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(A) Fixed Electrostatic Equipment
This section shall apply to any equipment using electrostatically charged elements for the atomization, charging, and/or precipitation of hazardous materials for coatings on articles or for other similar purposes in which the charging or atomizing device is attached to a mechanical support or manipulator. This shall include robotic devices. This section shall not apply to devices that are held or manipulated by hand. Where robot or programming procedures involve manual manipulation of the robot arm while spraying with the high voltage on, the provisions of 516.10(B) shall apply. The installation of electrostatic spraying equipment shall comply with 516.10(A)(1) through (A)(10). Spray equipment shall be listed. All automatic electrostatic equipment systems shall comply with 516.6(A) through (F).
(1) Power and Control Equipment
Transformers, high-voltage supplies, control apparatus, and all other electrical portions of the equipment shall be installed outside of the Class I location or be of a type identified for the location.
Exception: High-voltage grids, electrodes, electrostatic atomizing heads, and their connections shall be permitted within the Class I location.
(2) Electrostatic Equipment
Electrodes and electrostatic atomizing heads shall be adequately supported in permanent locations and shall be effectively insulated from ground. Electrodes and electrostatic atomizing heads that are permanently attached to their bases, supports, reciprocators, or robots shall be deemed to comply with this section.
(3) High-Voltage Leads
High-voltage leads shall be properly insulated and protected from mechanical damage or exposure to destructive chemicals. Any exposed element at high voltage shall be effectively and permanently supported on suitable insulators and shall be effectively guarded against accidental contact or grounding.
(4) Support of Goods
Goods being coated using this process shall be supported on conveyors or hangers. The conveyors or hangers shall be arranged (1) to ensure that the parts being coated are electrically connected to ground with a resistance of 1 megohm or less and (2) to prevent parts from swinging.
(5) Automatic Controls
Electrostatic apparatus shall be equipped with automatic means that will rapidly de-energize the high-voltage elements under any of the following conditions:
  1. Stoppage of ventilating fans or failure of ventilating equipment from any cause
  2. Stoppage of the conveyor carrying goods through the high-voltage field unless stoppage is required by the spray process
  3. Occurrence of excessive current leakage at any point in the high-voltage system
  4. De-energizing the primary voltage input to the power supply
(6) Grounding
All electrically conductive objects in the spray area, except those objects required by the process to be at high voltage, shall be adequately grounded. This requirement shall apply to paint containers, wash cans, guards, hose connectors, brackets, and any other electrically conductive objects or devices in the area.
Informational Note: For more information on grounding and bonding for static electricity purposes, see NFPA 33-2018, Standard for Spray Application Using Flammable or Combustible Materials; NFPA 34-2018, Standard for Dipping, Coating, and Printing Processes Using Flammable or Combustible Liquids; and NFPA 77-2019, Recommended Practice on Static Electricity.
(7) Isolation
Safeguards such as adequate booths, fencing, railings, interlocks, or other means shall be placed about the equipment or incorporated therein so that they, either by their location, character, or both, ensure that a safe separation of the process is maintained.
(8) Signs
Signs shall be conspicuously posted to convey the following:
  1. Designate the process zone as dangerous with regard to fire and accident
  2. Identify the grounding requirements for all electrically conductive objects in the spray area
  3. Restrict access to qualified personnel only
(9) Insulators
All insulators shall be kept clean and dry.
(10) Other Than Nonincendive Equipment
Spray equipment that cannot be classified as nonincendive shall comply with 516.10(A)(10)(a) and (A)(10)(b).
(a) Conveyors, hangers, and application equipment shall be arranged so that a minimum separation of at least twice the sparking distance is maintained between the workpiece or material being sprayed and electrodes, electrostatic atomizing heads, or charged conductors. Warnings defining this safe distance shall be posted. [33:11.4.1]
(b) The equipment shall provide an automatic means of rapidly de-energizing the high-voltage elements in the event the distance between the goods being painted and the electrodes or electrostatic atomizing heads falls below that specified in 516.10(A)(10)(a). [33:11.3.8]
(B) Hand-Spraying Electrostatic Equipment
This section shall apply to any equipment using electrostatically charged elements for the atomization, charging, or precipitation of flammable and combustible materials for coatings on articles, or for other similar purposes in which the charging or atomizing device is hand-held and manipulated during the spraying operation. Electrostatic hand-spraying equipment and devices used in connection with paint-spraying operations shall be of listed types and shall comply with 516.10(B)(1) through (B)(5).
