1810.3.5.3.4 Steel Pipes and Tubes
Steel pipes and tubes used as deep foundation elements shall have a nominal outside diameter of not less than 8 inches (203 mm). Where steel pipes or tubes are driven open ended, they shall have not less than 0.34 square inch (219 mm2) of steel in cross section to resist each 1,000 foot-pounds (1356 Nm) of pile hammer energy, or shall have the equivalent strength for steels having a yield strength greater than 35,000 psi (241 MPa) or the wave equation analysis shall be permitted to be used to assess compression stresses induced by driving to evaluate if the pile section is appropriate for the selected hammer. Where a pipe or tube with wall thickness less than 0.179 inch (4.6 mm) is driven open ended, a suitable cutting shoe shall be provided. Concrete-filled steel pipes or tubes in structures assigned to Seismic Design Category C, D, E or F shall have a wall thickness of not less than 3/16 inch (5 mm). The pipe or tube casing for socketed drilled shafts shall have a nominal outside diameter of not less than 18 inches (457 mm), a wall thickness of not less than 3/8 inch (9.5 mm) and a suitable steel driving shoe welded to the bottom; the diameter of the rock socket shall be approximately equal to the inside diameter of the casing.