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1910.111 Storage and Handling of Anhydrous Ammonia

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1910.111(a) General
1910.111(a)(1) Scope
1910.111(a)(1)(i)
This standard is intended to apply to the design, construction, location, installation, and operation of anhydrous ammonia systems including refrigerated ammonia storage systems.
1910.111(a)(1)(ii)
This standard does not apply to:
1910.111(a)(1)(ii)(a) Ammonia Manufacturing Plants
1910.111(a)(1)(ii)(b)
Refrigeration plants where ammonia is used solely as a refrigerant.
1910.111(a)(2) Definitions
As used in this section.
1910.111(a)(2)(i) Appurtenances
All devices such as pumps, compressors, safety relief devices, liquid-level gaging devices, valves and pressure gages.
1910.111(a)(2)(iii) Code
The Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, Unfired Pressure Vessels of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) - 1968.
1910.111(a)(2)(iv) Container
Includes all vessels, tanks, cylinders, or spheres used for transportation, storage, or application of anhydrous ammonia.
1910.111(a)(2)(ix) Gas
Anhydrous ammonia in either the gaseous or liquefied state.
1910.111(a)(2)(v) DOT
U.S. Department of Transportation.
1910.111(a)(2)(vi)
Design pressure" is identical to the term "Maximum Allowable Working Pressure" used in the Code.
1910.111(a)(2)(vii) Farm Vehicle (Implement of Husbandry)
A vehicle for use on a farm on which is mounted a container of not over 1,200 gallons water capacity.
1910.111(a)(2)(viii) Filling Density
the percent ratio of the weight of the gas in a container to the weight of water at 60 deg. F. that the container will hold.
1910.111(a)(2)(x) Gas Masks
Gas masks must be approved by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) under 42 CFR part 84 for use with anhydrous ammonia.
1910.111(a)(2)(xi) Capacity
Total volume of the container in standard U.S. gallons.
1910.111(a)(2)(xii) DOT Specifications
Regulations of the Department of Transportation published in 49 CFR Chapter I.
1910.111(a)(2)(ii) Cylinder
A container of 1,000 pounds of water capacity or less constructed in accordance with Department of Transportation specifications.
1910.111(b) Basic Rules
This paragraph applies to all paragraphs of this section unless otherwise noted.
1910.111(b)(1) Approval of Equipment and Systems
Each appurtenance shall be approved in accordance with paragraph (b)(1) (i), (ii), (iii), or (iv) of this section.
1910.111(b)(1)(i)
It was installed before February 8, 1973, and was approved, tested, and installed in accordance with either the provisions of the American National Standard for the Storage and Handling of Anhydrous Ammonia, K61.1, or the Fertilizer Institute Standards for the Storage and Handling of Agricultural Anhydrous Ammonia, M-1, (both of which are incorporated by reference as specified in § 1910.6) in effect at the time of installation; or
1910.111(b)(1)(iii)
It is a type which no nationally recognized testing laboratory does, or will undertake to, accept, certify, list, label, or determine to be safe; and such equipment is inspected or tested by any Federal, State, municipal, or other local authority responsible for enforcing occupational safety provisions of a Federal, State, municipal or other local law, code, or regulation pertaining to the storage, handling, transport, and use of anhydrous ammonia, and found to be in compliance with either the provisions of the American National Standard for the Storage and Handling of Anhydrous Ammonia, K61.1, or the Fertilizer Institute Standards for the Storage and Handling of Agricultural Anhydrous Ammonia, M-1, in effect at the time of installation; or
1910.111(b)(1)(iv)
It is a custom-designed and custom-built unit, which no nationally recognized testing laboratory, or Federal, State, municipal or local authority responsible for the enforcement of a Federal, State, municipal, or local law, code or regulation pertaining to the storage, transportation and use of anhydrous ammonia is willing to undertake to accept, certify, list, label or determine to be safe, and the employer has on file a document attesting to its safe condition following the conduct of appropriate tests. The document shall be signed by a registered professional engineer or other person having special training or experience sufficient to permit him to form an opinion as to safety of the unit involved. The document shall set forth the test bases, test data and results, and also the qualifications of the certifying person.
1910.111(b)(1)(v)
For the purposes of this paragraph (b)(1), the word "listed" means that equipment is of a kind mentioned in a list which is published by a nationally recognized laboratory which makes periodic inspection of the production of such equipment, and states such equipment meets nationally recognized standards or has been tested and found safe for use in a specified manner. "Labeled" means there is attached to it a label, symbol, or other identifying mark of a nationally recognized testing laboratory which, makes periodic inspections of the production of such equipment, and whose labeling indicates compliance with nationally recognized standards or tests to determine safe use in a specified manner. "Certified" means it has been tested and found by a nationally recognized testing laboratory to meet nationally recognized standards or to be safe for use in a specified manner, or is of a kind whose production is periodically inspected by a nationally recognized testing laboratory, and it bears a label, tag, or other record of certification.
1910.111(b)(1)(vi)
For the purposes of this paragraph (b)(1), refer to 1910.7 for definition of nationally recognized testing laboratory.
1910.111(b)(1)(ii)
It is accepted, or certified, or listed, or labeled, or otherwise determined to be safe by a nationally recognized testing laboratory; or
1910.111(b)(2) Requirements for Construction, Original Test and Requalification of Nonrefrigerated Containers
1910.111(b)(2)(i)
Containers used with systems covered in paragraphs (c), (f), (g), and (h) of this section shall be constructed and tested in accordance with the Code except that construction under Table UW12 at a basic joint efficiency of under 80 percent is not authorized.
1910.111(b)(2)(iii)
Containers exceeding 36 inches in diameter or 250 gallons water capacity shall be constructed to comply with one or more of the following:
1910.111(b)(2)(iii)(a)
Containers shall be stress relieved after fabrication in accordance with the Code, or
1910.111(b)(2)(iii)(b)
Cold-form heads when used, shall be stress relieved, or
1910.111(b)(2)(iii)(c)
Hot-formed heads shall be used.
1910.111(b)(2)(iv)
Welding to the shell, head, or any other part of the container subject to internal pressure shall be done in compliance with the Code. Other welding is permitted only on saddle plates, lugs, or brackets attached to the container by the container manufacturer.
1910.111(b)(2)(v)
Containers used with systems covered in paragraph (e) of this section shall be constructed and tested in accordance with the DOT specifications.
1910.111(b)(2)(vi)
The provisions of subdivision (i) of this subparagraph shall not be construed as prohibiting the continued use or reinstallation of containers constructed and maintained in accordance with the 1949, 1950, 1952, 1956, 1959, and 1962 editions of the Code or any revisions thereof in effect at the time of fabrication.
1910.111(b)(2)(ii)
Containers built according to the Code do not have to comply with Paragraphs UG125 to UG128 inclusive, and Paragraphs UG132 and UG133 of the Code.
1910.111(b)(3) Marking Nonrefrigerated Containers
1910.111(b)(3)(i)
System nameplates, when required, shall be permanently attached to the system so as to be readily accessible for inspection and shall include markings as prescribed in subdivision (ii) of this subparagraph.
1910.111(b)(3)(ii)
Each container or system covered in paragraphs (c), (f), (g), and (h) of this section shall be marked as specified in the following:
1910.111(b)(3)(ii)(a)
With a notation "Anhydrous Ammonia".
1910.111(b)(3)(ii)(b)
With a marking identifying compliance with the rules of the Code under which the container is constructed.

