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1910.107 Spray Finishing Using Flammable and Combustible Materials
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Aerated powders shall mean any powdered material used as a coating material which shall be fluidized within a container by passing air uniformly from below. It is common practice to fluidize such materials to form a fluidized powder bed and then dip the part to be coated into the bed in a manner similar to that used in liquid dipping. Such beds are also used as sources for powder spray operations.
Any area in which dangerous quantities of flammable vapors or mists, or combustible residues, dusts, or deposits are present due to the operation of spraying processes.
A power-ventilated structure provided to enclose or accommodate a spraying operation to confine and limit the escape of spray, vapor, and residue, and to safely conduct or direct them to an exhaust system.
A spray booth equipped with a water washing system designed to minimize dusts or residues entering exhaust ducts and to permit the recovery of overspray finishing material.
A spray booth not equipped with a water washing system as described in subparagraph (4) of this paragraph. A dry spray booth may be equipped with
distribution or baffle plates to promote an even flow of air through the booth or cause the deposit of overspray before it enters the exhaust duct; or
overspray dry filters to minimize dusts or residues entering exhaust ducts; or
overspray dry filter rolls designed to minimize dusts or residues entering exhaust ducts; or
where dry powders are being sprayed, with powder collection systems so arranged in the exhaust to capture oversprayed material.
overspray dry filters to minimize dusts; or
A container holding powder coating material which is aerated from below so as to form an air-supported expanded cloud of such material through which the preheated object to be coated is immersed and transported.
A container holding powder coating material which is aerated from below so as to form an air-supported expanded cloud of such material which is electrically charged with a charge opposite to the charge of the object to be coated; such object is transported, through the container immediately above the charged and aerated materials in order to be coated.
Shall mean approved and listed by a nationally recognized testing laboratory. Refer to 1910.7 for definition of nationally recognized testing laboratory.
Spray booths shall be substantially constructed of steel, securely and rigidly supported, or of concrete or masonry except that aluminum or other substantial noncombustible material may be used for intermittent or low volume spraying. Spray booths shall be designed to sweep air currents toward the exhaust outlet.
The interior surfaces of spray booths shall be smooth and continuous without edges and otherwise designed to prevent pocketing of residues and facilitate cleaning and washing without injury.
The floor surface of a spray booth and operator's working area, if combustible, shall be covered with noncombustible material of such character as to facilitate the safe cleaning and removal of residues.
Distribution or baffle plates, if installed to promote an even flow of air through the booth or cause the deposit of overspray before it enters the exhaust duct, shall be of noncombustible material and readily removable or accessible on both sides for cleaning. Such plates shall not be located in exhaust ducts.
In conventional dry type spray booths, overspray dry filters or filter rolls, if installed, shall conform to the following:
The spraying operations except electrostatic spraying operations shall be so designed, installed and maintained that the average air velocity over the open face of the booth (or booth cross section during spraying operations) shall be not less than 100 linear feet per minute. Electrostatic spraying operations may be conducted with an air velocity over the open face of the booth of not less than 60 linear feet per minute, or more, depending on the volume of the finishing material being applied and its flammability and explosion characteristics. Visible gauges or audible alarm or pressure activated devices shall be installed to indicate or insure that the required air velocity is maintained. Filter rolls shall be inspected to insure proper replacement of filter media.
The location of filters in a spray booth shall be so as to not reduce the effective booth enclosure of the articles being sprayed.
Space within the spray booth on the downstream and upstream sides of filters shall be protected with approved automatic sprinklers.
Filters or filter rolls shall not be used when applying a spray material known to be highly susceptible to spontaneous heating and ignition.
Clean filters or filter rolls shall be noncombustible or of a type having a combustibility not in excess of class 2 filters as listed by Underwriters' Laboratories, Inc. Filters and filter rolls shall not be alternately used for different types of coating materials, where the combination of materials may be conducive to spontaneous ignition. See also paragraph (g)(6) of this section.
All discarded filter pads and filter rolls shall be immediately removed to a safe, well-detached location or placed in a water-filled metal container and disposed of at the close of the day's operation unless maintained completely in water.
Each spray booth having a frontal area larger than 9 square feet shall have a metal deflector or curtain not less than 2 1/2 inches deep installed at the upper outer edge of the booth over the opening.
Where conveyors are arranged to carry work into or out of spray booths, the openings therefor shall be as small as practical.
Each spray booth shall be separated from other operations by not less than 3 feet, or by a greater distance, or by such partition or wall as to reduce the danger from juxtaposition of hazardous operations. See also paragraph (c)(1) of this section.
Spray booths shall be so installed that all portions are readily accessible for cleaning. A clear space of not less than 3 feet on all sides shall be kept free from storage or combustible construction.
When spraying areas are illuminated through glass panels or other transparent materials, only fixed lighting units shall be used as a source of illumination. Panels shall effectively isolate the spraying area from the area in which the lighting unit is located, and shall be of a noncombustible material of such a nature or so protected that breakage will be unlikely. Panels shall be so arranged that normal accumulations of residue on the exposed surface of the panel will not be raised to a dangerous temperature by radiation or conduction from the source of illumination.
All electrical equipment, open flames and other sources of ignition shall conform to the requirements of this paragraph, except as follows:
Electrostatic apparatus shall conform to the requirements of paragraphs (h) and (i) of this section;
Automobile undercoating spray operations in garages shall conform to the requirements of paragraph (k) of this section;
Powder-coating equipment shall conform to the requirements of paragraph (l)(1) of this section.
