(a) Scope. This section consolidates the Fire Prevention Code and former Fire Department rules in effect on June 30, 2008, that are applicable to the design and installation of cryogenic fluid installations in pre-existing facilities.
(b) Definitions. Reserved
(c) General Provisions. Pre-existing facilities with cryogenic fluid installations the design and installation of which would not be allowed or approved under the Fire Code, but which, pursuant to FC102.3 and R102-01, may be continued with respect to such cryogenic fluid installations under the applicable laws, rules and regulations in effect prior to the Fire Code, shall continue to comply with the provisions of such laws, rules and regulations, including former Fire Department rule 3 RCNY 23-03, until such time as such facilities may be required to comply with the Fire Code and rules with respect to such cryogenic fluid installations.
(d) Liquefied Natural Gas.
(1) Former Fire Department Rule 3 RCNY §23-03
§23-03 Manufacture, Storage, Transportation, Delivery and Processing of Liquefied Natural Gas.
(a) Scope. This section has been developed for New York City because of the congested air patterns, high population density and numerous underground subways, tunnels, sewers and other conduits indigenous to this locality. This section shall apply to all liquefied natural gas installations both constructed and operated after the date of promulgation and to the safety of operation, to alterations or redesign of existing facilities not covered by existing criteria. This section shall be applicable also to the waterborne transportation and delivery of LNG as it relates to land based facilities. In all matters not specifically provided for herein, the Regulations of the Department of Transportation and the Public Service Commission of the State of New York, and NFPA STD 59A, 1975 shall apply.
Agency Having Jurisdiction. Agency having jurisdiction means the local authority having responsibility as prescribed in the Charter and Administrative Code of the City of New York, e.g., Fire Department, Department of Buildings, Department of [Ports and Trade] Small Business Services.
Approved. Approved means sanctioned by the agency having jurisdiction for use or operation, after inspection, test or acceptance of data supporting the safety and/or effectiveness of the design, equipment or process.
Barge (LNG). Barge is a vessel, with or without its own propulsion system, inspected and approved by the U.S. Coast Guard for transportation and delivery of LNG on waterways within the Port of New York.
Barrel. Barrel is a unit of volume equal to 42 U.S. gallons.
Berm. Berm is a concrete or compacted earth structure constructed directly against or closely surrounding the container to a height 10 per cent in excess of the design liquid level to serve as the primary impounding area.
Deriming (defrosting or deicing). Deriming (defrosting or deicing) means the removal by heat and evaporation, sublimation, or solution of accumulated constituents which form solids, e.g., water and CO2 from the low temperature process equipment.
Design Pressure. Design pressure is the pressure used in the design of equipment, container or vessel for the purpose of determining the minimum permissible thickness of physical characteristics of its different parts. When applicable static heads shall be included in the design pressure to determine the thickness of any specific part.
Dike. Dike is compacted earth, a concrete, or other non-combustible structure used to establish an impounding area suitable for containing the fluids involved.
Fail Safe. Fail safe is the design feature which provides for safe condition in the event of malfunction of control devices, detection of fire or gas leak or interruption of any energy source.
Impounding area. Impounding area is an area which limits by dikes, berms or natural topography, the containment of spilled LNG, flammable refrigerants or other low flash liquids.
Incombustible or Non-combustible. Incombustible or non-combustible means a material which, in the form in which it is used in construction, will not ignite and burn when subjected to fire. However, any material which liberates flammable gas when heated to any temperature up to 1380 degrees Fahrenheit for five minutes shall not be considered non-combustible. No material shall be considered non-combustible which is subject to increase in combustibility beyond the limits established above, through the effects of age, fabrication or erection techniques, moisture, or other interior or exterior atmospheric conditions.
Installations. Installations includes tanks, liquefication and vaporization facilities, processing equipment, piping and associated loading and unloading facilities, and all fire protection.
Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG). Liquefied natural gas means a gas in the liquid state composed predominately of methane and which may contain minor quantities of ethane, propane, nitrogen or other components common to natural gas.
Maximum Allowable Working Pressure. Maximum allowable working pressure means the maximum gage pressure permissible at the bottom of completed equipment, container or vessel in its operating position for a design temperature.
psia. PSIA is pounds per square inch absolute.
Primary Components. Primary components, in general, include those whose failure would permit leakage of the liquid being stored, those exposed to a temperature between -60°F and -270°F, and those subject to thermal shock. The primary components shall include, but will not be limited to, the following parts of a double-wall tank; shell plates, bottom plates, knuckle plates, compression rings, shell stiffeners, manways, and nozzles including reinforcement shell anchors, pipe, tubing, forgings, and boltings on both inner and outer tank and the roof plates of the inner tank. All LNG liquid and vapor piping and fittings shall be considered primary components.
Process Equipment. Process equipment means all systems required to condition, liquefy, or vaporize natural gas in all areas of application referred to in these regulations.
Risk Analysis. Risk analysis means a methodology of assessment of an identified hazard utilizing a systematic evaluation of failure modes, probabilities and consequences resulting in quantitative data supporting recommendations for corrective action.
Secondary Components. Secondary components, in general, include those which will normally not be in contact with the refrigerated liquid being stored, those exposed to product vapors and having a design metal temperature of -60°F or higher.
Service Building. Service building is a building used for office, maintenance, shops, electrical distribution, garage or storage.
Tanker (LNG). Tanker means an ocean-going vessel, inspected and approved by the U.S. Coast Guard for the transportation and delivery of LNG.Tanks.
(i) LNG storage vessels. LNG vessels or containers of more than 2,500 gallons capacity operating at not more than 2.5 PSIG.
(ii) Process, satellite, or similar tanks. LNG vessels or containers with a capacity of 2,500 gallons or less.
(c) Plant site.
(1) Minimum clearances. Minimum clearances shall be maintained between LNG containers, flammable refrigerant storage tanks, flammable liquid storage tanks, building, structures and plant equipment and plant property lines as prescribed in the chart of minimum distance requirements (Figure 1), unless otherwise provided in these regulations. Siting of tanks shall further be based on radiation and vapor dispersions studies made by competent authorities prior to approval of site plans in order to establish the minimum distance of the property line and to critical occupancies.
Thermal radiation and vapor dispersion study. A thermal radiation and vapor dispersion study shall be submitted, prepared by recognized experts in thermodynamics, selected by the owner and acceptable to the Fire Department. The study should include vapor dispersion characteristics resulting from spills caused by total failure modes of the storage tanks, or equipment, or piping. The study should show equilibrium temperatures within a radius of 1,500' of the tank, at wind velocities of O0, 30, and 60 mph, at points where R = 1,500', 1,200' and 1,000', 800', 600', 500', 400', 300', 200' and 100' from flame surface (innertank wall) in events where an entire tank or group of tanks are involved in a fire. Attention shall also be given to the possibility of local overheating and fires in impounding areas.Table 1
Process Equipment 6
Process Contr. Houses
Fire Pump House Fire Prot. Control
Marine Transfer Facilities
Property Line or Navigable Water
Flare Stacks or Ignition Source
Sewers, Undergrd. Ducts, Drains
Fire Pump House
Fire Prot. Contr.
Property Line or
Flare Stacks or
1. Hospitals, schools, places of assembly, bridges, tunnels, etc.
2. Or one and a quarter tank diameters, whichever is greater, except that tanks of not more than 2500 gallons shall be spaced according to the diameter criteria, but not less than 100 feet.
3. Except where a four-hour unpierced wall separates the control room from flammable liquid handling and explosion venting is provided.
4. For vessels up to 30,000 bbls. cap. Increase to 200 feet for vessels up to 50,000 bbls. and increase to 300 feet for vessels in excess of 50,000 bbls.
5. Or one tank diameter, which ever is greater.
6. Includes cold box.
(2) Site plans.
(i) Proposed site plan. A proposed site plan shall be filed with the Fire Department indicating all major characteristics of the site, showing plant buildings, tanks, containers, dikes, process areas, transfer areas, major LNG piping, lot lines, shore lines, and exposures within 1,500' of lot lines. Such aerial photos as the Fire Department may require shall be included. Site plans shall include underground channels, such as conduits, pipelines, drainage ditches, and similar channels.
(ii) Soil selection. LNG tanks, cold boxes, piping and supports, and other cryogenic equipment shall be properly sited, designed and constructed so that no damage from freezing or heaving of the soil will develop. The soil shall be selected, prepared, and protected in accordance with the requirements of the agency having jurisdiction. (Department of [;Ports and Trade]; Small Business Services or Department of Buildings.)
(iii) Protection of site. Plant sites shall be protected from the forces of nature as flooding by rains, high tides, or soil erosion by grading, draining and dikes. Grass, weeds, trees, or undergrowth shall be cleared within 25 feet of any piping, container, or process equipment.
(3) Facility description. A complete description of the facility shall be filed with the site plan, indicating LNG tanks and sizes, method of liquefaction and vaporization, other methods of acquiring LNG, and fire extinguishing systems. Also included shall be a detailed analysis of the typical product to be stored.
(4) Roads. At least two all-weather roads shall be provided at least 20 feet in width providing access to all areas of the facility. The roads shall be designed in accordance with the specifications of the American Association of State Highway Officials for a uniformly distributed load of 600 pounds per square foot or for the maximum vehicular wheel load that could be imposed thereon, whichever develops the greater stresses. Such design shall take into consideration the weight, height, and turning radius of the heaviest vehicles of the fire department which may have occasion to use the roads. Current specifications of such vehicles shall be obtained from the fire department. Equipment shall be provided to maintain the roads free of snow and ice accumulations and shall at all times be maintained in serviceable condition. Entry gates at least as wide as the road shall be located remote from each other to provide alternate means of access to the plant.
(5) Fences. A protective fence of incombustible material shall be erected at the property line, at least eight feet in height, having locked gates openable only to authorized persons on proper identification.
(d) Tank site — design, general.
(1) Berm height. The maximum height from the ground level to the top of the berm shall be 60 feet and the minimum ratio of the diameter of the container to maximum liquid level shall be 3:1 (See Figure 2).
(2) Tanks over 2,500 gallons. LNG stored in tanks over 2,500 gallons shall be protected from spillage by quadruple containment, i.e., a primary cryogenic container, a secondary cryogenic container, a concrete or earth berm which shall serve both as a tertiary container and primary impounding area, and lastly an outer dike or impounding area which shall constitute the secondary impounding area.
(i) Tanks over 2,500 to 100,000 gallons. Tanks over 2,500 gallon capacity to 100,000 gallons shall be enclosed in a berm of compacted earth suitably protected against soil erosion or a reinforced concrete berm. The outer shell shall be adequately protected against corrosion.
(ii) Tanks over 100,000 gallons. Tanks over 100,000 gallon capacity shall be enclosed in reinforced concrete berm designed to withstand (without damage to the primary container) the impact of the heaviest aircraft which can operate to or from any airport within a radius of ten miles at a speed of 200 knots. The effectiveness of the berm in providing such protection shall be proven by a finite element analysis or block analysis or other acceptable method.
(e) Impounding areas, berms, dikes. Every LNG container shall be located within both primary and secondary impounding areas or dikes, except that tanks with capacity of not over 2,500 gallons need only a primary impounding area or dike.
(1) Impounding areas.
(i) Impounding area. The impounding area formed by dikes or natural topography shall slope away from the tank to a basin provided for minor spills and shall further slope away from waterways or property lines. Cryogenically suitable approved pumps manually controlled and piping on incombustible and cryogenically suitable supports shall be used to return such spills to a tank where possible.
(ii) Impounding area construction. Impounding areas shall not contain underground channels, drains, conduits, or sewers. If disposal of storm water is required, it shall be pumped over the dikes by means of fixed piping and manually controlled.
(2) Impounding areas formed by dikes or natural topography.
(i) Capacity. The minimum capacity of the area shall be 150 percent of the maximum liquid capacity of the container. LNG piping and processing equipment for which the area is provided; except that 250 percent or greater capacity shall be required where foaming, vigorous boiling or other expansion phenomena may be encountered.
(ii) Container restrictions. Not more than one container shall be installed in a single dike and the maximum ratio of highest liquid level in the container to the height of the dike at the required capacity level shall be 2:1 (See Figure 2).
(3) Siting of primary impounding areas for containers 2,500 gallons or less (not bermed). Provision shall be made to prevent a radiation flux from a fire over the primary impounding area from exceeding 1500 BTU/HR/Ft2 at ground level at a property line which can be built upon, when ambient atmospheric conditions are zero wind speed, 70 degrees Fahrenheit temperature and 50 percent relative humidity. Such radiation flux of 1500 BTU/HR/Ft2 is about the level at which protection for humans should be provided. This provision may be complied with, if siting shall be in accordance with Figure 1 or with the formula: d1 = two times the square root of A (whichever is greater) where d1 is the distance in feet from the nearest edge of impounded liquid in the primary impounding area to process equipment, vaporizers, service buildings, process and fire control houses, transfer facilities, ignition sources or to the property line which may be built upon or to a navigable waterway, (but the minimum distance to the near edge of such waterway or property line shall be 200 feet) and A = surface areas of impounded liquid.
(4) Siting of primary impounding areas for containers over 2,500 gallons (bermed). In the case of bermed tanks, provision shall also be made to prevent a radiation flux from a fire over the primary impounding area from exceeding 1500 BTU/HR/Ft2 at ground level at a property line, which can be built upon, when ambient atmospheric conditions are zero wind speed, 70 degrees Fahrenheit temperature, and 50 percent relative humidity. This provision may be complied with if siting shall be in accordance with Figure 1 or the following formula: d2 = one and one-quarter times the square root of A (whichever is greater). A = the cross-sectional area of the inner diameter of the berm, d2 = distance in feet from the nearest edge of liquid in the impounding area to process equipment, service buildings, vaporizers, ignition sources, process and fire control houses and to other LNG containers or to a transfer facility. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the edge of any impounded LNG shall not be closer than 1,000 feet to any critical occupancy such as a school, hospital, place of assembly, bridge, or tunnel.
