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Studs in walls framing over 8 feet 6 inches (2.6 m) (including top and bottom plates) or supporting floor and roof loads shall be designed by rational analysis prepared by a registered professional engineer or registered architect proficient in structural design.
2318.1.1 Minimum Size
Studs shall be not less than nominal 2 × 6 for exterior walls or 2 × 4 for interior bearing or load resisting walls unless designed by rational analysis by a registered professional engineer or registered architect proficient in structural design.
2318.1.2 Spacing
Studs shall be spaced not more than 16 inches (406 mm) on center unless designed by rational analysis as a system of columns and beams by a registered professional engineer or registered architect proficient in structural design.
2318.1.3 Placing
2318.1.3.1
Studs in exterior and bearing walls shall be placed with the longer dimension perpendicular to the wall.
2318.1.3.2
Studs in exterior walls and in bearing walls shall be supported by foundation plates, sills, or girders or floor framing directly over supporting walls or girders. Stud bearing walls when perpendicular to supporting joists may be offset from supporting walls or girders not more than the depth of the joists unless such joists are designed for the extra loading conditions.
2318.1.3.3
Stud walls framing into base plates of exterior walls and interior bearing walls resting on masonry or concrete shall be anchored past the plate to the masonry or concrete, or shall be anchored to a sill plate which is anchored in accordance with Section 2318.1.4.1 when the net wind uplift is up to 500 pounds per foot (7297 N/m).
2318.1.4 Sills and/or Base Plates
2318.1.4.1
Sills and/or base plates, where provided in contact with masonry or concrete, shall be of an approved durable species or be treated with an approved preservative and shall be attached to the masonry or concrete with 1/2-inch (13 mm) diameter bolts with oversized washer spaced not over 2 feet (610 mm) apart and embedded not less than 7 inches (178 mm) into a grout filled cell of masonry or into concrete. Base plates shall be placed in a recess 3/4 inch (19 mm) deep and the width of the base plate at the edge of a concrete slab, beam/slab or any other type of construction which uses a masonry surface or concrete slab, or be provided with an alternate waterstop method as approved by the building official. Alternate methods of anchorage may be designed by rational analysis by a registered professional engineer or a registered architect proficient in structural design.
2318.1.4.2
Where the base plate of a bearing wall is supported on joists or trusses running perpendicular to the wall and the studs from the wall above do not fall directly over a joist or truss, a double base plate or a single base plate supported by a minimum 2 × 4 inset ribbon shall be used to support the upper stud wall.
2318.1.5 Top Plates
2318.1.5.1
The top plate of stud bearing walls shall be doubled and lapped at each intersection of walls and partitions.
2318.1.5.2
Joints shall be lapped not less than 4 feet (1219 mm).
2318.1.6 Corners
Corners of stud walls and partitions shall be framed solid by not less than three studs.
2318.1.7 Splicing
Studs, other than end-jointed lumber, shall be spliced only at points where lateral support is provided.
2318.1.8 Framing Types
2318.1.8.1
Wood framing may be any one, or a combination, of the following types: platform, balloon, plank and beam or pole type.
2318.1.8.2
Exterior stud walls of two-story buildings shall be balloon-framed with studs continuous from foundation to second floor ceiling and with second floor joists supported as indicated in Section 2319.3.3. Gable endwalls in wood frame buildings shall be balloon framed with studs continuous from foundation to roof.
Exception: Platform framing is allowed in buildings over one story in height provided an additional mandatory inspection for floor level connectors is made before the framing/firestopping inspection. Gable endwalls shall be balloon framed with studs continuous from top floor to roof.
2318.1.9 Notching
2318.1.9.1
Studs that carry loads in excess of 75 percent of their capacity shall not be notched or cut.
2318.1.9.2
Studs that carry loads 75 percent or less of their capacity may be notched to one-third of the depth without limit of the number of consecutive studs.
2318.1.10 Pipes in Walls
2318.1.10.1
Stud walls and partitions containing pipes shall be framed to give proper clearance for the piping.
2318.1.10.2
Where walls and partitions containing piping are parallel to floor joists, the joists shall be doubled and may be spaced to allow vertical passage of pipes.
2318.1.10.3
Where vertical pipe positions necessitate the cutting of plates, a metal tie not less than 1 inch by 1/8 inch (25 mm by 3 mm) shall be placed on each side of the plate across the opening and nailed with not less than two 16d or three 8d nails at each end.
2318.1.11 Headers
2318.1.11.1
All headers in bearing walls shall be designed by rational analysis.
2318.1.11.2
Headers or lintels over stud wall openings shall have not less than nominal 2-inch (51 mm) bearings.
2318.1.12 Studs Joining Masonry or Reinforced Concrete Walls
Where stud walls or partitions join masonry or concrete walls, such studs shall be secured against lateral movement by bolting to the masonry or concrete with 1/2- inch (13 mm) diameter anchor bolts with oversized washers spaced not more than 4 feet (1219 mm) apart and embedded not less than 5 inches (127 mm) into a grout filled cell or into concrete or as designed by a registered professional engineer or registered architect proficient in structural design using rational analysis.
2318.1.13 Wind Bracing
Exterior stud walls shall be effectively wind-braced in accordance with Section 2322.3. Such bracing shall be designed by a registered professional engineer or registered architect proficient in structural design.
2318.1.14
The intermixing of wall framing described in this chapter with other types of structural wall systems as provided in this code shall not be permitted unless such wall framing and connections are designed by a registered professional engineer or registered architect proficient in structural design.
2318.1.15

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