(1) General
The high-voltage circuits shall be designed so as not to produce a spark of sufficient intensity to ignite the most readily ignitible of those vapor-air mixtures likely to be encountered or result in appreciable shock hazard upon coming in contact with a grounded object under all normal operating conditions. The electrostatically charged exposed elements of the handgun shall be capable of being energized only by an actuator that also controls the coating material supply.
(2) Power Equipment
Transformers, power packs, control apparatus, and all other electrical portions of the equipment shall be located outside of the Class I location or be identified for the location.
Exception: The handgun itself and its connections to the power supply shall be permitted within the Class I location.
(3) Handle
The handle of the spraying gun shall be electrically connected to ground by a conductive material and be constructed so that the operator in normal operating position is in electrical contact with the grounded handle with a resistance of not more than 1 megohm to prevent buildup of a static charge on the operator's body. Signs indicating the necessity for grounding other persons entering the spray area shall be conspicuously posted.
(4) Electrostatic Equipment
All electrically conductive objects in the spraying area, except those objects required by the process to be at high voltage shall be electrically connected to ground with a resistance of not more than 1 megohm. This requirement shall apply to paint containers, wash cans, and any other electrical conductive objects or devices in the area. The equipment shall carry a prominent, permanently installed warning regarding the necessity for this grounding feature.
Informational Note: For more information on grounding and bonding for static electricity purposes, see NFPA 33-2018, Standard for Spray Application Using Flammable or Combustible Materials, NFPA 34-2018. Standard for Dipping, Coating, and Printing Processes Using Flammable or Combustible Liquids, and NFPA 77-2019, Recommended Practice on Static Electricity.
(5) Support of Objects
Objects being painted shall be maintained in electrical contact with the conveyor or other grounded support. Hooks shall be regularly cleaned to ensure adequate grounding of 1 megohm or less. Areas of contact shall be sharp points or knife edges where possible. Points of support of the object shall be concealed from random spray where feasible, and, where the objects being sprayed are supported from a conveyor, the point of attachment to the conveyor shall be located so as to not collect spray material during normal operation.
(C) Powder Coating
This section shall apply to processes in which combustible dry powders are applied. The hazards associated with combustible dusts are present in such a process to a degree, depending on the chemical composition of the material, particle size, shape, and distribution.
(1) Electrical Equipment and Sources of Ignition
Electrical equipment and other sources of ignition shall comply with the requirements of Article 502. Portable electric luminaires and other utilization equipment shall not be used within a Class II location during operation of the finishing processes. Where such luminaires or utilization equipment are used during cleaning or repairing operations, they shall be of a type identified for Class II, Division 1 locations, and all exposed metal parts shall be connected to an equipment grounding conductor.
Exception: Where portable electric luminaires are required for operations in spaces not readily illuminated by fixed lighting within the spraying area, they shall be of the type listed for Class II, Division 1 locations where readily ignitible residues may be present.
(2) Fixed Electrostatic Spraying Equipment
The provisions of 516.10(A) and 516.10(C)(1) shall apply to fixed electrostatic spraying equipment.
(3) Electrostatic Hand-Spraying Equipment
The provisions of 516.10(B) and 516.10(C)(1) shall apply to electrostatic hand-spraying equipment.
(4) Electrostatic Fluidized Beds
Electrostatic fluidized beds and associated equipment shall be of identified types. The high-voltage circuits shall be designed such that any discharge produced when the charging electrodes of the bed are approached or contacted by a grounded object shall not be of sufficient intensity to ignite any powder-air mixture likely to be encountered or to result in an appreciable shock hazard.
(a) Transformers, power packs, control apparatus, and all other electrical portions of the equipment shall be located outside the powder-coating area or shall otherwise comply with the requirements of 516.10(C)(1).
Exception: The charging electrodes and their connections to the power supply shall be permitted within the powder-coating area.
(b) All electrically conductive objects within the powder-coating area shall be adequately grounded. The powder-coating equipment shall carry a prominent, permanently installed warning regarding the necessity for grounding these objects.
Informational Note: For more information on grounding and bonding for static electricity purposes, see NFPA 33-2018, Standard for Spray Application Using Flammable or Combustible Materials; NFPA 34-2018,, Standard for Dipping, Coating, and Printing Processes Using Flammable or Combustible Liquids, and NFPA 77-2019, Recommended Practice on Static Electricity.
(c) Objects being coated shall be maintained in electrical contact (less than 1 megohm) with the conveyor or other support in order to ensure proper grounding. Hangers shall be regularly cleaned to ensure effective electrical contact. Areas of electrical contact shall be sharp points or knife edges where possible.
(d) The electrical equipment and compressed air supplies shall be interlocked with a ventilation system so that the equipment cannot be operated unless the ventilating fans are in operation. [33:Chapter 15]

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