(5) Berms. Berms of reinforced concrete shall be at least ten feet thick, liquid tight, and strong enough to meet the requirement of §23-03(e)(4). Berms of compacted earth shall be at least ten feet wide at the top and have a slope of 1:1 1/2. Two steel or concrete access stairways from the base to the top of the berm shall be erected diametrically opposite each other.
(i) Dikes shall be constructed of compacted earth or concrete capable of withstanding thermal shock through a temperature range of -260 degrees Fahrenheit to 1800 degrees Fahrenheit and capable of withstanding full hydraulic head and hydraulic surge.
(ii) Dikes shall be liquid tight without openings for pipes. Access roads and ramps for construction, maintenance, and fire protection vehicles are required to pass over the top of the dikes.
(iii) Secondary impounding areas shall be provided for each tank over 2500 gallon capacity.
(7) Surrounding areas.
(i) No sewers, underground ducts, or drains will be permitted within 500 feet of the LNG storage tank, or 50 feet of any impounding area.
(ii) Drainage shall be accomplished by grading, normal evaporation, or by non-automatic means to a safe location. Where impounding areas are to be drained, all drainage piping shall pass over the top of the dike.
(iii) The following areas shall be graded and drained in a manner that will minimize the possibility of endangering personnel, structures, or equipment, or adjoining property through accidental spills or leaks.
(A) Process areas.
(B) Vaporization areas.
(C) In-plant LNG, flammable liquid, and flammable refrigerant transfer areas.
(D) Areas surrounding flammable refrigerant and flammable liquid storage tanks.
(f) Spacing of equipment and structures. Minimum clearances shall be maintained for equipment and structures as noted in this subdivision (f). All equipment and structures referred to in this subdivision (f) shall conform to the minimum clearances as presented in Figure 1.
(i) Vaporizers shall be located at least 100 feet from process equipment, boil-off compressors, flare stacks, property lines or navigable waters, flammable storage of 2,500 gallons or less, and loading or unloading connections other than marine transfer facilities; at least 150 feet from any impounding area; at least 200 feet from service buildings, process control houses or fire protection control facilities; and at least 250 feet from marine transfer facilities, critical occupancy or flammable storage over 2,500 gallons.
(ii) Vaporizers and their primary heat sources shall be located at least 100 feet from any source of ignition.
(iii) No vaporizer shall be located in an enclosed structure or building, unless such enclosure is satisfactorily ventilated and provided with combustible gas detection, alarm and shut down as per §23-03(g)(2)(ii) is in conformance with §§23-03(g)(1)(i) and 23-03(g)(1)(ii) for construction and explosion venting, is provided with an explosion suppression system conforming with NFPA-69 of 1973 and applicable resolution of the Board of Standards and Appeals, and with all electrical equipment and lighting conforming with the New York City Electrical Code for operation in hazardous atmospheres; supplementary heating of the enclosure shall be only by means suitable for hazardous atmospheres.
(2) Multiple vaporizers.
(i) Clearance in multiple heated vaporizer installations shall be as recommended by the manufacturer, but not less than five feet.
(ii) In multiple vaporizer installations, an adjacent vaporizer or primary heat source shall not be considered to be a source of ignition.
(iii) Process heaters or other units of fired equipment are not considered to be sources of ignition with respect to vaporizer siting provided they are interlocked so they cannot operate when a vaporizer is operating or when the piping system serving the vaporizer is either cooled down or in the process of cooling down.
(3) Process equipment. Process equipment containing LNG, refrigerants, flammable liquids or gases shall be located at least 100 feet from sources of ignition, property line which may be built on, control rooms, offices, shops, or other occupied structures; at least 200 feet from fire protection control center; and at least 250 feet from marine transfer facilities or critical occupancy buildings, except that control rooms may be located in a building housing flammable gas compressors if construction complies with §23-03(g)(2).
(4) Fired equipment and sources of ignition. Fire equipment (other than vaporizers) or other sources of ignition shall be located at least 250 feet from any impounding area, container, transfer facility, fire pump house and control, process control house, or critical occupancy; and at least 100 feet from process equipment, vaporizers, service buildings, property line which may be built on, and boil-off compressors, except as provided in §23-03(f)(2)(iii).
(5) Loading and unloading facility.
(i) A pier or dock for pipeline transfer of LNG shall be located so that any tanker or barge moored thereto for loading, unloading, or containing gas shall be located at least 1000 feet from any bridge over a navigable waterway or critical occupancy; at least 250 feet from LNG storage containers, impounding areas, process equipment, process control houses, vaporizers, flare stacks or ignition sources; at least 200 feet from fire pump houses, fire protection control facilities or boil-off compressors; and at least 100 feet from service buildings, property line, or any structure intended for human occupancy for vessels having a capacity up to 30,000 barrels of LNG; 200 feet for vessels having a capacity of 50,000 barrels except for plant structures essential to transfer operations.
(ii) LNG and flammable liquid loading and unloading connections other than marine shall be at least 250 feet from sources of ignition, except as provided in §23-03(f)(1)(i) process areas, control buildings, and storage containers; and 200 feet from other occupied buildings. This does not apply to structures or equipment directly associated with the transfer operation.
(6) LNG storage containers. LNG storage containers shall be sited in accordance with Figure 1, except as may be modified under §23-03(c)(1). LNG storage containers shall be located at least 1000 feet from any critical occupancy; at least 500 feet from process control houses, fire pump houses, fire protection control facilities and sewers, underground ducts or drains; at least 250 feet or one and one-quarter tank diameters, whichever is greater, from another LNG container, property line, navigable water, flare stack or ignition source; at least 250 feet or one tank diameter, whichever is greater, from process equipment, vaporizers or marine transfer facilities; and at least 250 feet from any service building.
(7) LNG impounding areas. LNG primary impounding areas shall be located in accordance with Figure 1 or distances derived from §§23-03(e)(3) or 23-03(e)(4), whichever is greater. All impounding areas shall be located at least 1000 feet from any critical occupancy; 500 feet from fire pump house or fire protection control facilities; 250 feet from any process control house, service building, marine transfer facility, flare stack or ignition source; 200 feet from any property line or navigable water; 150 feet from process equipment or vaporizer; and 50 feet from any sewers, underground ducts or drains.
(8) Boil-off compressors. Boil-off compressors shall be located at least 200 feet from marine transfer facilities and at least 100 feet from storage tanks, vaporizers, process control houses, fire pump house, service building, critical occupancy, property lines, or navigable waters, or to flare stacks or ignition sources.
(9) Process control houses. Process control houses shall be located at least 500 feet from LNG containers; 250 feet from any impounding area, marine transfer facility, flare stack or ignition source; 200 feet from any vaporizer; 150 feet from critical occupancy; and 100 feet from service buildings, boil-off compressors or process equipment.
(10) Fire protection. Fire pump house and fire protection control facilities shall be located at least 500 feet from LNG containers; 250 feet from any impounding area, marine transfer facility, flare stack or ignition source; 200 feet from any vaporizer; and 100 feet from critical occupancy or service buildings.
(g) Buildings and structures.
(i) General. All buildings and structures shall be of non-combustible construction classified as Group I in the Administrative Code, §27-274. Buildings or structural enclosures in which LNG, flammable refrigerants or flammable gases are handled, stored or used shall be of lightweight non-combustible construction Class I-E with non-load bearing walls, and explosion venting conforming to the requirements of NFPA STD 68-1974 and the Department of Buildings as specified in the Administrative Code, §27-401.
(ii) Prohibited areas. All such buildings shall be built on grade without below grade areas.
(2) Rooms containing flammables or cryogenic fluids.
(i) General. If rooms containing cryogenic or flammable fluids are located within or attached to building in which such fluids are not handled, i.e., control rooms, shops, etc., there will be permitted one common wall which shall be Class I-A construction, or four-hour fire resistance rating without openings, and designed to withstand an explosive force of at least 100 psf. and shall be gas-tight.
(ii) Explosion protection. Such rooms shall be further protected against explosion by installation of the following equipment:
(A) Exhaust system. A continuously operation high and low level mechanical exhaust system capable of venting at the rate of at least 1 cfm of air per square foot of floor area. This shall be a dual rate system which will double its exhaust capability on detection of a flammable gas or vapor of 10 per cent Lower Explosive Limit (LEL), such detector shall then initiate the Emergency Shut Down (ESD) at 25 per cent LEL. The exhaust system shall extend to all areas, pits or floor depressions.
(B) Ventilators. A system of open ridge ventilators shall be provided.
(h) Process systems.
(1) Process equipment locations. Processing equipment containing LNG, flammable refrigerants or gases shall be located outdoors, insofar as possible, to facilitate manual fire fighting, and dispersal of accidentally released liquids and gases. When necessary to locate such systems indoors, buildings shall comply with §23-03(g).
(2) Pumps and compressors.
(i) Materials of construction. Pumps and compressors shall be constructed of materials suitable for the conditions of temperature, pressure, and use which they are expected to encounter and shall be approved and certified to the Fire Department as hereinafter provided.
(ii) Valves. Every pump and compressor shall be valved so that it can be isolated for maintenance. In addition, when installed in parallel, each discharge line shall have a check valve.
(iii) Pressure relief. Pump and compressors shall be provided with a pressure relieving device on the discharge to limit the pressure to the maximum safe working pressure of the casing and downstream equipment.
(iv) Vent and relief valves. Each pump shall be provided with an adequate vent and relief valve which will prevent over- pressuring the pump casing during the maximum possible rate of cooldown.
(v) Pump installation. Pumps used for transfer of liquids at temperatures below -20 degrees Fahrenheit shall be provided with suitable means of precooling to reduce the effect of thermal shock.
(vi) Foundation and sumps. The foundations and sumps for cryogenic pumps shall be of incombustible construction, designed and constructed to prevent frost heaving.
(3) Flammable refrigerant and liquid storage. Installation of storage tanks for flammable refrigerants and liquids shall comply with the requirements of Chapter 4 of Title 27 of the Administrative Code.
(4) Process equipment.
(i) Siting. Process equipment shall be sited in accordance with the distance requirements of §23-03(f).
(ii) Boilers. Boilers shall be designed, fabricated, approved, and certified in accordance with the requirements of the Administrative (Building) Code.
(iii) Heat exchangers. Shell and tube heat exchangers shall be designed, fabricated, tested, inspected, approved, and certified by the manufacturer in accordance with the requirements of the Tubular Exchanger Mfrs. Assoc. (TEMA) 1968 edition. Certification certificates shall be filed with the Fire Department. The shells and internals of all exchangers shall be pressure tested, inspected, and stamped in accordance with Section VIII, Division 1, of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, 1971 edition, when such components fall within the jurisdiction of this code. A copy of the ASME certification of test and inspection shall be filed with the Fire Department.
(iv) Engine and turbines. Installation of internal combustion engines or gas turbines shall comply with the requirements of Chapter 1 of Title 27 of the Administrative Code and NFPA 37, 1970 (Installation and Use of Stationary Combustion Engines and Gas Turbines).
(v) Boiloff and flash gas systems.
(A) A boiloff and flash gas handling system separate from container relief valves shall be installed for the safe disposal of vapors generated in the process equipment and LNG containers.
(B) LNG containers shall have their boiloff and flash gases discharge safely to atmosphere or closed system, designed to prevent inbreathing of air.
(C) Provision may be made to introduce natural gas or nitrogen into the containers in the event a vacuum is experienced if the natural gas so introduced will not create a flammable mixture in the container.
(vi) Process equipment supports. Where the structural stability of process equipment is essential to plant safety, the supports for the equipment shall be protected against a two hour fire exposure or be protected against cold liquid or both, if they are subject to such exposures.
(5) Depressurizing equipment.
(i) Emergency depressurization. Provisions shall be made for depressurizing equipment containing gases and liquids in case of fire, failure of the equipment or similar emergency. Emergency controls for depressurization shall be readily accessible and suitably designated.
(ii) Gas and liquid disposal. Gases in the processing equipment shall be vented to the flare stack and LNG shall be relieved to a dump tank or holding reservoir, which shall be vented to the flare stack. The liquid dump tank or holding reservoir shall be of cryogenically suited material large enough to contain all LNG in the processing equipment. Construction shall be in accordance with Subchapter 17 of Chapter 4 of Title 27 of the Administrative Code. The tank or holding reservoir shall be protected against fire by being buried or enclosed in 4-hour rated material, unless it can be proven to the satisfaction of the Fire Department that the anticipated amount of LNG can be quickly vaporized and relieved to the flare stack, and no LNG will accumulate.
(iii) Compression equipment vents. Compression equipment handling flammable gases shall be provided with adequate vents piped to relieve to the flare line.
(6) Cold box construction. The cold box structure and equipment shall be constructed of incombustible material. Cold boxes shall be considered as flammable gas containers for the purpose of purging and shall be subject to the regulations relative thereto as contained in this regulation. If a flammable gas-air mixture is detected in the cold box, inert purge gas shall be introduced until a flammable mixture no longer exists.
(7) Air injection. Air shall not be injected or introduced by the owner into the plant inlet gas stream.
(8) Process report. A process report shall be filed with the Fire Department, for review; such report shall contain the following:
(i) Process information on incoming feed gas treatment, refrigeration, liquefaction, vaporization, deriming, and odorization.
(ii) Basis for approval of all equipment used with reference to the standards of construction, e.g., ASME, ANSI, Chapter 4 of Title 27 of the Administrative Code, and Chapter 1 of Title 27 of the Administrative Code.
(iii) All other items specified in §23-03(u)(5)(ii).
(i) Stationary LNG containers, general.
(1) Primary container.
(i) Suitability for service. The primary container for LNG shall be cryogenically suited material. All materials in direct contact with LNG shall be physically, chemically, and thermally compatible with LNG. NFPA STD 59A-1975, § 423, shall be used as a guide in such determination. Storage containers for LNG shall be designed for the minimum temperature of LNG to be stored at atmospheric pressure. Container foundations shall be capable of withstanding contact with LNG so as not to threaten structural integrity.
