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Section 608 Stationary Energy Storage Systems

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608.1 Scope
This section shall govern stationary energy storage systems, including emergency power, standby power, uninterruptible power and mobile systems.
608.2 General
Stationary energy storage systems shall be designed, installed, operated and maintained in accordance with this section, the rules, manufacturer's specifications, and, to the extent not inconsistent with this code and rules, NFPA 855, as modified by FC Appendix B.
608.3 Permits
Permits shall be required as set forth in FC105.6.
608.4 Testing and Listing Standards
All stationary energy storage systems shall be tested and listed by a nationally recognized testing laboratory to the standards set forth in FC 608.4.1 through 608.4.3 (or later editions of these standards when necessary to address evolving standards applicable to a rapidly developing technology):
608.4.1 Listing Standards
Stationary energy storage systems shall be listed to the following standards:
  1. Underwriters Laboratories (UL) Standard 1741 (2010 edition), entitled "Inverters, Converters, Controllers and Interconnection System Equipment for Use With Distributed Energy Resources;"
  2. Underwriters Laboratories (UL) Standard 1973 (2018 edition), entitled "Batteries for Use in Light Electric Rail (LER) Applications and Stationary Applications;" and
  3. Underwriters Laboratories (UL) Standard 9540 (2020 edition), entitled "Energy Storage Systems and Equipment."
    Exceptions:
    1. Any stationary energy storage system technology or application not subject to one or more of these listing standards shall comply with such other testing or listing standards as may be approved by the department.
    2. A stationary energy storage system that received a listing under Underwriters Laboratories (UL) Standard 9540 (2016 edition) prior to the effective date of this section may be considered for a certificate of approval provided that such listing is still valid and the system was subjected to full-scale testing in accordance with FC608.4.2.
    3. A stationary energy storage system approved by the department under a listing standard superseded by a later edition may continue to be operated under such listing standard and department certificate of approval, provided that the listing is still valid and except as may be required by the department in accordance with FC102.5.
608.4.2 Full-Scale Testing
Stationary energy storage systems shall be subjected to full-scale testing (referred to as "large-scale testing" in NFPA 855) in accordance with ANSI/Underwriters Laboratories (UL) Test Method 9540A (4th edition), entitled "Test Method for Evaluating Thermal Runaway Fire Propagation in Battery Energy Storage Systems," or other approved test method, or its failure mode and effects documented by other approved test data.
608.4.3 Listing With Installation Conditions
Upon approval by the department and the Department of Buildings of a listing standard that is used to establish listings with installation conditions based upon test data, such approved listing standard shall replace the existing listing and testing standards set forth in FC 608.4.1 and 608.4.2. The approved listing standard and listings shall supersede the equipment approval process set forth in FC608.5 and, to the extent addressed in such approved listing, the required separation distances.
608.5 Equipment Approval
The design of each storage battery unit, including pre-engineered and pre-packaged systems, shall be approved by the department. The manufacturer of the storage battery unit shall obtain a certificate of approval for such unit in accordance with FC112 and the rules. Application for a certificate of approval shall include the results of the full-scale testing of the storage battery unit in accordance with FC608.4.2, including a failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) or other approved hazard mitigation analysis. The certificate of approval may set forth terms and conditions for stationary energy storage system use. Such terms and conditions may authorize below-grade installation, or indoor installation in Group R-3 occupancies, based on the hazards demonstrated by the full-scale testing data and the mitigation thereof.
608.6 Installation Approval
The design of each stationary energy storage system installation shall be reviewed and approved by the department as required by FC 608.6.1 and 608.6.2.
608.6.1 Indoor Systems
Department review and approval of indoor system installations is required for systems utilizing equipment not approved by the department or not in accordance with the terms and conditions of the certificate of approval, equipment listing or requirements of this code. Otherwise, indoor system installation shall be reviewed and approved by the Department of Buildings in accordance with that agency's requirements, with department review and approval of energy storage management systems and monitoring stations, smoke control and smoke purge systems, explosion mitigation, and such fire protection and hazard mitigation systems and measures as are required to be reviewed by the department under this code or the construction codes.
608.6.2 Outdoor Systems
Department review and approval of outdoor system installations, including mobile and rooftop systems, shall be in accordance with the rules.