Under ground: Container and system nameplate. Above ground: Container.
1910.111(b)(3)(ii)(c)
With a notation whether the system is designed for underground or aboveground installation or both.
1910.111(b)(3)(ii)(d)
With the name and address of the supplier of the system or the trade name of the system and with the date of fabrication.

Under ground and above ground: System nameplate.
1910.111(b)(3)(ii)(e)
With the water capacity of the container in pounds at 60 deg. F. or gallons, U.S. Standard.

Under ground: Container and system nameplate. Above ground: Container.
1910.111(b)(3)(ii)(f)
With the design pressure in pounds per square inch.

Under ground: Container and system nameplate. Above ground: Container.
1910.111(b)(3)(ii)(g)
With the wall thickness of the shell and heads.

Under ground: Container and system nameplate. Above ground: Container.
1910.111(b)(3)(ii)(h)
With marking indicating the maximum level to which the container may be filled with liquid anhydrous ammonia at temperatures between 20 deg. F. and 130 deg. F. except on containers provided with fixed level indicators, such as fixed length dip tubes, or containers that are filled with weight. Markings shall be in increments of not more than 20 deg. F.

Above ground and under ground: System nameplate or on liquid-level gaging device.
1910.111(b)(3)(ii)(i)
With the total outside surface area of the container in square feet.