(ii) Structural design. Structural design shall be predicated on the density of the product to be stored but not less than 29.3 pounds per cubic foot and suitable allowance made for the requirements of hydropneumatic testing found in §23-03(s) of these regulations. No product with a density greater than that for which the container has been designed shall be stored until permission has been obtained from the Fire Department based on supporting data and calculations and approvals granted by the Department of Buildings and/or Department of [Ports and Trade] Small Business Services. If deemed applicable by the Department of Buildings and/or Department of [Ports and Trade] Small Business Services, seismic loads shall be considered in the design.
(iii) Insulation. Insulation in both non-load bearing and load-bearing areas shall be incombustible. Exposed insulation shall contain, or be inherently a vapor barrier, be water free and resist dislodgement by fire hose streams. An outer shell used to contain loose insulation shall be constructed of steel or concrete. Exposed weatherproofing shall be incombustible. No combustible or flammable adhesives for insulations shall be used.
(2) Inspections, general. Prior to initial operation, containers shall be inspected to assure compliance with the engineering design and with the material, fabrication, assembly, and test procedures of this regulation. These inspections and tests shall be made by the operator and his or her designated employee in the presence of and witnessed by representatives of the Fire Department, Department of [Ports and Trade] Small Business Services, Department of Buildings or other agencies having jurisdiction. Testing of LNG containers shall be conducted in accordance with the requirements contained in §23-03(s) of these regulations.
(3) Maximum pressure. The operator shall specify the maximum allowable working pressure which shall include a satisfactory margin above the operating pressure, and the maximum allowable vacuum.
(4) LNG tank marking. Each container shall be identified by the installation of a permanent and legible plate at the ground level approach, with the following information:
(i) Builder's name and date built.
(ii) Nominal liquid capacity in barrels.
(iii) Design pressure for methane gas at top of tank.
(iv) Maximum permissible density of liquid to be stored.
(v) Maximum level to which container may be filled with stored liquid and with water for testing purposes.
(vi) Maximum temperatures in degrees Fahrenheit for which container was designed.
(5) Tank penetrations. Penetrations of storage containers shall be through the roof only and all such penetrations shall be marked so as to be clearly identifiable as to function under all operating conditions.
(6) Maximum capacity. The maximum capacity of any LNG tank shall be 300,000 barrels.
(7) Prohibited tank types. The following types of tanks shall be prohibited:
(i) "Frozen hole" inground containers.
(ii) Tanks of more than 2,500 gallons capacity designed to operate at more than 2.5 psig.
(j) Metal containers.
(1) General. Metal containers shall be 9 per cent nickel steel alloy, stainless steel, aluminum, or other metal authorized under Section VIII, Division 1, ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, 1971 edition, for use at -260 degrees Fahrenheit. The use of a non-rigid container or liner is prohibited. Metallic tanks shall be fabricated in accordance with the requirements of API STD 620, Appendix Q, July 1973 or equivalent, except as herein modified.
(2) Foundations. Above ground LNG containers shah be supported on suitable concrete foundations designed to comply with Chapter 1 of Title 27 of the Administrative Code and API Standard 620, Appendix Q, July 1973, for a container to be tested with water to the top of the shell. The design shall be done by an engineer qualified in this specialty and reviewed and filed with the Department of [Ports and Trade] Small Business Services or Department of Buildings by a professional engineer licensed in the State of New York, and a copy of the approved plan filed with the Fire Department.
(3) Containers designed for 15 psig or less. Welded primary and secondary containers designed for not more than 15 psig shall comply with API Standard 620, Appendix Q, July 1973 except as herein modified. All welds shall be made by welders licensed by the Department of Buildings under Article 3 of Subchapter 2 of Chapter 1 of Title 26 of the Administrative Code. All butt welds shall be 100 per cent radiographed (horizontal and vertical). Lap welds shall be subjected to a vacuum box test as per API 620, July 1973. A solution vacuum box test shall also be made of the inner and outer tank bottom corner welds, inner tank reinforcing plate to shell welds, reinforcing plate to neck welds and neck-to-shell welds. Magnetic particle or other acceptable methods shall be permitted where other methods are impractical, subject to the approval of the Fire Department and Department of Buildings and/or Department of [Ports and Trade] Small Business Services. All fluxes used in welding shall be thoroughly removed.
(4) Containers designed for more than 15 psig.
(i) General. Containers shall be double-walled with inner container holding the LNG surrounded by insulation contained by the outer jacket. The insulation shall be evacuated or purged.
(ii) Inner container. The inner container shall be fabricated of material authorized by the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, Division 1, 1971 edition, for cryogenic liquids at -260 degrees Fahrenheit. The inner container shall be of welded construction conforming to the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, Division 1, 1971 edition, and designed for a pressure not less than total of working pressure, LNG hydrostatic head and vacuum, if any. The inner container shall be supported concentrically within the jacket by a system capable of sustaining the maximum loads.
(iii) Outer jacket. The outer jacket shall be of welded steel construction in accordance with the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, Division 1, 1971 edition. In the case of positive pressure purge, the jacket shall be designed to be capable of structurally supporting the inner tank and insulation and maximum positive pressure of the purge gas; in the case of vacuum use the jacket shall be designed to resist an external pressure at not less than 15 psig. The jacket shall be equipped with a relief device functioning at a pressure not greater than the internal design pressure of the jacket, the external design pressure of the inner tank or 25 psi, whichever is less.
(iv) Thermal barriers. Thermal barriers shall be provided between cold lines and the jacket. Only incombustible insulation compatible with LNG and natural gas shall be used between the inner container and jacket. Such insulation shall be water free, capable of withstanding thermal cycling between -260 degrees Fahrenheit and 1800 degrees Fahrenheit without decomposition, embrittlement, settling or deterioration, and chemically non-reactive with LNG or natural gas. The inner container shall be designed to withstand without collapsing, the external pressure of the insulation and purge gas.
(v) Support systems. Support systems shall be designed with due consideration to expansion and contraction of the inner container and all thermal stresses created. Saddles and legs shall be designed to withstand the effects of LNG fires, spills, wind loads, shipping loads, erection loads and seismic loads, and accidents attributable to motor vehicles.
(5) Internal lines. Internal lines between the inner container and the jacket shall be designed for the pressure rating of the inner container and allowance made for thermal stresses created. No bellows shall be permitted in the annular space. All such internal lines shall be of materials acceptable under the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, Division 1, 1971 edition, for cryogenic liquid at -260 degrees Fahrenheit.
(k) Concrete containers. Prestressed concrete containers. This subdivision k applies to the design and construction of prestressed concrete containers for any operating pressure, whether externally or internally insulated and for prestressed concrete walls or berms surrounding any container. Non-metallic tanks shall be prefabricated or poured in place reinforced concrete. After the concrete has attained 90 per cent of 28-day strength the tank shall be post-stressed with steel wires, both vertically and circumferentially for tank walls and floors to assure that concrete will remain in compression during all phases of tank operation. Except as modified in these regulations, construction, materials, and tests shall be in accord with applicable ACI, ASTM, and API specifications enumerated in §§ 423 and 424 of Standard 59A-1975 of the NFPA code. The Department of Buildings or Department of [Ports and Trade] Small Business Services shall provide surveillance and inspection to insure compliance with the applicable requirements and shall require such tests and engineering data as it deems necessary and appropriate.
(1) Foundations. Concrete LNG containers shall be supported on foundations of concrete, steel or combination which shall have been designed and constructed in accordance with recognized structural engineering practices to ensure a stable foundation. Anchorage shall be provided to counteract flotation forces unless it can be proven to the satisfaction of the Department of Buildings and/or Department of [Ports and Trade] Small Business Services that such is not necessary. All exposed steel shall be fireproofed with concrete or insulation resistant to dislodgement by hose streams, and shall have a minimum fire-resistant rating of 4 hours. The foundations shall be designed to support the concrete tank filled with water to the top of the shell during tests. The design shall be done by an engineer qualified in this specialty and reviewed and filed with the Department of [Ports and Trade] Small Business Services or Department of Buildings by a professional engineer licensed in the State of New York, and a copy of the approved plan filed with the Fire Department.
(2) Container construction.
(i) Design and construction of the container shall comply with applicable provisions of Chapter 1 of Title 27, Administrative Code and/or recognized standards accepted by the Department of Buildings and/or Department of [Ports and Trade] Small Business Services to provide maximum safety. No construction on any container shall begin until such agency shall have certified to the Fire Department that the container, as designed, does meet the required standards and is satisfactory for the storage of LNG, has provided the Fire Department with such data concerning the container which the Fire Department deems necessary, and after the Fire Department has indicated, in return, its acceptance of the design. Materials subject to LNG temperature shall be selected, specified, tested, and utilized in accordance with the requirements of the Fire Department and the Department of Buildings and/or Department of [Ports and Trade] Small Business Services based on recognized engineering standards. The tank shall be designed to withstand testing by filling with water to the top of the shell.
(ii) The use of the alternative materials of construction may be approved by the Department of Buildings and/or Department of [Ports and Trade] Small Business Services provided that after due investigation such agency is satisfied that such substitutions provide, at least, an equivalent degree of safety and further provided that the Fire Department concurs in such substitution.
(iii) Roof structures and suspended ceilings shall be of materials suitable for cryogenic temperatures and so constructed as to prevent total roof collapse in the event of internal fire. Roof guides shall be incorporated into the structure to minimize the possibility of the roof falling into the tank in the event of pressure surge within the container.
(iv) The seal between the wall and floor shall be of a type acceptable to the Fire Department and the Department of [Ports and Trade] Small Business Services and/or Department of Buildings. It shall not be a corrugated type expansion seal.
(l) Container purging.
(1) Purging. Purging shall be conducted by experienced and qualified personnel under the direction of an experienced engineer competent in this specialty, who shall prepare a written procedure for review and acceptance by the Fire Department prior to the start of purging. Responsibility and authority for the purging operations should be vested in a person who is familiar with the properties and nature of the materials involved and the construction and function of the equipment to be purged. [He] The person should be capable of deciding how the purging should be done and of judging whether it is proceeding satisfactorily and when it is properly completed. He or she should be able to detect any hazards and to decide how best to overcome any difficulties that might arise. He or she should plan and discuss the schedule of the entire operation with operating, maintenance, engineering, testing and safety personnel involved.
(2) Container into service. Prior to placing an LNG container into service the air must be displaced by an inert gas such as nitrogen in an acceptable manner so that at no time will there be a flammable mixture in the container.
(3) Container out of service. Prior to taking a container out of service the natural gas shall be purged with an inert gas such as nitrogen in a safe manner. All tank interior maintenance and repairs shall be performed in an atmosphere of inert gas.
(4) Purging operation.
(i) During purging operation the interior of the container shall be continuously monitored for the presence of oxygen and flammable gas.
(ii) Good organization, planning and preparation with full agreement of all concerned are essential for a successful purging project. The following factors must be decided upon:
(A) Equipment to be purged and how it should be separated.
(B) Inerts to be used, how obtainable, and how introduced and vented.
(C) Method for testing completeness of the purging and end point to be attained.
(D) Selection and assignment of a responsible supervisor and operating personnel.
(E) Preparation of a written "procedure," detailing the sequence of all operations related to the purging, including the time of performance and estimated duration.
(iii) Selection of the time for performing the purging may be affected by many factors not directly related to the operation itself, such as: demands and loads, availability of personnel to perform the repair work or task for which the purging is undertaken, and weather conditions. It is desirable to start the purge operation at a time that will permit completion of purging, the introduction and removal of the inerts and the return to service of the system during daylight hours.
(iv) When more than one unit or piece of equipment is involved, the purging should be broken down into several successive operations, with their sequence definitely decided upon and their timing clearly calculated and scheduled. Each successive part of a large scale operation may well be considered a separate purging. It is important to set down the decisions reached in a written "procedure" which is definite as to consecutive steps. For instance, that no valve is left open when it should be closed or vice versa.
(v) After review and acceptance of the written procedure by the Fire Department, the purging supervisor may proceed with the selection of those required to assist in the operation. All should then be instructed together in the work to be done. Each [man] person should understand what he or she is to do and its importance in relation to the work others must perform.
(vi) Those selected to aid in the purging operation should have definite responsibilities. For example, one [man] person may be made responsible for the production and continuity of supply of inerts, a second, who has analytical and chemical testing training, responsible for the testing of the contents in or escaping from the purged chambers. These [men] persons should concentrate all their attention on their indicated duties and should not be expected to perform any other tasks. As many other [men] persons as deemed necessary should be assigned for the general purging operations.
(m) Cooldown procedure.
(1) Cooling down shall be limited to a rate and distribution pattern which will not cause allowable thermal stresses in the container and LNG piping to be exceeded.
(2) Cooldown shall be conducted by qualified and experienced personnel under the supervision of an engineer competent in this procedure.
(3) The container, associated piping and joints shall be under continuous surveillance to detect any failures or leaks.
(n) Pressure and vacuum control. (1) General. LNG containers and associated equipment and piping shall be provided with means of maintaining pressure and vacuum within design limits by admitting or discharging natural gas as needed. The means provided for the admission and release of gas as required in this subdivision (n) shall be acceptable to the Fire Department.
(2) Sizing. Sizing such pressure control devices shall include consideration of, (but not limited to), the following factors:
(i) For pressure.
(A) Loss of refrigeration.
(B) Failure of a control device or other deviation from normal operation.
(C) Vapor displacement and flash vaporization including thermal roll-over during and subsequent to filling, and flash vaporization resulting from pump recirculation.
(D) Drop in barometric pressure.
(E) Exposure to fire or radiation from fire, or other heat source.
(ii) For vacuum.
(A) Withdrawal of liquid at maximum rate.
(B) Withdrawal of vapor at maximum compressor suction rate.
(C) Rise in barometric pressure.
(D) Reduction in vapor pressure resulting from the introduction of sub-cooled LNG into the vapor space.
(3) Vents. In addition to the pressure control means required under the foregoing, LNG containers shall be provided with dual sets of direct acting pressure and vacuum vents communicating with the atmosphere, with each set sized for total relief. Fire exposure must be considered in the sizing of pressure relief vents.
(4) Vent calculations. Copies of venting and relief valve calculations for LNG storage tanks and equipment shall be furnished to the Fire Department.
(1) General. There are various classifications of vaporizers. This subdivision (o) describes these classifications and their associated equipment.