608.7 Supervision
Stationary energy storage systems shall be operated and maintained under the supervision of a person holding the certificate of fitness required for such purpose.
608.7.1 Indoor Systems
Except as may be otherwise provided in the rules, indoor systems shall be operated and maintained under the general supervision of such certificate of fitness holder, provided, however, that an FLS director, FEP coordinator, certificate of qualification holder or other responsible person with approved qualifications shall be on the premises during the regular business hours in any building with an indoor system with an aggregate rated energy capacity of one megawatt (1 MWh) or more. Such person shall be responsible for assisting emergency responders, including coordinating with such certificate of fitness holder and the remote monitoring facility in accordance with the emergency management plan.
608.7.2 Outdoor Systems
Outdoor systems shall be operated and maintained under the general supervision of such certificate of fitness holder, except as may be otherwise provided in the rules.
608.7.3 Qualifications and Responsibilities
A certificate of fitness holder responsible for a stationary energy storage system shall possess the following qualifications and shall have the following duties and responsibilities and such other duties and responsibilities as may be set forth in the notice of examination for such certificate:
  1. Be trained and knowledgeable in the installation and operation of the stationary energy storage system, such as a person engaged in the design or installation of such systems;
  2. Possess the manufacturer's installation and operating specifications for each stationary energy storage system and any associated fire protection systems;
  3. Immediately report any emergency condition affecting a stationary energy storage system to the department; and
  4. Provide technical assistance about the stationary energy storage system installation to the department in accordance with FC608.8 and the rules, and, in coordination with the energy storage management system monitoring facility, identify a subject matter expert who can provide technical assistance about the stationary energy storage system's design and performance in the event of an emergency condition affecting the stationary energy storage system.
608.8 Emergency Management Plan
The owner, manufacturer and/or installer of a stationary energy storage system shall have an emergency management plan or protocol that includes procedures for notifications, provision of technical assistance to the department, mitigation of hazardous conditions, and decommissioning or restoration to normal operation. The department may require that a representative of the stationary energy storage system manufacturer or other subject matter expert with technical knowledge of the system and its operation be available in a timely manner to provide technical assistance to the department during an emergency involving or affecting the system.
608.9 Design and Installation
Stationary energy storage systems shall comply with the requirements set forth in FC 608.9.1 through 608.9.4.
Exception:

Lead acid and nickel-cadmium stationary energy storage systems with a maximum operating voltage of 50 volts alternating current or 60 volts direct current, designed and installed for the purpose of supplying emergency power, standby power or uninterruptible power to telecommunications equipment under the exclusive control of a telecommunications provider, when such systems are located outdoors or in an indoor telecommunications facility used exclusively for powering telecommunications equipment, and are in compliance with the requirements of NFPA 855, as adopted and modified by the Department of Buildings, and NFPA 76.
608.9.1 Maximum Aggregate Rated Energy Capacity
The maximum aggregate rated energy capacity of stationary energy storage systems shall be in accordance with FC 608.9.1.1 and 608.9.1.2.
608.9.1.1 Indoor Systems
The aggregate rated energy capacity per control area of indoor systems shall not exceed the limitations set forth in FC Table 608.9.1.1.

FC TABLE 608.9.1.1

MAXIMUM AGGREGATE RATED ENERGY CAPACITY OF INDOOR STATIONARY ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEMS
MAXIMUM AGGREGATE RATED ENERGY CAPACITY (kWh) PER CONTROL AREAa,b
Lead-acid, all types
600c
Nickel, all types except sodium nickel chloride
600c
Lithium-ion, all types
400
Sodium nickel chloride
400
Flow
400
Other
As prescribed by rules or approved by the department
  1. Subject to the control area limitations set forth in FC Table 5003.8.3.3
  2. The control areas on a floor of a dedicated use building, other than on a high-rise floor, may be combined or otherwise modified, provided that the total maximum aggregate rated energy capacity of indoor systems allowed per floor is not exceeded.
  3. Except where a greater maximum aggregate rated capacity is allowed per floor by FC608.9.4.1.10.
608.9.1.2 Outdoor Systems
The aggregate rated energy capacity of outdoor stationary energy storage systems (including mobile systems) shall be as approved by the department, unless the department prescribes by rule a maximum aggregate rated energy capacity for such systems.