Drying, curing, and fusion apparatus shall conform to the requirements of paragraph (j) of this section;
There shall be no open flame or spark producing equipment in any spraying area nor within 20 feet thereof, unless separated by a partition.
Space-heating appliances, steampipes, or hot surfaces shall not be located in a spraying area where deposits of combustible residues may readily accumulate.
Electrical wiring and equipment shall conform to the provisions of this paragraph and shall otherwise be in accordance with subpart S of this part.
Unless specifically approved for locations containing both deposits of readily ignitable residue and explosive vapors, there shall be no electrical equipment in any spraying area, whereon deposits of combustible residues may readily accumulate, except wiring in rigid conduit or in boxes or fittings containing no taps, splices, or terminal connections.
Electrical wiring and equipment not subject to deposits of combustible residues but located in a spraying area as herein defined shall be of explosion-proof type approved for Class I, group D locations and shall otherwise conform to the provisions of subpart S of this part, for Class I, Division 1, Hazardous Locations. Electrical wiring, motors, and other equipment outside of but within twenty (20) feet of any spraying area, and not separated therefrom by partitions, shall not produce sparks under normal operating conditions and shall otherwise conform to the provisions of subpart S of this part for Class I, Division 2 Hazardous Locations.
Electric lamps outside of, but within twenty (20) feet of any spraying area, and not separated therefrom by a partition, shall be totally enclosed to prevent the falling of hot particles and shall be protected from mechanical injury by suitable guards or by location.
Portable electric lamps shall not be used in any spraying area during spraying operations. Portable electric lamps, if used during cleaning or repairing operations, shall be of the type approved for hazardous Class I locations.
All metal parts of spray booths, exhaust ducts, and piping systems conveying flammable liquids or liquids with a flashpoint greater than 199.4 °F (93 °C) or aerated solids shall be properly electrically grounded in an effective and permanent manner.
All spraying areas shall be provided with mechanical ventilation adequate to remove flammable vapors, mists, or powders to a safe location and to confine and control combustible residues so that life is not endangered. Mechanical ventilation shall be kept in operation at all times while spraying operations are being conducted and for a sufficient time thereafter to allow vapors from drying coated articles and drying finishing material residue to be exhausted.
Each spray booth shall have an independent exhaust duct system discharging to the exterior of the building, except that multiple cabinet spray booths in which identical spray finishing material is used with a combined frontal area of not more than 18 square feet may have a common exhaust. If more than one fan serves one booth, all fans shall be so interconnected that one fan cannot operate without all fans being operated.
The fan-rotating element shall be nonferrous or nonsparking or the casing shall consist of or be lined with such material. There shall be ample clearance between the fan-rotating element and the fan casing to avoid a fire by friction, necessary allowance being made for ordinary expansion and loading to prevent contact between moving parts and the duct or fan housing. Fan blades shall be mounted on a shaft sufficiently heavy to maintain perfect alignment even when the blades of the fan are heavily loaded, the shaft preferably to have bearings outside the duct and booth. All bearings shall be of the self-lubricating type, or lubricated from the outside duct.
Electric motors driving exhaust fans shall not be placed inside booths or ducts. See also paragraph (c) of this section.
Belts shall not enter the duct or booth unless the belt and pulley within the duct or booth are thoroughly enclosed.
Exhaust ducts shall be constructed of steel and shall be substantially supported. Exhaust ducts without dampers are preferred; however, if dampers are installed, they shall be maintained so that they will be in a full open position at all times the ventilating system is in operation.
Exhaust ducts shall be protected against mechanical damage and have a clearance from unprotected combustible construction or other combustible material of not less than 18 inches.
If combustible construction is provided with the following protection applied to all surfaces within 18 inches, clearances may be reduced to the distances indicated:
- 28-gage sheet metal on 1/4-inch asbestos mill board. 12 inches.
- 28-gage sheet metal on 1/8-inch asbestos mill board 9 inches.
spaced out 1 inch on noncombustible spacers.
- 22-gage sheet metal on 1-inch rockwool batts 3 inches.
reinforced with wire mesh or the equivalent.
- Where ducts are protected with an approved automatic sprinkler system, properly maintained, the clearance required in subdivision (i) of this subparagraph may be reduced to 6 inches.
Unless the spray booth exhaust duct terminal is from a water-wash spray booth, the terminal discharge point shall be not less than 6 feet from any combustible exterior wall or roof nor discharge in the direction of any combustible construction or unprotected opening in any noncombustible exterior wall within 25 feet.
Air exhaust from spray operations shall not be directed so that it will contaminate makeup air being introduced into the spraying area or other ventilating intakes, nor directed so as to create a nuisance. Air exhausted from spray operations shall not be recirculated.
When necessary to facilitate cleaning, exhaust ducts shall be provided with an ample number of access doors.
Air intake openings to rooms containing spray finishing operations shall be adequate for the efficient operation of exhaust fans and shall be so located as to minimize the creation of dead air pockets.
Freshly sprayed articles shall be dried only in spaces provided with adequate ventilation to prevent the formation of explosive vapors. In the event adequate and reliable ventilation is not provided such drying spaces shall be considered a spraying area. See also paragraph (j) of this section.
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