(i) Heated vaporizers. Heated vaporizers are those vaporizers which derive their heat from the combustion of fuel, electric power, or waste heat and can be of direct fired, indirect fired, or remote fired.
(ii) Ambient vaporizers. Ambient vaporizers are those vaporizers deriving their heat from natural sources.
(iii) Process vaporizers. Process vaporizers are those which derive their heat from another thermodynamic or chemical process or in such a fashion as to conserve or utilize the refrigeration from the LNG.
(2) Prohibited vaporizers. Flammable heat transporting mediums are prohibited for any type of vaporizer, except that natural gas may be used in derime heaters.
(3) Design and materials of construction. ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, Division 1, 1971 edition shall govern the design, fabrication and inspection of vaporizers. Materials used shall be suitable for the temperatures and pressures to which they may be exposed. Vaporizer heat exchangers. Vaporizer heat exchangers shall be designed for a working pressure at least equal to the maximum discharge pressure of the LNG pump or pressurized container system supplying them, whichever is greater.
(4) Vaporizer and vaporizer piping valves.
(i) Automatic equipment. Automatic equipment acceptable to the Fire Department shall be provided to prevent discharge of LNG or gas into a distribution system at a temperature above or below the design temperature of the sendout system.
(ii) Block valves. Manifolded vaporizers shall have both inlet and discharge block valves at each vaporizer.
(iii) Discharge and relief valves materials and construction. The discharge valve of each vaporizer and piping components and relief valves upstream of that valve shall be suitable for operation at LNG temperatures.
(iv) Inlet valves. In order to prevent a leak of LNG into idle vaporizers there shall be two inlet valves and a safe means of disposal of gas which may be trapped between them shall be provided.
(v) Heat source shut-off valves. Each heated vaporizer shall be provided with heat source shut-off valves at the vaporizer and at a point at least fifty feet distant.
(vi) Vaporizer shut-off valve. The LNG line to each vaporizer shall be provided with a shut-off valve at least fifty feet distant from the vaporizer operable from a remote point and manually at its installed location.
(vii) Derime heater shut-off valves. If natural gas is used with a derime heater, shut-off valves shall be provided to both feed and discharge lines, located at least fifty feet from the heater.
(viii) Relief devices.
(A) Each vaporizer and/or heater shall be provided with a safety relief valve providing an effective rate of discharge. Relief valve calculations shall be submitted to the Fire Department for review and acceptance and shall include allowance for pressures developed due to fire exposure. The relief valve capacity of vaporizers shall be such that the relief valve(s) will discharge 150% of rated vaporizer natural gas flow capacity without allowing the pressure to rise more than 10% above the vaporizer maximum allowable working pressure.
(B) Relief valves on heated vaporizers shall be located so that they are not subjected to normal operating temperatures in excess of their design temperature.
(5) Safety controls. In order to assure safe operation, heated vaporizers shall be provided with fully automatic, fail-safe controls, electrically classified by New York City Administrative (Electrical) Code to operate in hazardous atmospheres, to accomplish the following where applicable:
(i) Prepurge for 1 3/4 minutes with air or inert gas heat exchanges of combustible gases. Purge timer, solenoid control pilot and fuel gas valves and ignition time limit switch to be provided.
(ii) Startup on low fire start by pilot only, with burners then lit by pilot as they open.
(iii) Monitor for process temperature, pressure and/or flow with shutdown if any parameter is exceeded.
(iv) Monitor flue gases with flue gas analyzer to detect gas or unburned fuel, also to report surplus oxygen.
(v) Shutdown on insufficient air. Combustion air blower and combustion air pressure switch to be provided for combustion air blower and fuel gas and combustion air proportional control valve to be provided.
(vi) Shutdown on electrical malfunction.
(vii) Shutdown on flame failure of pilot or burner.
(viii) Shutdown on high stack temperature (no restart possible until the temperature returns to normal operating temperature).
(ix) Vary burner gas and air input with LNG flow rate to maintain output process temperature within prescribed limits. (Automatic proportional temperature control).
(x) Alert manager of the plant in event the door is opened for any reason, by means of a tamper control with supervisory signal to be provided in the electrical panel box. (This is to guard against by-passing of controls by any operator).
(xi) Prevent over firing of unit by use of a combustion air blower designed with limited capacity.
(1) Design and materials. General.
(i) Design. The design and fabrication of piping systems shall comply with American National Standard (ANSI) B31.3 "Petroleum Refinery Piping," except as modified by this subdivision (p).
(ii) Materials. All materials, including gaskets and thread compounds shall be suitable for the temperatures to which they may be exposed, including fire. A materials list shall be prepared and submitted to the Fire Department for review and acceptance.
(2) Seamless pipe. Seamless pipe, only, shall be used for process and transfer piping handling LNG, flammable refrigerants, flammable liquids or gases, except that welded pipe may be used if seamless pipe is not available in the size required and if the weld and heat affected zone complies with ANSI B31.3 Subsection 3232.2 (impact tests) and is non-destructively examined in a manner acceptable to the Fire Department. Furnace lap-welded, furnace butt-welded or spiral-welded pipe is not acceptable for flammable gas, refrigerant or LNG. All fluxes used in welding shall be thoroughly removed.
(3) Threaded pipe. Threaded pipe shall be at least Schedule 80, but no threaded pipe over 2 inches nominal pipe size shall be used for flammable liquid or gas, and all such threaded joints used must be seal-welded, or sealed by other means acceptable to the Fire Department. No threaded pipe shall be used for cryogenic service.
(4) Thermal expansion. Thermal expansion shall be provided for by means of piping bends, loops or offsets. Expansion joints of the bellows, slip, and ball type are prohibited for lines handling flammable liquids or gases.
(5) Prohibited materials. A liquid line on a storage container, coldbox or other major item of insulated equipment external to the outer shell or jacket whose failure can release a significant quantity of flammable fluid shall not be made of aluminum, copper or copper alloy, or other material that has low resistance to flame temperatures.
(6) Prohibited fabrication. Socket welds on piping shall be prohibited except for branch connections not over 2 inches diameter; threaded pipe joints not seal welded, expanded, flared, compression, caulked, brazed and soldered joints are prohibited except as permitted in §§23-03(p)(3) and 2313(p)(7). Flange joints shall be held to a minimum. Butt-welded joints shall be used wherever possible.
(7) Pipe fittings.
(A) Metals may be joined for cryogenic service by silver brazing. Silver brazing may be used on copper to copper joints, copper to copper alloys, and copper to stainless steel. Dissimilar metals may be joined by flanges or transition joint techniques which have been proven by test.
(B) The number of threaded or flanged joints shall be held to a minimum and used only where absolutely necessary, such as material transitions, instrument connections or where required for maintenance.
(C) Care shall be taken to insure the tightness of all bolted connections. Spring washers or other devices designed to compensate for the contraction and expansion of bolted connections during normal operating cycles shall be used where required.
(ii) Threaded nipples. Threaded nipples shall be at least Schedule 80.
(iii) Malleable iron. Malleable iron fittings are permitted only in auxiliary systems for oil, water, air, etc., and shall not be used to convey flammable refrigerants, gases, or liquids.
(iv) Plugs. Solid plugs or bull plugs made of at least Schedule 80 seamless pipe shall be used for threaded plugs.
(v) Flanges. Flanges shall be butt welded to the piping. All flanges shall be raised face and shall be concentric serrated in conformance with Manufacturers Standardization Society of the Valve and Fitting Industry, MSS-SP-6, 1963.
(8) Gaskets. Gaskets on piping conveying LNG, flammable refrigerants or gases shall be metal, metal jacketed or retained spiral wound.
(9) Prohibited conditions. The following practices and conditions shall be prohibited:
(i) Compression-type couplings shall not be used where they will be subjected to temperatures below minus 20 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 28.9 degrees Centigrade), unless such couplings meet the requirements of 318 of ANSI B31.3.
(ii) Threaded pipe shall be avoided for service temperatures below -20 degrees Fahrenheit. Where permitted, threaded joints shall be sealed as per §23-03(p)(3).
(iii) No bends in fittings beyond those which are designed or fabricated into the fitting are permitted.
(i) General. In addition to complying with ANSI B31.3, Section 307, valves shall comply with ANSI B31.5 or B31.8 or API 6D if design conditions fall within their scope.
(ii) Extended bonnet valves.
(A) Extended bonnet valves with or without bellows seals shall be used for service temperatures below -50 degrees Fahrenheit.
(B) Extended bonnet valves shall be installed with stems positioned above the horizontal.
(iii) Shut-off valves.
(A) Shut-off valves shall be provided on all LNG, flammable refrigerant, flammable liquid and flammable gas containers, tank and vessel connections, except those for relief valves, those for liquid level gaging devices, and those that are blanked or plugged. Shut-off valves shall be located as close as possible to the containers or vessels they protect.
(B) The design and installation of an internal valve shall be such that any failure of the penetrating nozzle from outside stresses will be beyond the shut-off seats of the internal valve.
(C) The number of shut-off valves shall be the minimum required for safe and efficient operation.
(iv) Blocking and manual valves.
(A) Required automatic blocking valves. Automatic blocking valves of "fail safe" type shall be installed in addition to manual valves to limit and isolate leaks, and to protect the plant in case of fire or other emergency, as follows: (a) Natural gas feed line to the liquefaction system (where it enters plant). (b) Natural gas feed line to the derime heater. (c) LNG fill line from the cold box to the LNG container (at cold box). (d) LNG withdrawal lines to booster pumps from tank (at the pumps, at the tank and at the dike). (e) LNG feed line to the vaporizers (at vaporizer). (f) Natural gas line outlet from vaporizers to sendout line (at vaporizer). (g) Natural gas vapor boil-off line from tank to process area (near tank). (h) Discharge line of refrigerant compressor. (i) Additional valves for isolation shall be installed as required by the Fire Department.
(B) Automatic blocking valve operation and activation. These valves shall be capable of manual operation and shall operate automatically on: (a) Detection of fire at tank, dike, vaporizer or process area or fire endangering the valve. (b) Indication of over-pressure (beyond maximum operating pressure) or under-pressure (leak or rupture). (c) Actuation of emergency shut-down system, manually, or automatically at process control house or other selected sites. (d) Manual operation of natural gas control valve.
(v) Safety and relief valves.
(A) Safety and relief valves shall be arranged to prevent damage. No shut-off valves are permitted in a line of relief. Relief valve settings shall be sealed.
(B) A thermal expansion relief valve shall be installed to prevent overpressure in any section of a liquid pipeline which can be isolated by valves. Thermal expansion relief valves shall be set to operate above the maximum normal operating pressure and less than the rated test pressure of the line it protects.
(C) Discharge from such valves shall be directed to minimize hazard to personnel and equipment. Flammable liquids and gases shall be discharged to the plant system connected to an operating flare stack.
(vi) Valve installation. Valves and other control valves shall be installed so that their operation will not be affected by icing.
(vii) Valve identification. Valves shall be identified at their locations by a number and where feasible a brief statement of its function.
(11) Pipe supports and piping insulation.
(i) Pipe supports. Supports for piping shall be capable of withstanding a two-hour fire exposure except that supports subject to exposure to cryogenic liquid or essential to plant safety shall be capable of withstanding such exposure without excessive heat transfer which can affect piping restraints due to icing, or embrittlement of supporting steel, and to a fire of four hours duration.
(ii) Piping insulation. Piping insulation shall be of incombustible material; where space limitation or other conditions are such as to make the use of incombustible insulation impracticable, then insulation having a flame spread rating of 25 or less per ASTM-E-84 may be used, providing that such insulation is covered with at least two inches of incombustible material held in place by a metal covering and stainless steel strapping when permitted by the Fire Department.
(12) Pipe identification. Process, fuel, high pressure steam, fire protection and other critical piping shall be identified by color coding, painting or labeling, subject to the approval of the Fire Department.
(i) Certification of welders. Only certified welders shall be employed and certifications of welders filed with the Fire Department. Piping welders shall be certified by their employers after qualifying under Section IX-ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code 1971, or Standard for Welding Pipelines (API Standard 1104) 1968.
(ii) Radiographic inspection. All welded joints on flammable liquid or gas piping shall be subjected to radiographic testing by an outside person or firm qualified to perform radiographic testing under Section IX-ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (1971) or API Standard 1104. Certifications on acceptance or rejection of each weld shall be filed with the Fire Department by the owner.
(iii) Visual inspection. All welded joints shall be subject to visual examination, over the entire O.D. and I.D. (with mirrors or other means) by the welding inspector employed by the owners.
(iv) Supplementary inspection. Supplementary examinations for soundness shall be made as required by the Fire Department of welds on pipe and fittings conveying cryogenic liquids, high heat and high pressure flammable liquids or flammable gases, and flammable refrigerants. These shall include:
(A) Ultrasonic over entire O.D. and/or
(B) Liquid penetrant over entire O.D. (for non-magnetic material), and/or
(C) Magnetic particle test for magnetic material.
(D) Welds shall be rejected for cracks and unworkmanlike welding.
(v) Practices and techniques. The following practices and techniques shall be observed:
(A) Scabs, slivers, seams, laps, tears, abrasions, and mechanical marks must be removed within the minimum wall thickness.
(B) When welding impact tested materials, qualified welding procedures shall be used to minimize degradation of the low temperature properties of the material.
(C) When welding to thin wall pipe, techniques shall be exercised to avoid burn-through.
(D) Electric arc or inert gas-shielded welding shall be used in piping for service below -20 degrees Fahrenheit.
(14) Weld identification. Weld identification markings for pipe which will be subject to service temperatures below -20 degrees Fahrenheit shall comply with the following:
(i) Marking shall be made with a material compatible with the basic material or with a round-bottom low stress die, except that materials less than one-quarter inch thick shall not be die-stamped.
(ii) Aluminum shall be marked with chalk wax-base crayons or marking inks containing organic coloring.
(15) Testing of piping.
(i) Pressure tests shall be made of all piping in accordance with §23-03(s) of these rules relating to the procedures. Carbon and low alloy steel piping shall not be pressure tested at metal temperatures below 35 degrees Fahrenheit.
