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52.3.2* Stationary Storage Battery Systems
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Stationary storage battery systems shall not be located in areas where the floor is located more than 75 ft (22,860 mm) above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access, or where the floor level is more than 30 ft (9144 mm) below the finished floor of the lowest level of exit discharge, unless otherwise permitted by 126.96.36.199.2.
Rooms containing stationary storage battery systems shall be located in high-hazard occupancies, or shall be separated from other areas of the building as stated in 188.8.131.52.3.1 and 184.108.40.206.3.2. Stationary storage battery systems shall be allowed to be in the same room with the equipment they support.
In other than assembly, educational, detention, and correction facilities; health care, ambulatory health care, and day care centers; and residential board and care and residential occupancies, stationary storage battery systems shall be located in a room separated from other portions of the building by a minimum of a 1-hour fire barrier.
In assembly, educational, detention, and correction facilities; health care, ambulatory health care, and day care centers; and residential board and care and residential occupancies, stationary storage battery systems shall be located in a room separated from other portions of the building by a minimum of a 2-hour fire barrier.
The AHJ shall be permitted to authorize smaller separation distances if large-scale fire and fault condition testing conducted or witnessed and reported by an approved testing laboratory is provided showing that a fire involving the system will not adversely impact occupant egress from adjacent buildings, or adversely impact adjacent stored materials or structures.
Fire areas within buildings containing stationary storage battery systems exceeding the maximum allowable quantities in Table 220.127.116.11.1 shall comply with all applicable ordinary-hazard and high-hazard requirements as identified in 6.2.2 of NFPA 101 and the building code.
|Type||Maximum Allowable Quantitiesa||Hazard Classification|
|Lithium batteries, all types||600 KWh||High hazardc|
|Sodium batteries, all types||600 KWh||High hazardc|
|Flow batteriesb||600 KWh||High hazardc|
|Other battery technologies||1200 KWh||High hazardc|
aFor batteries rated in amp-hours, KWh should equal rated voltage times amp-hour rating divided by 1000.
bIncludes vanadium, zinc-bromine, polysulfide-bromide, and other flowing electrolyte-type technologies.
cCan be permitted to be ordinary hazard classification if approved by the AHJ based on (1) a hazard mitigation analysis conducted in accordance with 18.104.22.168 and (2) large-scale fire and fault condition testing conducted or witnessed and reported by an approved testing laboratory that shows that a fire involving the stationary storage battery system is contained within the room for a duration equal to the fire resistance rating of the room separation required in 22.214.171.124.3.1 or 126.96.36.199.3.2, as applicable.
Where approved by the AHJ, areas containing stationary storage battery systems that exceed the amounts in Table 188.8.131.52.1 shall be permitted to be treated as a ordinary-hazard and not a high-hazard classification based on a hazardous mitigation analysis in accordance with 184.108.40.206 and large-scale fire and fault condition testing conducted or witnessed and reported by an approved testing laboratory.
Where areas within buildings contain a combination of energy system technologies, the total aggregate quantities shall be determined based on the sum of percentages of each type divided by the maximum allowable quantity of each type. If the sum of the percentages exceeds 100 percent, the area shall be treated as a high-hazard classification in accordance with Table 220.127.116.11.1.
The AHJ shall be permitted to approve listed pre-engineered and prepackaged battery arrays with larger capacities or smaller battery array spacing if large-scale fire and fault condition testing conducted or witnessed and reported by an approved testing laboratory is provided showing that a fire involving one array will not propagate to an adjacent array, and be contained within the room for a duration equal to the fire resistance rating of the room separation required by 18.104.22.168.3.
A failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) or other approved hazard mitigation analysis shall be provided to the AHJ when any of the following conditions are present:
- Battery technologies not specifically identified in Table 52.3.1 are provided.
- More than one stationary storage battery technology is provided in a room or indoor area where there is a potential for adverse interaction between technologies.
- When allowed as a basis for increasing maximum allowable quantities as specified in Table 22.214.171.124.1.
The analysis shall evaluate the consequences of the following failure modes, and others deemed necessary by the AHJ. Only single failure modes shall be considered for each mode:
- Thermal runaway condition in a single module or array
- Failure of a battery management system
- Failure of a required ventilation system
- Voltage surges on the primary electric supply
- Short circuits on the load side of the stationary battery storage system
- Failure of the smoke detection, fire suppression, or gas detection system
The AHJ shall be permitted to approve the hazardous mitigation analysis provided the consequences of the FMEA demonstrate the following:
- Fires or explosions will be contained within unoccupied stationary storage battery system rooms for the minimum duration of the fire resistance rated specified in 126.96.36.199.3.1 or 188.8.131.52.3.2, as applicable
- Fires and explosions in stationary storage battery system cabinets in occupied work centers allow occupants to safely evacuate
- Toxic and highly toxic gases released during charging, discharging, and normal operation shall not exceed the permissible exposure limit (PEL)
- Toxic and highly toxic gases released during fires and other fault conditions shall not reach concentrations in access of IDLH level in the building or adjacent means of egress routes during the time deemed necessary to evacuate from that area
- Flammable gases released from batteries during charging, discharging, and normal operation shall not exceed 25 percent of the lower flammable limit (LFL)
Storage batteries shall be listed in accordance with UL 1973, Standard for Batteries for Use in Light Electric Rail (LER) Applications and Stationary Applications. Prepackaged and pre-engineered stationary storage battery systems shall be listed in accordance with UL 9540, Outline of Investigation for Energy Storage Systems and Equipment.
The storage battery environment shall be controlled to maintain temperatures and conditions within the battery manufacturer's specifications.
An approved battery management system shall be provided for battery technologies for monitoring and balancing cell voltages, currents, and temperatures within the manufacturer's specifications. The system shall transmit an alarm signal to an approved location if potentially hazardous temperatures or other conditions including short circuits, overvoltage (i.e., overcharge) or under voltage (i.e., over discharge) are detected.
Battery chargers shall be compatible with the battery manufacturer's electrical ratings and charging specifications. Battery chargers shall be listed in accordance with the UL 1564, Standard for Industrial Battery Chargers, or provided as part of a listed pre-engineered or prepackaged stationary storage battery system.
New signage installations shall require the following items:
Signs shall be provided within battery cabinets to indicate the relevant electrical, chemical, and fire hazard.
Battery systems shall be seismically braced in accordance with the building code.
Different types of batteries shall not be installed in the same room or cabinet if there is a potential for unsafe interaction between them, as determined by the AHJ.
An approved automatic smoke detection system shall be installed in rooms containing stationary battery storage systems in accordance with NFPA 72 and the required automatic smoke detection system shall be supervised by an approved central, proprietary, or remote station service or a local alarm that will give an audible signal at a constantly attended location.
Where required by 184.108.40.206, ventilation shall be provided for rooms and cabinets in accordance with the mechanical code and one of the following:
- The ventilation system shall be designed to limit the maximum concentration of flammable gas to 25 percent of the lower flammable limit (LFL) of the total volume of the room during the worst-case event of simultaneous "boost" charging of all the batteries, in accordance with nationally recognized standards.
- Mechanical ventilation shall be provided at a rate of not less than 1 ft3/min/ft2 (5.1 L/sec/m2) of floor area of the room or cabinet. The ventilation can be either continuous, or activated by a gas detection system in accordance with 220.127.116.11.2.
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