608.9.2 Energy Storage Management System Monitoring
All stationary energy storage systems shall be designed with an energy storage management system that transmits data regarding energy storage system status and temperature to a remote monitoring facility or other approved location. Indoor systems shall be provided with approved remote monitoring stations at the building's fire command center and/or other approved location.
608.9.3 Fire Protection and Hazard Mitigation
Stationary energy storage systems shall be designed to address the hazards identified by full-scale testing, including protecting the stationary energy storage system and the building or enclosure that houses such system with, as applicable, fire barriers, fire alarm systems, explosion mitigation, gas detection and other emergency alarm systems, fire extinguishing systems and ventilation systems.
608.9.3.1 Indoor Systems
Indoor systems shall be provided with the fire protection and hazard mitigation systems and measures required by the conditions of the system's listing and equipment approval, this section, the construction codes, the Electrical Code and the rules.
608.9.3.2 Outdoor Systems
Outdoor systems shall be provided with the fire protection and hazard mitigation systems and measures required by the rules.
608.9.4 Location
Stationary energy storage systems shall be installed in accordance with the location requirements and restrictions set forth in FC 608.9.4.1 and 608.9.4.2.
608.9.4.1 Indoor Systems
Indoor systems shall be installed in accordance with FC 608.9.4.1.1 through 608.9.4.1.9.
608.9.4.1.1 Below-Grade Locations
Indoor systems shall not be installed below grade, except when approved by the department in a dedicated use building, or as otherwise approved pursuant to FC608.5.
608.9.4.1.2 Sprinkler Protection Required
Indoor systems may be installed only in buildings fully protected throughout by a sprinkler system, except as otherwise provided in FC608.9.4.1.9. Control areas housing stationary energy storage systems shall be fully protected throughout by a sprinkler system designed in accordance with NFPA 15, except as may otherwise be approved based on equipment listings and testing results pursuant to FC608.4.
608.9.4.1.3 Occupancy Restrictions
Indoor systems may be installed in Group A, Group R-1, Group R-2 and Group I buildings and occupancies only when the building is of noncombustible construction, except as otherwise provided in FC608.9.4.1.9.
608.9.4.1.4 Control Areas
Indoor systems shall be installed only in control areas designed, installed, operated and maintained in accordance with this section. The maximum aggregate rated energy capacity of indoor systems per control area shall be in accordance with FC608.9.1. The design and number of control areas per floor shall be in accordance with FC5003.8.3.3, including FC Table 5003.8.3.3, except that (subject to FC608.9.4.1.9 and FC608.9.4.1.10) each control area housing an indoor stationary energy storage system shall be designed and constructed as a high-hazard occupancy, and rooftop installations shall be treated as outdoor installations.
608.9.4.1.5 Smoke Detection
Control areas housing stationary energy storage systems shall be protected by a fire alarm system or, if a fire alarm system is not otherwise required in the building or occupancy, by a dedicated smoke detection system.
608.9.4.1.6 Ventilation
Control areas housing stationary energy storage systems shall be equipped with ventilation systems designed for high-hazard occupancies in accordance with the construction codes. Such ventilation systems shall be adequate to exhaust any flammable or other gases generated during the normal operation and/or failure of the stationary energy storage system.
608.9.4.1.7 Spill Control, Neutralization, Drainage and Containment
Control areas housing stationary energy storage systems shall be provided with a means to control leaks and spills of liquid electrolyte and such containment and drainage systems as may be required by the construction codes and NFPA 855, as modified by FC Appendix B.
608.9.4.1.8 Emergency Power
All fire protection and hazard mitigation systems required by this section shall be provided with an emergency power system in accordance with the Building Code.
608.9.4.1.9 Exceptions for Certain Battery Systems for Fire and Life Safety
Lead acid battery systems, and nickel-cadmium battery systems, and where approved by the certificate of approval based on their testing results, other types of energy storage systems, designed and installed solely for the purpose of supplying emergency or standby power for building fire safety and life safety systems in accordance with the construction codes and this code may be:
  1. installed in buildings that are not protected throughout by a sprinkler system.
  2. installed in buildings of combustible construction.
  3. housed in control areas that are not constructed as high-hazard occupancies but meet such fire separation standards as may be set forth in the construction codes.
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