(ii) Such tests shall be made in the presence of a representative of the fire department and the written results thereof promptly filed with the fire department.
(iii) Records of such tests shall include clear identification of the piping, pressure, test medium, temperature thereof, ambient temperature, duration and shall remain a permanent record.
(16) Purging of piping systems. Purging of air or gas shall be done in a safe manner. ANSI B31.8, Section 841.285 may be used as a guide. Blow down and purge connections shall be provided to facilitate purging of process and flammable gas piping.
(17) Corrosion control.
(i) Underground and submerged piping shall be protected and maintained in accordance with the principles of the National Association of Corrosion Engineers Standard RP-01-69 (1972 Revision), Control of External Corrosion of Underground or Submerged Metallic Piping System.
(ii) Precautions shall be taken for the protection of austentic stainless steel and aluminum alloys to prevent corrosion and pitting from corrosive atmospheric and industrial media during storage, construction, fabrication, testing and service. These media include but are not limited to chlorides and compounds of sulphur or nitrogen. Where insulation materials can cause corrosion of aluminum or stainless steel, suitable inhibitors or water-proof barriers shall be utilized.
(q) Instrumentation and electrical services.
(1) Liquid level gaging. LNG containers. Each LNG container shall be equipped with approved liquid level gaging devices acceptable to the fire department.
(i) High level alarm. Each LNG container shall be equipped with approved liquid level alarm separate from the liquid level gaging device which will sound at the control house and at the marine unloading station when the liquid level is at 95 percent of the maximum filling height. In addition, a visible alarm shall be provided in the control board at the control house and marine station.
(ii) High level cut-off device. A high level cut-off device in addition to the alarm shall be provided to automatically reduce the flow of LNG to the container at 95 percent and cut it off at 98 percent.
(iii) Try cocks. No liquid try cocks are permitted.
(2) Liquid level gaging. Tanks for refrigerants and/or flammable process fluids. Each refrigerant and/or flammable process fluid tank shall be equipped with approved liquid level gaging devices acceptable to the fire department.
(i) High level alarm and cut-off device. Each storage tank shall be equipped with a liquid level gage and a high liquid level alarm and automatic cutoff as in §§23-03(q)(1)(i) and 23-03(q)(1)(ii).
(ii) Try cocks. No liquid try cocks are permitted.
(3) Pressure gages.
(i) LNG containers and other pressure vessels. Each LNG container and pressure vessel shall be equipped with a pressure gage connected to the container above the maximum liquid level. The LNG container shall also be provided with a pressure recorder.
(ii) Liquefaction systems. Pressure gages shall be placed upstream and downstream of process equipment where trace contaminants in the feed stream may deposit, as an aid to the scheduling of deriming operations.
(4) Vacuum gages. Vacuum jacketed equipment shall be provided with instruments for checking the absolute pressure in the annular space.
(5) Temperature indicators. Temperature monitoring devices shall be provided in various locations of the LNG Plant as follows:
(i) LNG containers. Temperature monitoring devices shall be provided in LNG containers to assist in controlling temperatures when placing the container in service and for calibrating liquid level gages.
(ii) Vaporizers. Vaporizers shall be provided with indicators to monitor inlet temperatures of LNG, outlet temperatures of vaporized gas and heating medium fluids and stack temperatures.
(iii) Liquefaction systems. Liquefaction systems shall be provided with temperature monitoring devices upstream and downstream of process equipment.
(iv) Foundations. Temperature monitoring equipment and heating cables shall be provided where foundations supporting cryogenic containers and equipment could be adversely affected by freezing or frost heaving of the ground.
(6) Additional instrumentation. In addition to the foregoing there shall be provided sufficient temperature measuring instruments for floor, inner tank wall, outer tank insulation, roof and hung ceiling, and other indicators such as wall movement transducers, strain gages, etc., that the Fire Department may require, to assure the prompt detection of an LNG leak or variation from the normal operating parameters in any container.
(7) Emergency shut-down.
(i) Power or instrument air failure. Instrumentation for liquefaction, storage and vaporization facilities shall be designed so that in the event of power failure or instrument air failure the system will go into a "fail safe" condition until the system can be reactivated or secured.
(ii) Automatic shut-down. Provision shall be made for automatic shut-down of major items of equipment (e.g., compressors of a liquefaction facility, liquid send-out pumps and vaporizers and isolation valves), manually from several locations remote from the equipment and accessible in an emergency, and automatically in the event of fire detection or a major leak. In addition on fire detection, the emergency shut-down shall include automatic activation of the extinguishing system in the area of detection, and shall include automatic notification to the Fire Department via a central office. The emergency shut-down shall be accompanied by audible and visible trouble signal at the control house and sounding of the plant alarm.
(8) Electrical equipment.
(i) General. Electrical equipment and wiring shall be of the type specified by and installed in accordance with the New York City Electrical (Administrative) Code and a certificate of inspection issued by the Bureau of Electrical Control shall be filed with the Fire Department. Where the New York City Electrical (Administrative) Code makes no provisions, NFPA Std. 70 shall apply. All alarm, detection, and communication systems shall conform to §23-03(t)(7)(i)(B).
(ii) Secondary electrical power. A secondary source of electrical power shall be provided sufficient for LNG control, venting, plant shut down, operation of fire protection equipment (including fire pumps). Gas turbine or diesel drive may be accepted as satisfying this requirement. Such secondary power supply shall be so installed and arranged to provide for an uninterruptible switchover from primary to secondary power supply in case of primary power supply failure.
(iii) Electrical grounding. All tanks, piping, and equipment shall be electrically grounded.
(iv) Lightning protection. LNG storage tanks shall be protected against lightning in accordance with the New York City Electrical (Administrative) Code and NFPA Std. 78. An affidavit shall be filed to this effect with the Fire Department.
(v) Warning light. An explosion-proof red or amber warning light of adequate intensity shall be provided at the dome of the tank.
(vi) Stray currents. If stray currents may be present, or if impressed currents are used in loading or unloading systems (e.g., cathodic protection) protective measures to prevent ignition shall be taken in accordance with "Protection Against Ignitions Arising Out of Static Lightning and Stray Currents"- API-RP 2003 (1967). Particular attention shall be given to protection of underground lines and structures from accelerated corrosion, and the use of insulated flanges to prevent currents or use of bonding cables to prevent potential differences at pipe and equipment interfaces.
(vii) Lighting. Lighting of adequate intensity shall be provided for all parts of the plant including the access roads to, and in the plant, and such lighting shall conform to the New York City Electrical (Administrative) Code.
(r) Transfer of LNG and refrigerants.
(1) Scope. This subdivision (r) applies to the transfer of refrigerants, flammable liquids and flammable gases between storage containers or tanks and points of receipt or shipment as permitted by pipeline, tank car, tank vehicle or marine vessel, with the following restrictions:
(i) LNG shall be received or shipped by Coast Guard approved marine vessel only, except where other means of transportation is permitted by the Fire Department.
(ii) Flammable or combustible liquids, gases, or refrigerants shall be received only by approved pipeline or permitted trucks complying with the specifications of the Fire Department or by Coast Guard approved marine vessels.
(iii) Liquefied flammable gases shall be received only by Coast Guard approved marine vessels unless in containers complying with Subchapter 17 of Chapter 4 of Title 27 of the Administrative Code.
(iv) Non-flammable gases, whether liquefied or not, shall be received only in permitted trucks complying with the specifications of the Fire Department, tank cars or Coast Guard approved marine vessels.
(v) Transfer facilities shall comply with the appropriate provisions of these regulations relating to siting, piping systems, fire protection and instrumentation and to specific provisions of this subdivision (r).
(2) LNG compatibility. LNG being transferred into storage containers shall be compatible with that already in the container. Means shall be provided to prevent stratification which may result in rollover and extensive evolution of vapor. The means of accomplishing this objective shall be stated in the operating manual, which shall be acceptable to the Fire Department.
(3) Odorization. No gas in liquid or gaseous state shall be transferred into or out of the plant, effective January 1, 1979, unless it is satisfactorily odorized.
(4) Piping system. The transfer lines shall comply with the requirements of this subdivision (r).
(i) Blocking valves. Blocking valves shall be provided at the extremities of marine liquid transfer lines. The valves at the discharging end may be manually operated. The valves at the receiving end shall be capable of remote shutdown and provided with "fail safe" features.
(ii) Precooling. Provision shall be made for precooling transfer lines used to convey cryogenic liquids.
(iii) Check valves. Check valves shall be provided as required in transfer systems and located as close as possible to the point of connection to any system from which backflow can occur.
(iv) Vent line. A vent line of sufficient capacity shall be provided for LNG transfer lines, fabricated of cryogenically suited materials, connected to the high point of the transfer line and vented to the flare system.
(v) Supports. The liquid and vent lines shall be supported on incombustible supports. When steel is used, insulation shall be provided at points of contact. Cryogenic lines shall be insulated with incombustible insulation for personnel protection.
(vi) Vent valve and pressure gage location. Vent valves and pressure gages shall be provided equidistant along LNG lines at approximately 1000 foot intervals.
(vii) Transfer line fabrication. Transfer lines shall be fabricated of materials suited for the service intended, welded and 100 per cent of all welds radiographed; when radiography is not possible, other non-destructive tests may be used. Expansion loops may be installed with flanges and gaskets and made up with suitable stainless steel bolts. Piping shall conform to §23-03(p) and stress level shall not exceed 40 percent of specified minimum yield strength.
(viii) Drains. A drain or bleeder valve shall be provided to empty piping after block valves are closed.
(ix) Pipe routing. Where piping passes under roadways, ramps shall be provided and suitable protection to protect the pipe from impact loads. Such protection shall be in the form of a steel casing so that the transfer piping can be monitored for leaks.
(5) Pump and compressor drive.
(i) Suitability. Pumps and compressors shall be designed and tested for the service temperatures and pressures to which they may be subjected.
(ii) Signal lights. Signal lights shall be provided at the loading or unloading area to indicate when a remotely located pump or compressor used for loading or unloading is idle or in operation.
(iii) Parallel pumps. When pumps are in parallel, each pump suction and discharge line shall contain a block valve designed for at least the maximum operating pressure of the system. If centrifugal pumps are used, a check valve shall be placed between each pump discharge and the outlet block valve.
(iv) Shutdown devices. In addition to the locally mounted devices for shut-down of the pump or compressor drive, a remote device readily accessible to the certificate of fitness holder supervising the transfer shall be provided to shut down the pump or compressor in emergency. Remotely located pumps and compressors used for loading marine vessels shall be provided with controls at the loading area and at the pump or compressor site for shutdown.
(6) Marine shipping and receiving.
(i) General. Design, construction and operation of piers, docks and wharves shall comply with the requirements of the Department of [Ports and Trade] Small Business Services and the U.S. Coast Guard.
(ii) General cargo. General cargo, other than ships stores for the LNG tanker shall not be handled over the pier within 200 feet of the transfer connection and no cargo shall be handled while LNG or flammable liquids are being transferred. Ship bunkering shall not be done simultaneously with LNG loading or unloading operations.
(iii) Vehicle traffic. Vehicle traffic is prohibited on the pier or dock while transfer operations are in progress. Suitable warning signs and barricades shall be posted at all points of access to the pier when transfer operations are in progress.
(iv) Pipeline location. Pipelines shall be located on the pier in such manner that they are not exposed to physical damage from any source.
(v) Isolation valves and bleed connections. Isolation valving and bleed connections shall be provided at the loading or unloading manifold for both liquid and vapor return lines so that hoses and arms can be blocked off, drained or pumped out and depressured before disconnecting. Valves shall be located at the point of hose or arm connection to the manifold. Bleeds or vents shall discharge to a safe area such as the line to the flare stack.
(vi) Block valves. In addition to the isolation valves at the manifold, each vapor return and liquid transfer line shall be provided with a readily accessible block valve, on shore where the line approaches the dock or pier. Where there is more than one line, valves shall be grouped close enough for fast manual operation but not so dose that fire at one valve would endanger personnel required to operate the others. Valves shall be identified as to service. Valves shall be power operated from a remote point as well as manual.
(vii) Check valves. Pipelines used for liquid unloading only shall be provided with check valves adjacent to the manifold isolation valve.
(viii) Vapor return line. Either the vapor return line shall connect to the vessel's vapor return connection, or a safe means for vapor removal shall be provided.
(ix) Loading arms and hoses. Loading arms and hoses shall be constructed of material suitable for the product conveyed and the pressures to be encountered. Connections shall be capable of being disconnected quickly without product loss. Hoses shall be approved for the service and designed for a bursting pressure of not less than five times the working pressure.
(x) Type of hose and pipe. Flexible metallic hose or pipe and swivel joints shall be used. Couplings shall be suitable for operating conditions and fabricated of durable materials.
(xi) Loading arm supports. Loading arms and hoses shall be adequately supported. The design of counter-weights shall take into consideration the formation of ice.
(xii) Hose testing. Hoses shall be tested at least semi-annually to the maximum pump pressure of relief valve setting and shall be visibly inspected before each use for damage or defects.
(xiii) Vessel transfer precautions. Prior to transfers, an English-speaking officer of the vessel in charge of cargo transfer and the shore terminal supervisor shall personally inspect their respective facilities to ensure that transfer equipment is in proper working condition. After being satisfied that their inspections disclose no defect or cause for concern, they shall agree on safe transfer procedures and review the emergency procedures, including verification of ship-to-shore communi- cations.
(7) Additional precautions. In addition to the fixed fire protection required by these regulations the following precautions and procedures shall be followed in regard to marine loading or unloading of LNG:
(i) At least 72 hours before the arrival of any tanker or barge, the Coast Guard and the New York Fire Department shall be notified of the date, time and point of entering the Port of New York for the purpose of organizing an escort for the vessel, if required, or standby fire protection.
(ii) No loaded vessel shall enter the Port or traverse its waters after sundown or before sunrise, or in inclement weather without the approval of the Coast Guard and concurrence by the Fire Department.
(iii) Except as permitted by the Coast Guard no loaded vessel shall enter the Port if hazard exists due to heavy traffic, congestion, or waterfront fires which endanger passage.
