cause injury, the machine or equipment shall be isolated from the energy source and rendered inoperative.
1910.147(c)(2) Lockout/Tagout
1910.147(c)(2)(i)
If an energy isolating device is not capable of being locked out, the employer's energy control program under paragraph (c)(1) of this section shall utilize a tagout system.
1910.147(c)(2)(iii)
After January 2, 1990, whenever replacement or major repair, renovation or modification of a machine or equipment is performed, and whenever new machines or equipment are installed, energy isolating devices for such machine or equipment shall be designed to accept a lockout device.
1910.147(c)(2)(ii)
If an energy isolating device is capable of being locked out, the employer's energy control program under paragraph (c)(1) of this section shall utilize lockout, unless the employer can demonstrate that the utilization of a tagout system will provide full employee protection as set forth in paragraph (c)(3) of this section.
1910.147(c)(3) Full Employee Protection
1910.147(c)(3)(i)
When a tagout device is used on an energy isolating device which is capable of being locked out, the tagout device shall be attached at the same location that the lockout device would have been attached, and the employer shall demonstrate that the tagout program will provide a level of safety equivalent to that obtained by using a lockout program.
1910.147(c)(3)(ii)
In demonstrating that a level of safety is achieved in the tagout program which is equivalent to the level of safety obtained by using a lockout program, the employer shall demonstrate full compliance with all tagout-related provisions of this standard together with such additional elements as are necessary to provide the equivalent safety available from the use of a lockout device. Additional means to be considered as part of the demonstration of full employee protection shall include the implementation of additional safety measures such as the removal of an isolating circuit element, blocking of a controlling switch, opening of an extra disconnecting device, or the removal of a valve handle to reduce the likelihood of inadvertent energization.
1910.147(c)(4) Energy Control Procedure
1910.147(c)(4)(i)
Procedures shall be developed, documented and utilized for the control of potentially hazardous energy when employees are engaged in the activities covered by this section.

Note: Exception: The employer need not document the required procedure for a particular machine or equipment, when all of the following elements exist: (1) The machine or equipment has no potential for stored or residual energy or reaccumulation of stored energy after shut down which could endanger employees; (2) the machine or equipment has a single energy source which can be readily identified and isolated; (3) the isolation and locking out of that energy source will completely deenergize and deactivate the machine or equipment; (4) the machine or equipment is isolated from that energy source and locked out during servicing or maintenance; (5) a single lockout device will achieve a locked-out condition; (6) the lockout device is under the exclusive control of the authorized employee performing the servicing or maintenance; (7) the servicing or maintenance does not create hazards for other employees; and (8) the employer, in utilizing this exception, has had no accidents involving the unexpected activation or reenergization of the machine or equipment during servicing or maintenance.
1910.147(c)(4)(ii)
The procedures shall clearly and specifically outline the scope, purpose, authorization, rules, and techniques to be utilized for the control of hazardous energy, and the means to enforce compliance including, but not limited to, the following:
1910.147(c)(4)(ii)(A)
A specific statement of the intended use of the procedure;
1910.147(c)(4)(ii)(B)
Specific procedural steps for shutting down, isolating, blocking and securing machines or equipment to control hazardous energy;
1910.147(c)(4)(ii)(C)
Specific procedural steps for the placement, removal and transfer of lockout devices or tagout devices and the responsibility for them; and
1910.147(c)(4)(ii)(D)
Specific requirements for testing a machine or equipment to determine and verify the effectiveness of lockout devices, tagout devices, and other energy control measures.
1910.147(c)(5) Protective Materials and Hardware
1910.147(c)(5)(i)
Locks, tags, chains, wedges, key blocks, adapter pins, self-locking fasteners, or other hardware shall be provided by the employer for isolating, securing or blocking of machines or equipment from energy sources.
1910.147(c)(5)(iii)
Tagout devices shall warn against hazardous conditions if the machine or equipment is energized and shall include a legend such as the following: Do Not Start. Do Not Open. Do Not Close. Do Not Energize. Do Not Operate.
1910.147(c)(5)(ii)
Lockout devices and tagout devices shall be singularly identified; shall be the only devices(s) used for controlling energy; shall not be used for other purposes; and shall meet the following requirements:
1910.147(c)(5)(ii)(A) Durable
1910.147(c)(5)(ii)(A)(1)
Lockout and tagout devices shall be capable of withstanding the environment to which they are exposed for the maximum period of time that exposure is expected.
1910.147(c)(5)(ii)(A)(2)
Tagout devices shall be constructed and printed so that exposure to weather conditions or wet and damp locations will not cause the tag to deteriorate or the message on the tag to become illegible.
1910.147(c)(5)(ii)(A)(3)
Tags shall not deteriorate when used in corrosive environments such as areas where acid and alkali chemicals are handled and stored.
1910.147(c)(5)(ii)(B) Standardized
Lockout and tagout devices shall be standardized within the facility in at least one of the following criteria: Color; shape; or size; and additionally, in the case of tagout devices, print and format shall be standardized.
1910.147(c)(5)(ii)(C) Substantial
1910.147(c)(5)(ii)(C)(1) Lockout Devices
Lockout devices shall be substantial enough to prevent removal without the use of excessive force or unusual techniques, such as with the use of bolt cutters or other metal cutting tools.
1910.147(c)(5)(ii)(C)(2) Tagout Devices
Tagout devices, including their means of attachment, shall be substantial enough to prevent inadvertent or accidental removal. Tagout device attachment means shall be of a non-reusable type, attachable by hand, self-locking, and non-releasable with a minimum unlocking strength of no less than 50 pounds and having the general design and basic characteristics of being at least equivalent to a one-piece, all environment-tolerant nylon cable tie.
1910.147(c)(5)(ii)(D) Identifiable
Lockout devices and tagout devices shall indicate the identity of the employee applying the device(s).
1910.147(c)(6) Periodic Inspection
1910.147(c)(6)(i)
The employer shall conduct a periodic inspection of the energy control procedure at least annually to ensure that the procedure and the requirements of this standard are being followed.
1910.147(c)(6)(i)(A)
The periodic inspection shall be performed by an authorized employee other than the ones(s) utilizing the energy control procedure being inspected.
1910.147(c)(6)(i)(B)
The periodic inspection shall be conducted to correct any deviations or inadequacies identified.
1910.147(c)(6)(i)(C)
Where lockout is used for energy control, the periodic inspection shall include a review, between the inspector and each authorized employee, of that employee's responsibilities under the energy control procedure being inspected.
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