Under ground: System nameplate. Above ground: No requirement.
1910.111(b)(3)(ii)(j)
Marking specified on the container shall be on the container itself or on a nameplate permanently attached to it.
1910.111(b)(4) Marking Refrigerated Containers
Each refrigerated container shall be marked with nameplate on the outer covering in an accessible place as specified in the following:
1910.111(b)(4)(i)
With the notation, "Anhydrous Ammonia".
1910.111(b)(4)(iii)
With the water capacity of the container in gallons, U.S. Standard.
1910.111(b)(4)(iv)
With the design pressure.
1910.111(b)(4)(v)
With the minimum temperature in degrees Fahrenheit for which the container was designed.
1910.111(b)(4)(vi)
The maximum allowable water level to which the container may be filled for test purposes.
1910.111(b)(4)(vii)
With the density of the product in pounds per cubic foot for which the container was designed.
1910.111(b)(4)(viii)
With the maximum level to which the container may be filled with liquid anhydrous ammonia.
1910.111(b)(4)(ii)
With the name and address of the builder and the date of fabrication.
1910.111(b)(5) Location of Containers
1910.111(b)(5)(i)
Consideration shall be given to the physiological effects of ammonia as well as to adjacent fire hazards in selecting the location for a storage container. Containers shall be located outside of buildings or in buildings or sections thereof especially provided for this purpose.
1910.111(b)(5)(iii) [Reserved]
1910.111(b)(5)(iv) [Reserved]
1910.111(b)(5)(v)
Storage areas shall be kept free of readily ignitable materials such as waste, weeds, and long dry grass.
1910.111(b)(5)(ii)
Permanent storage containers shall be located at least 50 feet from a dug well or other sources of potable water supply, unless the container is a part of a water-treatment installation.
1910.111(b)(6) Container Appurtenances
1910.111(b)(6)(i)
All appurtenances shall be designed for not less than the maximum working pressure of that portion of the system on which they are installed. All appurtenances shall be fabricated from materials proved suitable for anhydrous ammonia service.
1910.111(b)(6)(iii)
Excess flow valves where required by these standards shall close automatically at the rated flows of vapor or liquid as specified by the manufacturer. The connections and line including valves and fittings being protected by an excess flow valve shall have a greater capacity than the rated flow of the excess flow valve so that the valve will close in case of failure of the line or fittings.
1910.111(b)(6)(iv)
Liquid-level gaging devices that require bleeding of the product to the atmosphere and which are so constructed that outward flow will not exceed that passed by a No. 54 drill-size opening need not be equipped with excess flow valves.
1910.111(b)(6)(v)
Openings from the container or through fittings attached directly on the container to which pressure gage connections are made need not be equipped with excess flow valves if such openings are not larger than No. 54 drill size.
1910.111(b)(6)(vi)
Excess flow and back pressure check valves where required by the standards in this section shall be located inside of the container or at a point outside as close as practicable to where the line enters the container. In the latter case installation shall be made in such manner that any undue strain beyond the excess flow or back pressure check valve will not cause breakage between the container and the valve.
1910.111(b)(6)(vii)
Excess flow valves shall be designed with a bypass, not to exceed a No. 60 drill-size opening to allow equalization of pressures.
1910.111(b)(6)(viii)
All excess flow valves shall be plainly and permanently marked with the name or trademark of the manufacturer, the catalog number, and the rated capacity.
1910.111(b)(6)(ii)
All connections to containers except safety relief devices, gaging devices, or those fitted with No. 54 drill-size orifice shall have shutoff valves located as close to the container as practicable.
1910.111(b)(7) Piping, Tubing, and Fittings
1910.111(b)(7)(i)
All piping, tubing, and fittings shall be made of material suitable for anhydrous ammonia service.
1910.111(b)(7)(iii)
All refrigerated piping shall conform to the Refrigeration Piping Code, American National Standards Institute, B31.5-1966 with addenda B31.1a-1968, which is incorporated by reference as specified in § 1910.6, as it applies to ammonia.
1910.111(b)(7)(iv)
Piping used on non-refrigerated systems shall be at least American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) A-53-69 Grade B Electric Resistance Welded and Electric Flash Welded Pipe, which is incorporated by reference as specified in § 1910.6, or equal. Such pipe shall be at least schedule 40 when joints are welded, or welded and flanged. Such pipe shall be at least schedule 80 when joints are threaded. Threaded connections shall not be back-welded. Brass, copper, or galvanized steel pipe shall not be used.
1910.111(b)(7)(v)
Tubing made of brass, copper, or other material subject to attack by ammonia shall not be used.
1910.111(b)(7)(vi)
Cast iron fittings shall not be used but this shall not prohibit the use of fittings made specifically for ammonia service of malleable, nodular, or high strength gray iron meeting American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) A47-68, ASTM 395-68, or ASTM A126-66 Class B or C, all of which re incorporated by reference as specified in § 1910.6.
1910.111(b)(7)(vii)
Joint compounds shall be resistant to ammonia.
1910.111(b)(7)(ii)
All piping, tubing, and fittings shall be designed for a pressure not less than the maximum pressure to which they may be subjected in service.
1910.111(b)(8) Hose Specifications
1910.111(b)(8)(i)
Hose used in ammonia service shall conform to the joint Agricultural Ammonia Institute - Rubber Manufacturers Association Specifications for Anhydrous Ammonia Hose.
1910.111(b)(8)(iii)
Hose and hose connections located on the low-pressure side of flow control of pressure-reducing valves shall be designed for a bursting pressure of not less than 5 times the pressure setting of the safety relief devices protecting that portion of the system but not less than 125 p.s.i.g. All connections shall be so designed and constructed that there will be no leakage when connected.
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