(iv) No vessel shall be docked for loading or unloading until inspected and certified by the Coast Guard.
(v) Except as permitted by the Coast Guard no vessel shall enter the Port under unfavorable tide conditions. Sufficient tug-boats to control the vessel shall be provided at all times.
(vi) Half-hourly patrols of the transfer line shall be made by operating personnel with certificates of fitness equipped with 2-way radio and portable dry chemical extinguishers and lights shall be available.
(vii) Means shall be provided at the pier to transmit an alarm to the Fire Department.
(viii) A dry chemical fire truck conforming to §23-03(t)(4)(vi) with operating personnel shall be stationed on the pier near the LNG manifold, continuously during LNG transfer.
(ix) Vessels and loading arms shall be electrically bonded.
(x) Warning signs in lettering large enough to be seen from the channel shall be posted at each end of the pier or dock to inform approaching vessels of the transfer operation.
(xi) No vessel larger than 30,000 barrel capacity shall transfer LNG on a dead-end waterway.
(xii) A barrier acceptable to the Fire Department and the Coast Guard shall be provided on the water side of the barge or tanker to protect against collision impact while docked. Such barrier may be of either permanent or temporary nature.
(8) Tank vehicle loading and unloading facilities. (i) Loading facility. Loading and unloading facilities shall comply with the applicable provisions of Chapters 1 and 4 of Title 27 of the Administrative Code and applicable provisions of the Zoning Resolution.
(ii) Tank vehicles. Tank vehicles shall load or unload flammable or combustible liquids only after they have been inspected and authorized by the fire department and when in charge of a person with a certificate of fitness.
(9) Pipeline deliveries of flammable or combustible liquids.
(i) Pipelines. Petroleum pipelines delivering flammable or combustible liquids to LNG plants or related facilities shall comply with the regulations of the fire department.
(ii) Storage tanks. Tankage for the storage of flammable or combustible liquids and/or petroleum products for LNG plants or related facilities shall comply with the applicable requirements of Subchapter 8 of Chapter 4 of Title 27 of the Administrative Code.
(10) Communications. Communications shall be provided at a loading or unloading location so that the operator can be in contact with other remotely located personnel who are associated with the loading or unloading operation and with the control house. Communication shall be by means of telephone, public address or two-way radio with audible alarm signals which can be heard throughout the plant actuated at the control house in case of emergency.
(s) Testing and testing procedures. Testing and testing procedures shall conform to the requirements of this subdivision (s).
(1) System testing. System and sub-systems of piping in the plant, previously tested hydrostatically or pneumatically, and equipment interconnected by such piping, will be combined to form total integrated systems as dictated by process and plant operation conditions, and given a pneumatic holding test in the presence of a fire department inspector to assure tightness of the system and its joints. The test pressure for each system shall be the highest pressure possible (above operating pressure) which will not disturb relief valves at their normal settings, nor machinery seals, nor exceed equipment design limitations. Systems to be tested prior to any plant start-up operation shall include (but not be limited to):
(i) Natural gas pretreatment and liquefaction system
(ii) Natural gas boiloff, recondenser and recompression system
(iii) LNG product sendout system
(iv) LNG loading and unloading systems
(v) Vent header collection system
(vi) Instrument air system
(vii) Nitrogen purge system
(viii) Cooling water system Test charts and affidavits covering these tests shall be submitted to the fire department.
(2) LNG containers 15 PSIG or less.
(i) Initial container tests. The double and single roof containers operating at 15 PSIG or less shall be tested before placing in operation by filling with water to the top of the shell and applying an overload air pressure of 1.25 times the pressure for which the vapor space is designed. Container design shall be such that under such test conditions maximum fill shall not produce a stress in any part of the tank exceeding 80 percent of specified minimum yield strength or 50 percent of the specified minimum tensile strength of the material. In addition, the outer shell and roof test procedure shall be in accordance with Q8.2.1 of API 620, Appendix Q, July, 1973.
(ii) Inner container retest. Inner containers shall be hydropneumatically tested every five years, or in lieu thereof metal containers may be tested by the Charpy Impact Test method as follows:
(A) As many samples as the fire department may deem necessary shall be cut from sheets of metal used in the construction of the container including a number of welded samples or other materials from which samples may be obtained are as follows: Concrete, prestressing steel, etc.
(B) Samples shall be placed in a basket and continuously immersed in LNG contained in the tank.
(C) Three samples shall be withdrawn in the presence of a representative of the fire department in accordance with the following schedule: At the end of six months, one year, two years, three years, five years and every five years thereafter.
(D) On being withdrawn, samples shall be maintained at the proper temperature and tested promptly by a laboratory acceptable to the Fire Department. A report of the result in affidavit form shall be submitted to the Fire Department.
(E) This does not preclude the requirement for a hydropneumatic test at any time should the Fire Department feel the necessity thereof.
(3) LNG containers. More than 15 psig LNG containers operating at more than 15 psig, associated vaporizers and piping shall be tested hydrostatically, prior to being placed in operation, and every five years thereafter at two times the maximum operating pressure, except that if the resultant test pressure would exceed 300 psi the test pressure shall be reduced to 1 2/3 times the maximum operating pressure.
(4) Pneumatic pressure testing of containers. The following steps should be observed when performing a pneumatic pressure test:
(i) Apply to the enclosed space above the water level an air pressure equal to 1.25 times the pressure for which the vapor space is designed.
(ii) Hold test pressure for 1 hour.
(iii) Reduce air pressure to equal design pressure.
(iv) Above the water level, check with soap film, linseed oil, or other suitable material all welded joints, all welds around openings, and all piping joints against which the pneumatic pressure is acting. A visual inspection may be substituted for the soap film inspection of the welded joint if previously checked with liquid penetrant or with a vacuum box. The soap film inspection shall still be made, above the water level, of all welds around openings, all piping joints, and the compression ring welds including the attachment welds to the roof and shell. This shall be required on original test and may be required on retests where leaks are suspected.
(v) Check the opening pressure or vacuum of the pressure and vacuum relief valves by pumping air or nitrogen above the water level and releasing the pressure, followed by a partial withdrawal of water from the tank.
(vi) Recheck and retighten the anchor bolts, if provided, after the tank has been emptied of water and is at atmospheric pressure.
(vii) Apply air pressure, equal to the design pressure, to the empty tank and check the anchor bolts, if provided, and foundation for uplift.
(viii) Inspect all welded seams in the bottom and the corner weld between the shell and bottom, by means of a soap film and vacuum box test in initial testing.
(i) Hydrostatic testing and alternates. Piping shall not leak when hydrostatically tested in the presence of a representative of the fire department for one hour at 200 percent (2X) maximum operating pressure or 100 psi whichever is greater. In lieu of a hydrostatic test, cryogenic piping, instrument air piping, derime system and dry chemical systems piping shall not leak when tested pneumatically (in conjunction with a soap and halide test) for one hour, as follows:
(A) External cryogenic piping (outside of cold box) — 200 percent of design pressure (minimum 100 psi).
(B) Internal cryogenic piping (inside of cold box) — 150 percent of design pressure, but not less than 200 percent of operating pressure (minimum 100 psi).
(C) Instrument air piping — 200 percent of design pressure (minimum 100 psi).
(D) Derime system — 200 percent of design pressure (minimum 300 psi).
(E) Dry chemical piping — 150 percent of design pressure but not less than 200 percent of operating pressure (minimum 100 psi).
(F) Transfer lines and arms for LNG — 200 percent of operating pressure (minimum 200 psig).
(ii) Pneumatic testing-piping. Pneumatic testing shall be conducted as follows:
(A) Introduce air or dry nitrogen into the system and raise pressure to 50 psi to determine if major leaks exist. Repair any leaks found.
(B) Release the pressure in the system. Introduce freon up to 15 psi. Admit air or nitrogen and raise the system to the proper test pressure.
(C) Inspect the system for leaks with a soap solution and then with halide (freon) leak detector. Repair leaks found at this time, and retest.
(D) Upon completion of steps (A), (B), (C) above apply the pneumatic holding test at the prescribed test pressure for one hour. This test to be witnessed by a representative of the fire department.
(E) At conclusion of test, piping and associated equipment shall be purged with nitrogen.
(F) Soap and halide tests may be witnessed or spot-checked by a fire department representative but all pressure tests shall be witnessed.
(G) Affidavits shall be submitted at the conclusion of each test certifying that each has been carried out according to the requirements of the fire department.
(6) On-site tests. All on-site tests shall be witnessed by a representative of the fire department and test charts, and affidavits submitted.
(7) Fire protection systems. Operational tests of all fire protection systems shall be made in the presence of a representative of the Fire Department including but not limited to:
(i) Yard hydrant systems
(ii) Sprinkler and deluge systems
(iii) Fire pumps
(iv) Dry chemical and foam systems
(v) Fire detectors and alarm systems
(vi) Combustible gas detectors and alarm systems
(vii) Plant fire trucks
(viii) Emergency shutdown systems as described in §23-03(q)(7)
(ix) Electrical and communication systems
(x) Leak detection and alarms
(t) Fire protection and safety. This section covers the minimum equipment and procedures required to control, extinguish and minimize the effects of fires and leaks or spills of LNG, flammable refrigerants, liquids or gases and are in addition to previously stated requirements for dikes, impounding areas, blocking valves or other similar provisions.
(1) Basic fire protection.
(i) General. The basic fire protection consists of the following:
(A) Yard hydrant systems
(B) Water sprinkler and deluge systems
(C) Dry chemical systems
(D) Foam systems where required
(E) Special extinguishing systems where required
(F) Alarm systems for detecting combustible gas and fires and means for notifying the Fire Department
(G) Emergency shut-down (see §23-03(q)(7))
(H) A trained fire brigade
(I) A training manual and pre-fire plan
(J) Control of ignition sources
(ii) Periodic testing. Operational retests of fire protection systems shall be made annually, witnessed by a representative of the Fire Department.
(2) Yard hydrant systems. Every LNG facility shall be protected by a system of yard hydrants with hose provided throughout, including marine transfer locations, installed, tested and approved in accordance with the requirements of the Administrative (Building) Code, except, that when it is proven to the satisfaction of the Fire Department that due to the nature of the soil, excessive corrosion of mains will occur, piping fabricated of corrosion resistant material such as asbestos cement pipe may be accepted, but the code requirements for test pressure shall be maintained. Hydrants shall be fed from a minimum 10" looped main. Monitor nozzles shall be located as required by the Fire Department. Systems shall be wet, maintained at a pressure not less than 50 psig at all times, and capable of being raised by the plant fire pumps to a greater operating pressure of at least 125 psig or other pressures designated by the Fire Department.
(i) Hydrants. Hydrants shall be of the "New York City" type with two 2 1/2" Fire Department male threaded outlets with hydrant spacing according to the Administrative Code, except that hydrants and mains shall not be placed within impounding areas.
(ii) Water supply. Where the water supply is from salt water, no connection to a city water main is permitted.
(iii) Fire pumps.
(A) General. Fire pumps shall be installed in a water pump house and shall be of sufficient capacity to supply all anticipated needs of the water systems required by the Fire Department.
(B) Power sources. At least two fire pumps having alternate power sources, one of which shall be electrical, shall be provided.
(C) Fire pump house location. The fire pump house shall be located as remotely as possible and in accordance with the distances as shown in Figure 1, §23-03(c)(1).
(D) Fire pump house protection. The pump house shall be of in and/or combustible construction and protected by an outside deluge system designed to maintain the interior temperature at a level no higher than can be endured safely by a pump operator and the pumping and electrical equipment.
(iv) Salt water supply. When the hydrant supply is salt water, the salt water supply shall be taken from coffer dams and inlets thereto protected by noncorrodible mesh screens capable of screening out all debris over 1/2" in cross-section. Such screens shall be removable for cleaning.
(v) Drafting site. Adjacent to the salt water pump house, a drafting site shall be maintained for the use of the largest Fire Department pumper. Such site shall be built according to the requirements of the Fire Department. Suction connections shall be 12" plain for superpumper use and 4 1/2" male New York Fire Department threaded for regular land engines.
(vi) Drafting site manifold. A manifold shall be installed at the drafting site whereby the Fire Department may augment the yard salt water hydrant system by a land engine. The manifold design shall include eight 4 1/2" female swivel inlets and four 3" female swivel inlets (New York Fire Department threads).
(vii) Fireboat facilities. Provision shall be made for mooring a New York City fireboat as near as possible to the salt water pump house, subject to the approval of the Fire Department and a manifold consisting of six 3 1/2" Fire Department threaded, female swivel, valved connections shall afford the capability of augmenting the yard hydrant system by a fireboat.
(viii) Land engine facilities. At least two siamese connections, with Fire Department threads, each having two or more 3" female swivel inlets with New York Fire Department threads, shall be provided for use by land engines for any yard hydrant system fed by City water. Owing to variable site conditions the proposed location of these siamese connections shall be submitted to the Fire Department for approval.
(ix) Check valves. Check valves shall be installed in all inlets to the system.
(x) Sectional valves. The yard hydrant system shall be provided with sectional valves in a manner satisfactory to the Fire Department, so that it can be utilized even if part of the piping is out of service.
(3) Water sprinkler and deluge systems. Based on radiation studies noted in §23-03(c)(1), exterior sprinkler systems shall be provided for buildings which could become untenable or where equipment could be damaged or rendered inoperable in event of a major LNG fire, e.g.: Control house, compressor, fire pump house, fireboat connection, drafting site, and any building or location normally occupied or which requires personnel to be at their posts in emergencies.
(i) System operation. Each system shall operate automatically on fire detection anywhere in the plant when the ambient temperature on the outer face of the building reaches 135 degrees Fahrenheit. Each system shall be capable of remote manual operation.
(ii) Tests. Operational and hydrostatic tests (at 200 psi) of all sprinkler, and deluge systems shall be witnessed by a representative of the Fire Department before acceptance.
(iii) Interior sprinkler system. Buildings in which combustibles or inflammables are stored, including warehouses and garages, shall be protected by an interior sprinkler system, when within 500 ft. of any LNG storage or process equipment.
