# Section 1616 Structural Integrity

Frame structures constructed primarily of reinforced or prestressed concrete, either cast-in-place or precast, or a combination of these, shall conform to the requirements of Section 4.10 of ACI 318. Where ACI 318 requires that nonprestressed reinforcing or prestressing steel pass through the region bounded by the longitudinal column reinforcement, that reinforcing or prestressing steel shall have a minimum nominal tensile strength equal to two-thirds of the required one-way vertical strength of the connection of the floor or roof system to the column in each direction of beam or slab reinforcement passing through the column.

**Exception:** Where concrete slabs with continuous reinforcement having an area not less than 0.0015 times the concrete area in each of two orthogonal directions are present and are either monolithic with or equivalently bonded to beams, girders or columns, the longitudinal reinforcing or prestressing steel passing through the column reinforcement shall have a nominal tensile strength of one-third of the required one-way vertical strength of the connection of the floor or roof system to the column in each direction of beam or slab reinforcement passing through the column.

End connections of all beams and girders shall have a minimum nominal axial tensile strength equal to the required vertical shear strength for allowable stress design (ASD) or two-thirds of the required shear strength for load and resistance factor design (LRFD) but not less than 10 kips (45 kN). For the purpose of this section, the shear force and the axial tensile force need not be considered to act simultaneously.

**Exception:** Where beams, girders, open web joist and joist girders support a concrete slab or concrete slab on metal deck that is attached to the beam or girder with not less than 3/8-inch-diameter (9.5 mm) headed shear studs, at a spacing of not more than 12 inches (305 mm) on center, averaged over the length of the member, or other attachment having equivalent shear strength, and the slab contains continuous distributed reinforcement in each of two orthogonal directions with an area not less than 0.0015 times the concrete area, the nominal axial tension strength of the end connection shall be permitted to be taken as half the required vertical shear strength for ASD or one-third of the required shear strength for LRFD, but not less than 10 kips (45 kN).

Bearing wall structures shall have vertical ties in all load-bearing walls and longitudinal ties, transverse ties and perimeter ties at each floor level in accordance with this section and as shown in Figure 1616.3.

Longitudinal ties shall consist of continuous reinforcement in slabs; continuous or spliced decks or sheathing; continuous or spliced members framing to, within or across walls; or connections of continuous framing members to walls. Longitudinal ties shall extend across interior load-bearing walls and shall connect to exterior load-bearing walls and shall be spaced at not greater than 10 feet (3038 mm) on center. Ties shall have a minimum nominal tensile strength, *T _{T}*, given by Equation 16-40. For ASD the minimum nominal tensile strength shall be permitted to be taken as 1.5 times the allowable tensile stress times the area of the tie.

**(Equation 16-40)**

where:

*L* = The span of the horizontal element in the direction of the tie, between bearing walls, feet (m).

*w* = The weight per unit area of the floor or roof in the span being tied to or across the wall, psf (N/m^{2}).

*S* = The spacing between ties, feet (m).

*α _{T}* = A coefficient with a value of 1,500 pounds per foot (2.25 kN/m) for masonry bearing wall structures and a value of 375 pounds per foot (0.6 kN/m) for structures with bearing walls of cold-formed steel light-frame construction.

*T*, given by Equation 16-24. For ASD the minimum nominal tensile strength shall be permitted to be taken as 1.5 times the allowable tensile stress times the area of the tie.

_{T}Perimeter ties shall consist of continuous reinforcement in slabs; continuous or spliced decks or sheathing; continuous or spliced members framing to, within or across walls; or connections of continuous framing members to walls. Ties around the perimeter of each floor and roof shall be located within 4 feet (1219 mm) of the edge and shall provide a nominal strength in tension not less than *T _{p}*, given by Equation 16-41. For ASD the minimum nominal tensile strength shall be permitted to be taken as 1.5 times the allowable tensile stress times the area of the tie.

**(Equation 16-41)**

where:

*w* = As defined in Section 1616.3.2.1.

*β _{T}* = A coefficient with a value of 16,000 pounds (7200 kN) for structures with masonry bearing walls and a value of 4,000 pounds (1300 kN) for structures with bearing walls of cold-formed steel light-frame construction.