(iv) LNG container deluge system. Every LNG container or tank required by these regulations to be bermed shall be protected by a water deluge system completely encircling the roof at the top of the berm. This system shall have a two-fold purpose:
(A) To reduce the effect of radiated heat to exposures in the event of fire in the tank.
(B) To reduce the effect of radiated heat from another tank or tanks in a complex.
(v) Nozzles. The number and arrangement of nozzles and the associated piping shall be subject to the approval of the Fire Department and based on radiation studies. Water supply shall be sufficient, and the pattern of distribution such that the protected equilibrium temperatures will be achieved to the satisfaction of the Fire Department.
(vi) Water deluge operation. The water deluge systems for LNG containers shall operate automatically when fire detectors react to fire in the tank or any tank or diked area, or the marine transfer area. For other areas, an override permitting a delay not exceeding five (5) minutes may be provided for operation of the water deluge systems. All systems shall be capable of remote manual operation from the control house and near the system.
(4) Dry chemical systems. In all matters not specifically provided in this subdivision (t), NFPA Std. 17, 1972, shall apply.
(i) System design.
(A) Systems shall be designed for a minimum flow rate of .035 pounds per second per square foot and a minimum time of discharge of 30 seconds.
(B) Systems shall be engineered for each of the areas to be protected and plans filed with the Fire Department together with design and experimental data relative to range and effectiveness.
(ii) Typical areas. Typical of areas requiring fixed dry chemical systems are:
(A) LNG tank pump discharge
(B) Vent gas compressors
(C) Vent area of tank roof
(D) Vaporizer booster pumps
(E) Liquefaction unit and gas treatment unit
(F) Vaporizer and regenerator heater areas
(G) Marine loading arm areas
(H) Loading and unloading areas
(I) Run-off ditches and impounding areas
(J) Other areas requiring fixed dry chemical protection shall be as specified by the fire department, and may be either automatically or manually activated. Hose lines connected to fixed systems shall be provided for manual use, where designated by the fire department.
(iii) System operation.
(A) Except as may be otherwise provided for in systems required under §23-03(t)(7)(iv)(D) and systems required under §23-03(t)(4)(ii)(J), dry chemical fire extinguishing systems shall be actuated automatically immediately on fire detection without time delay or overrides. On actuation of the dry chemical system a visual and audible alarm signal shall be transmitted which will identify the system in operation. Each system shall be capable of remote manual operation, near the system and at the control house.
(B) Operational and pneumatic tests shall be made of all equipment in the presence of a representative of the fire department.
(iv) Piping protection. Buried piping shall be wrapped, cathodically protected and have a minimum earth cover of three (3) feet or be otherwise protected against mechanical injury, fire or contact with LNG. Where piping passes under roads or ramps it shall be suitably protected with steel casings.
(v) Nozzles. The number and type of nozzles shall be selected to provide complete coverage of the area or zone protected with the required concentration of dry chemical in conjunction with the data required to be submitted under §23-03(t)(4)(i).
(vi) Fire truck. (dry chemical). Dry chemical. A dry chemical mobile, self-powered or trailer type with dedicated tractor, fire truck shall be provided for support operation of automatic systems and/or flexibility of operations in controlling LNG or surface Class A, B and C fires throughout the plant, in accordance with the following criteria.
(A) Truck capacity. The design of the truck and dry chemical unit shall be acceptable to the Fire Department, but shall be not less than 4000 pounds dry chemical capacity. The dry chemical used shall be of the type, and compatible with the discharge rate used in the fixed systems.
(B) Truck Equipment. The truck shall be outfitted with such equipment that it will be a self-sufficient unit; e.g., hose, nozzles, tools, lights, self-contained breathing apparatus, and extinguishers for handling small fires of the Class A, B and C types.
(vii) Truck Operator.
(A) A qualified fire truck operator shall be on duty at all times without exception and the truck shall be stored indoors where it is easily accessible to the assigned personnel.
(B) All operating employees shall be regularly drilled and trained in the operation of the vehicle and equipment.
(C) The person in charge of the mobile unit shall obtain a certificate of fitness from the fire department.
(viii) Truck reservation. The truck shall not be taken off the property except for major repairs in which event the fire department shall be immediately notified.
(ix) Truck connection to fixed piping. Where the area protected by a fixed system is physically beyond the reach of hand hose lines from the mobile truck, an inlet to the fixed piping system shall be provided whereby the truck dry chemical unit can augment the system.
(x) Portable extinguishers. Such portable and wheeled dry chemical extinguishers shall be strategically located throughout the plant as may be required by the fire department. A program for monthly inspection and required recharging shall be established.
(5) Foam systems.
(A) For the protection of pipe ditches and other impounding areas of limited size, a high expansion foam system may be installed in addition to dry chemical, with the concurrence of the fire department.
(B) In all matters not specifically provided in this subdivision (t), NFPA 11A 1970, High Expansion Foam Systems, shall apply.
(ii) Foam system capability. The foam system shall be capable of producing foam at a 500:1 ratio with discharge at an initial rate to cover the hazard to a depth of 5 feet within two minutes, except where other ratios and/or rates are acceptable to the fire department. A maintenance rate after the initial two minutes, shall be required to maintain a foam blanket over the dike or impounding area, assuming a steady state evaporation rate of 0.01 inch per minute of depth of LNG liquid in the dike or impounding area.
(iii) Foam system supplies. Sufficient foam concentrate shall be provided to permit continuous operation as per §23-03(t)(5)(ii) plus a 50 percent reserve. Foam concentrate shall not be stored beyond its shelf life expectancy. Foam concentrate shall be stored and maintained at temperatures between 35 degrees Fahrenheit and 120 degrees Fahrenheit except where a low temperature foam concentrate has been approved.
(iv) Foam compatibility with dry chemical. The foam concentrate shall be compatible with dry chemical used to suppress LNG fires.
(6) Special extinguishing systems. Special extinguishing systems such as Halon 1301 or carbon dioxide may be used in certain locations acceptable to the fire department, and also under the conditions set forth by the fire department.
(7) Alarm systems.
(A) Alarm systems shall be designed so that every portion of the area protected is under surveillance by the scanning or detecting devices, and shall be automatic in operation in that the device shall set in motion, without manual assistance, the fire extinguishing systems designated for the area. If it becomes necessary to take any system off automatic; e.g., for repairs or alteration the fire department shall be immediately notified.
(B) Every alarm system shall be connected to the fire department via a central office, and the fire department shall be notified immediately of the transmission of an alarm. This means that the transmission of an alarm shall be followed by a telephone call from the control house to the fire department by using telephone number assigned by the fire department.
(C) All alarm systems shall be closed circuit electrical, and fail-safe for pneumatic components.
(D) Plans for every alarm, detection, and communications system shall be submitted to the fire department for approval, and acceptance of systems shall be subject to an operational test and inspection of the systems by the fire department.
(ii) Alarm boxes. Manually operated alarm boxes, in the number and locations specified by the fire department, shall be incorporated into the alarm system.
(iii) Combustible gas detector system.
(A) General operation. A combustible gas detector system shall be provided which shall sound an audible alarm at the location and a visual and audible alarm at the control house at 25 percent of the lower explosive limit. At 50 percent LEL emergency shutdown shall be initiated automatically placing the plant in "fail-safe" condition with simultaneous transmission of an alarm to the central office. These limits shall apply except as otherwise specified in §23-03(g)(2)(ii)(A).
(B) Combustible gas detector locations. Combustible gas detectors shall be provided at the following typical locations (as well as additional locations required by the fire department upon examinations of plans).
((a)) Control and auxiliary room
((b)) Compressor rooms
((c)) Liquefaction equipment
((d)) Gas treating equipment
((e)) Vaporizer booster pumps
((f)) Vent gas compressors
((g)) LNG pumps
((h)) Tank vents
((i)) At base of tank (at least one detector in each quadrant)
((j)) At intervals along runs of LNG piping
((k)) Marine transfer points
((l)) Customer loading stations
((m)) High pressure gas inlets and outlets
(iv) Fire detection system.
(A) General operations.
((a)) A fire detection "closed circuit" system utilizing approved devices and equipment shall be provided throughout the plant which will give an audible and visual alarm in the control house, and indicate the location, and an audible alarm throughout the plant.
((b)) Such systems shall automatically actuate the fire extinguishing systems in the area involved, trip the plant to "fail-safe" and transmit an alarm to the fire department via an approved central office connection.
(B) Fire detectors. Ionization type or ultra violet detectors shall be used in buildings and ultra violet types outdoors. Other types of detectors acceptable to the fire department may also be used.
(C) Detector locations. Fire detectors shall be provided at the following locations (in addition to others which the fire department may require on examination of plans).
((a)) Control and auxiliary rooms
((b)) Compressor rooms
((c)) Liquefaction equipment
((d)) Gas treating equipment
((e)) Vaporizer booster pumps
((f)) Vent gas compressors
((h)) LNG pumps
((i)) Tank vents
((j)) At intervals along runs of LNG piping
((k)) Marine transfer points
((l)) Customer loading stations
((m)) High pressure gas inlets and outlets
(D) Detector shielding. Where it is impossible or impracticable to shield fire detectors from spurious responses consideration shall be given to the following options which shall be subject to approval of the fire department for each area protected.
((a)) Shielding of detectors
((b)) Installation in pairs, positioned to survey the protected area, and requiring response of both to a source of flame. Response of one detector alone shall only alarm but shall not initiate fire protection system or emergency shutdown.
((c)) Provision of a ten second delay which would require maintenance of the activating light source for ten seconds before initiating the alarm and extinguishing system (this is intended to prevent operation by a lightning flash or momentary reflected light).
(8) Trained fire brigade.
(i) General. In every LNG facility a full-time fire brigade shall be maintained consisting of operational employees thoroughly trained in the use of fire extinguishing equipment and tools and in the operation of the facility.
(ii) A) Safety director. An individual responsible for overall plant safety shall be employed, whose duties include:
((a)) The correction of fire hazards which are brought to his or her attention in any manner.
((b)) The training of the fire brigade and responsibility for its manpower and efficiency.
((c)) The organization of a training manual which shall emphasize operational safety in every area of the plant.
((d)) Pre-fire planning, details of which shall be developed through liaison and regular combined drills with local fire department units under the supervision of the local deputy chief.
((e)) Maintenance of records of drills, training, lectures, incidents of any emergency nature, and copies of reports forwarded to supervisors. [He] The safety director shall insure that an immediate report [be] is sent by telephone of every fire, leak, or spill, to the Bureau of Fire Prevention and follow with a written report. This shall be in addition to the normal transmittal of an alarm.
((f)) Establishment of a regular maintenance program for fire protection equipment, supervision of all maintenance and repair work to verify compliance with fire regulations. [He] The safety director shall have the authority and duty to stop all work being done in violation of fire department or company safety regulations.
(B) Safety director selection. The safety director shall be selected on the basis of experience consisting of at least five years experience in a paid fire department, or in industrial fire protection and safety in a gas plant or bulk petroleum terminal or chemical refinery or in fire protection engineering or related fields.
(C) Safety director's responsibility. The safety director shall be responsible to, and subject only to authority of top management; e.g., vice president status, in the performance of his or her duties.
(D) Certificate of fitness. The safety director shall obtain a certificate of fitness from the Fire Department qualifying him or her in this capacity and in the knowledge and operation of all protection systems.
(iii) Deputy safety directors. As many deputy safety directors shall qualify and be certified as are necessary to ensure that a Deputy Safety Director will be on duty at all times when the Safety Director is off duty.
(iv) Fire brigade.
(A) The fire brigade on duty at all times shall be selected so that a sufficient number is on duty to operate vital controls, start up fire protection systems should automatic devices fail, transmit alarms, secure the plant, extinguish incipient fires, and place equipment back in service when no longer required. In no case shall less than three [men] persons be on duty at any time.
(B) A daily roster of members of the brigade in each shift shall be maintained, and every brigade member shall be aware of his or her assigned post and duties.
(v) Protective clothing. Protective clothing and asbestos suits shall be provided for all members of the brigade on duty. Additional asbestos suits or similar equipment shall be provided, as required by the Fire Department.
(9) Training manual and pre-fire planning.
(i) Training manual. A training manual for the fire brigade shall be submitted by the safety director to the Fire Department for acceptance.
(ii) Composition of manual. The manual shall consist of the following:
(A) Table of organization showing chain of command and levels of responsibility.
(B) Drill schedule showing areas of plant, dates and times and showing that all members on duty must participate.
(C) Standard drill operations, a short description of equipment and manpower requirements, and the objective.
(D) Pre-fire plans and actions to be taken in the event of fire, explosion or spills; e.g., a major leak in a tank, a leak in an LNG transfer line, a fire at the pier during unloading, or a compressor explosion.
(E) Provision for first aid training.
(F) Description of all fire safety systems, alarms, extinguishers, methods of operation and regular maintenance and tests.
(G) Applicable fire department regulations, re: welding, open flames, smoking, housekeeping, etc.
(H) Emergency telephone numbers of City Departments, Coast Guard, and company personnel to be called.
(I) A final color-coded composite drawing showing all fire protection systems. In addition, copies of the drawing shall be provided for all fire department units charged with responsibility relative to the plant.
(10) Control of ignition sources.
(i) Smoking, welding and hot work. Smoking, or the carrying of lighted cigars, cigarettes or pipes, and the use of non-process open flames within the plant area shall be prohibited with the following exception:
(A) Smoking may be permitted in areas designated by the Board of Standards and Appeals under such conditions as it may impose.
(B) Welding, cutting, and similar operations may be conducted at times and places specifically authorized by the Safety Director. No contractor shall be permitted to proceed with any repairs, alteration, or fabrication except under the authority of the Safety Director who shall see that all required permits or approvals have been obtained from the Fire Department, Department of Buildings, and/or Department of [Ports and Trade] Small Business Services.
(C) No welding, cutting, or similar hot work, or any repair, alteration, or testing shall proceed except when conforming to the provisions of applicable regulations of the Fire Department, Department of Buildings, and/or Department of [Ports and Trade] Small Business Services.
(ii) Prohibited use at LNG spills or leaks. The use of equipment, tools, or heating devices which are not approved for use in combustible atmospheres shall not be used in those areas where LNG has spilled or leaked.
(11) Housekeeping. Good housekeeping for fire prevention, containment and access shall be maintained with emphasis on the following:
(i) No rubbish, or brush shall be permitted to accumulate.
(ii) Storage shall be confined to storehouses, closets, lockers, or other approved locations.
(iii) Roadways shall be kept clear — no parking shall be permitted except in parking areas provided for employees, outside contractors, visitors, etc. Such parking areas shall be in locations acceptable to the Fire Department.
(iv) Dikes and berms shall be maintained at prescribed heights and contours.
(v) Employees shall be directed to report all defects, malfunctions, breakdowns, and evidence of deterioration to superiors for correction.
(12) Repairs, alterations, inspections, and entries. All repairs, alterations, inspections, and entries by personnel into any vessel, tank, or container which has contained any flammable gas or liquid shall be made under inert atmospheric conditions as determined and certified by a Marine Chemist possessing a valid certificate issued by the National Fire Protection Association in accordance with NFPA St. 306-1972, after his or her personal examination and testing. Such certification shall be made daily before start of any work in the vessel.
(u) Requirements for Plans, Approvals, Affidavits and Documentation. Specific data is required by the Fire Department to support certification of LNG facilities.
(1) General requirement for permit. No permit or permission to operate an LNG facility to load or unload a container or vessel will be granted until the Fire Department is satisfied through approval inspections and the acceptance of required documentation that the regulations are complied with and no undue hazard exists. "Risk Analysis" of equipment or procedures shall be submitted as directed by the Fire Department.
(2) Professional engineer-of-record. The owner shall appoint a professional engineer-of-record who shall have authority to act as liaison with the Fire Department, file documents, comply with the Fire Department's requirements, file required reports and exercised resident supervision over construction, repair or modification and operation, during planning and construction and for a period of five years from completion.
(3) Data submittal schedule. Plans, approvals, affidavits, documentation and other data shall be submitted on a schedule which will permit adequate review by the Fire Department and in accordance with the following paragraphs of this subdivision (u).
(4) Planning phase data. The following data shall be provided to support review of the Owner's application for approval of a LNG Project with New York City. Fire Department recommendations to the Board of Standards and Appeals, or other authorized agency for approval of this application, will be based on analysis of this data.
(i) Proposed site plan. A proposed site plan shall be filed with the Fire Department indicating all major characteristics of the site, showing plant buildings, tanks, containers, dikes, process areas, transfer areas, major LNG piping lot lines, shore lines, and exposures within 1500 feet of lot lines. Such aerial photos as the Fire Department may require shall be included. Site plans shall include underground channels, conduits and such, as well as pipelines, drainage ditches and similar channels.
(ii) Description of facility. A complete description of the facility shall be filed with the proposed site plan. It shall indicate the proposed quantities and methods of receiving, storing, processing and distributing LNG within the facility. A detailed analysis of the product to be stored shall be included. Fire protection, safety and operational control systems shall be indicated with statements as to the basis upon which each were selected.
(iii) Thermal radiation and vapor dispersion study. A thermal radiation and vapor dispersion study shall be submitted, prepared by recognized experts in thermodynamics selected by the owner and acceptable to the Fire Department. The study should include vapor dispersion characteristics resulting from spills caused by total failure modes of the storage tanks, or equipment or piping. The radiation study should assume an entire tank or group of tanks are involved in a fire and should show equilibrium temperatures within a radius of 1500 feet of the tank, at wind velocities of 0, 30 and 60 mph, at points where R 1500 feet, 1200 feet, 1000 feet, 800 feet, 600 feet, 500 feet, 400 feet, 300 feet, 200 feet and 100 feet from flame surface. Attention shall also be given to the possibility of local overheating and fires in impounding areas.
(iv) Fire prevention criteria document. A Fire Prevention Criteria Document shall be submitted as a companion document to the Proposed Site Plan and the Description of Facility. It shall contain the criteria by which the owner plans to meet the requirements of this regulation and all other requirements of the Fire Department. The document shall be maintained throughout the plant construction and start-up phase reflecting all major requirements of the Fire Department. Criteria shall be organized by plant and fire protection systems and shall include the following:
(A) Design and performance criteria
(B) Test plans and procedures
(C) Training requirements and plans
(D) Operational plans and procedures
(E) Compliance approvals and affidavits
(5) Design phase data. The following data shall be provided to support review of the Owner's application to build a LNG plant within New York City. Fire Department recommendations to the Department of Buildings or Department of [Ports and Trade] Small Business Services for approval of the building permit(s) will be based on the analysis of this data.
(i) Construction drawings.
(A) The Fire Department shall have access to all site plans, construction drawings, equipment drawings, installation drawings, specifications and other data utilized by the Contractor(s) for construction of the plant. The Fire Department shall be provided, on request, copies of the above data required for their reviews and analysis, and plans shall be filed for approval with the Department of [Ports and Trade] Small Business Services or Department of Buildings.
(B) Copies of venting and relief valve calculations for LNG storage tanks shall be furnished.
(C) Data on power needs and secondary power capacity to provide power for LNG control, venting, plant shutdown, fire protection systems (including fire pumps).
(D) Plans showing locations and construction of Fire Department siamese, manifolds, suction connections, hydrant systems, dry chemical systems, water spray systems, foam systems, gas and fire detectors, alarm and communication systems shall be submitted to the Fire Department for acceptance.
(ii) Process report. A process report shall be filed with the Fire Department (Bureau of Fire Prevention), for review; such report shall contain the following:
(A) Process information on incoming feed gas treatment, refrigeration, liquefaction, vaporization, deriming, and odorization.
(B) Basis for approval of all equipment used with reference to the standards of construction, e.g., ASME, ANSI, Chapters 1 and 4 of Title 27 of the Administrative Code.
(C) Suitability of materials of construction for the pressures and temperatures to be encountered by equipment, piping, valves, and insulation.
(D) Adequacy of safety features, including temperature and pressure relief, instrumentation and control panels, emergency shutdown and fire shutdown devices, isolation valves, dump tanks, flare stacks, electrical equipment and test procedures.
(E) Plot plan showing location of each piece of equipment, valves, piping, safety devices, instrumentation, etc., and distances between equipment, tank, property lines, open flames, etc.
(F) Flow charts which shall show all equipment, safety devices and instrumentation with pressure and temperature at all points to be indicated.
(G) Equipment summary sheets or charts for each piece of equipment, safety and relief device, valve, piping, etc., indicating its function, operating pressure and temperature, material of construction, insulation and safety devices.
(H) Relief device calculations shall be included as well as supporting ASME and manufacturers' affidavits.
(I) A final color-coded composite line drawing showing all equipment in the fire protection systems. In addition, copies of the drawing shall be provided for all fire department units charged with responsibility relative to the plant.
(iii) Fire protection report. A manual for training the fire brigade shall be submitted for acceptance by the Fire Department. The data manual shall designate and include the duties of the Safety Director, Deputy Safety Director, fire brigade personnel. It shall describe the functions, operations, maintenance and tests required for all fire protection and prevention in the facility. A final color-coded composite line drawing showing all equipment in the fire protection systems shall be provided. Copies of the drawing will be provided to all Fire Department units charged with responsibility relative to the plant.
(6) Design compliance, approvals and affidavits. Affidavits shall be provided by the Company, the architectural and engineering firm and the engineer-of-record that the plant design is in compliance with the following:
(i) The design conforms to NFPA 59A, 1975, in all respects not covered herein.
(ii) Construction is in accordance with the New York City Building Code, Chapter 1 of Title 27 of the Administrative Code, and any applicable Board of Standards and Appeals Resolution.
(iii) All compressed gas vessels (air, nitrogen, etc.) shall conform to Subchapter 17 of Chapter 4 of Title 27 of the Administrative Code and any applicable resolution of the Board of Standards and Appeals.
(iv) All refrigeration equipment shall conform to the requirements of Chapter 1 of Title 27 of the Administrative (Building) Code, with the provision that where mixtures of flammable gases or liquids not listed therein are used as refrigerants, approval from a nationally recognized testing laboratory shall be submitted with a request for acceptance. Refrigerant vessels shall conform to the ASME code and refrigerant piping, fittings and relief devices shall conform to ANSI B31.5 or ANSI B31.8.
(v) All pipe joints shall be welded by certified welders and radiographed. Certifications of welders and welds shall be filed with the Fire Department.
(vi) Electrical lighting, wiring, equipment and devices conform to the New York City Electrical Code, Chapter 3 of Title 27 of the Administrative Code.
(vii) LNG storage tank is to be protected against lightning in accordance with the New York City Electrical (Administrative) Code and NFPA-78.
(viii) All materials are suitable for the temperature and pressure involved.
(ix) All equipment and devices (including LNG pumps) are of approved type (approved by the Board of Standards and Appeals or other acceptable nationally recognized testing organization, such as Underwriters Laboratories, Factory Mutual, Factory Insurance Association, U.S. Coast Guard, etc.).
(x) Lubricating oil tanks shall conform to the requirements of Chapter 1 of Title 27 of the Building (Administrative) Code, and the regulations of the Fire Department.
(xi) Color-coding of piping systems shall meet the requirements of the Fire Department.
(7) Construction and plant start-up phase data. The following data is required by the Fire Department to assure that all construction meets the requirements for safe operation and that trained personnel and adequate procedures are available for plant operation. No permit for start-up operations shall be given until these are complied with.
(i) Test data. The results of operational, hydrostatic and pneumatic test shall be submitted in the form of test charts and/or reports signed and dated by the company representatives and Fire Department representative witnessing the tests.
(ii) Construction approvals and affidavits. Evidence of Approval and Affidavits shall be provided by the resident engineer that all construction has been accomplished in accordance with the design requirements stated in §23-03(u)(6).
(iii) Data required prior to cooldown and start-up (debugging stage).
(A) A survey of the plant by a licensed surveyor shall be filed with the Fire Department showing the location of the LNG tanks, all equipment and buildings and indicating that all distance and topographical requirements have been complied with.
(B) Evidence of approval by the Department of [Ports and Trade] Small Business Services or Department of Buildings, whichever has jurisdiction, shall be submitted to the Fire Department showing that the LNG tanks, berms and dikes have been constructed according to approved plans and the requirements of all agencies having authority and jurisdiction. Supporting affidavits shall be submitted by the owner, the engineer-of-record, and the contractors stating that the tanks have been so constructed and are suitable and safe for the purpose intended.
(C) An affidavit shall be submitted by the owner and the engineer-of-record that all requirements of the Fire Department and any other regulatory agency have been complied with.
(D) At least two responsible employees on each shift shall obtain certificates of fitness from the Fire Department to supervise the operation of the facility. Such employees shall be selected on the basis of knowledge and experience in LNG plant operation, and fire protection systems, refrigeration systems, processing, maintenance and repair, and transfer operations.
(8) Operations phase data requirements. The following data is required prior to approval for the initial operating permit by the Fire Department and as applicable for renewal.
(i) Permit. An annual Fire Department permit shall be obtained, the fee to be in accordance with §27-4027 of the Administrative Code.
(ii) As-built approved plans. The Fire Department shall be provided with a copy of the as-built approved plans which shall include:
(A) Plot plans
(B) Tank plans
(C) Process area plot plan
(D) Fire protection systems plans showing yard hydrants and mains, dry chemical, water deluge, sprinklers, foam systems, water supplies, pumps, combustible gas detection systems and other alarm systems, underground piping, channels, conduits, ducts or sewers.
(E) Plans showing structural features
(F) As-built survey
(G) Radiation and vapor dispersion studies
(A) A semi-monthly progress report shall be submitted to the Fire Department by the engineer-of-record after the start of operations indicating the status of the plant, any deviations from normal operations, incidents, malfunctions, etc.
(B) A quarterly report shall be submitted to the Fire Department by the owner and engineer-of-record indicating alterations and changes at the plant and the reasons therefor, malfunctions and the reasons therefor, and an instrumentation study and analysis. The semi-monthly reports shall be continued until the Fire Department is satisfied that they are no longer necessary.
(iv) Operating data and test.
(A) An affidavit shall be submitted indicating maximum density of LNG to be stored.
(B) A program shall be submitted for the periodic Charpy testing of samples immersed in the LNG as required by §23-03(s)(2)(ii).
(C) Procedures shall be submitted for acceptance of all purging operations. Such procedures shall be incorporated in the operating manual.
. . . . . . . . . .
|ACI — American Concrete Institute|
Recommended practice for Measuring, Mixing and Placing of Concrete
Minimum Requirements for Thin-Section Precast Concrete Construction
Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete, with Modifications under BS&A, Cal. No. 239-72BCR
Recommended Practice for Shotcreting
Committee Report 344 — Design and Construction of Circular Prestressed Concrete Structures
Recommended Practice for Concrete Inspection
ANSI — American National Standard Code for Pressure Piping (American Society of Mechanical Engineers)
Petroleum Refinery Piping — 1966
Refrigeration Piping Systems — 1967
Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems — 1968
|API — American Petroleum Institute|
Recommended Rules for Design and Construction of Large, Welded, Low-Pressure Storage Tanks
Low-Pressure Storage Tanks for Liquefied Natural Gas — July 1973
Standard for Welding Pipelines — 1968
Standard for Pipeline Valves — 1968
|ASME — American Society of Mechanical Engineers|
Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code
Section VIII — Unfired Pressure Vessels — 1971
Section IX — Qualification of Welders — 1971
MSS-SP-6 Manufacturers Standardization Society of the Valve and Fitting Industry — Standard Practice — 1963
|NFPA — National Fire Protection Association — Standards|
High Expansion Foam Systems — 1970
Dry Chemical Systems — 1972
Installation and Use of Stationary Combustion Engines and Gas Turbines — 1970
Production, Storage and Handling of Liquefied Natural Gas — 1975
Guide for Explosion Venting — 1974
Guide for Explosion Prevention Systems — 1973
Lightning Protection Code — 1968
Control of Gas Hazards on Vessels — 1972