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This paragraph requires the employer to evaluate respiratory hazard(s) in the workplace, identify relevant workplace and user factors, and base respirator selection on these factors. The paragraph also specifies appropriately protective respirators for use in IDLH atmospheres, and limits the selection and use of air-purifying respirators.
1910.134(d)(1) General Requirements
1910.134(d)(1)(i)
The employer shall select and provide an appropriate respirator based on the respiratory hazard(s) to which the worker is exposed and workplace and user factors that affect respirator performance and reliability.
1910.134(d)(1)(iii)
The employer shall identify and evaluate the respiratory hazard(s) in the workplace; this evaluation shall include a reasonable estimate of employee exposures to respiratory hazard(s) and an identification of the contaminant's chemical state and physical form. Where the employer cannot identify or reasonably estimate the employee exposure, the employer shall consider the atmosphere to be IDLH.
1910.134(d)(1)(iv)
The employer shall select respirators from a sufficient number of respirator models and sizes so that the respirator is acceptable to, and correctly fits, the user.
1910.134(d)(1)(ii)
The employer shall select a NIOSH-certified respirator. The respirator shall be used in compliance with the conditions of its certification.
1910.134(d)(2) Respirators for IDLH Atmospheres
1910.134(d)(2)(i)
The employer shall provide the following respirators for employee use in IDLH atmospheres:
1910.134(d)(2)(i)(A)
A full facepiece pressure demand SCBA certified by NIOSH for a minimum service life of thirty minutes, or
1910.134(d)(2)(i)(B)
A combination full facepiece pressure demand supplied-air respirator (SAR) with auxiliary self-contained air supply.
1910.134(d)(2)(iii)
All oxygen-deficient atmospheres shall be considered IDLH. Exception: If the employer demonstrates that, under all foreseeable conditions, the oxygen concentration can be maintained within the ranges specified in Table II of this section (i.e., for the altitudes set out in the table), then any atmosphere-supplying respirator may be used.
1910.134(d)(2)(ii)
Respirators provided only for escape from IDLH atmospheres shall be NIOSH-certified for escape from the atmosphere in which they will be used.
1910.134(d)(3) Respirators for Atmospheres That Are Not IDLH
1910.134(d)(3)(i)
The employer shall provide a respirator that is adequate to protect the health of the employee and ensure compliance with all other OSHA statutory and regulatory requirements, under routine and reasonably foreseeable emergency situations.
1910.134(d)(3)(i)(A) Assigned Protection Factors (APFs)
Employers must use the assigned protection factors listed in Table 1 to select a respirator that meets or exceeds the required level of employee protection. When using a combination respirator (e.g., airline respirators with an air-purifying filter), employers must ensure that the assigned protection factor is appropriate to the mode of operation in which the respirator is being used.


Table 1. -- Assigned Protection Factors5
Type of respirator1, 2 Quarter mask Half mask Full
facepiece
Helmet/hood Loose-fitting facepiece
1. Air-Purifying Respirator 5 310 50
2. Powered Air-Purifying Respirator (PAPR) 50 1,000 425/1,000 25
3. Supplied-Air Respirator (SAR) or Airline Respirator
  • Demand mode
  • Continuous flow mode
  • Pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode



10

50

50



50

1,000

1,000



..

425/1,000

..





25

4. Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA)
  • Demand mode
  • Pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode (e.g., open/closed circuit)








10




50

10,000



50

10,000





Notes:
1Employers may select respirators assigned for use in higher workplace concentrations of a hazardous substance for use at lower concentrations of that substance, or when required respirator use is independent of concentration.
2The assigned protection factors in Table 1 are only effective when the employer implements a continuing, effective respirator program as required by this section (29 CFR 1910.134), including training, fit testing, maintenance, and use requirements.
3This APF category includes filtering facepieces, and half masks with elastomeric facepieces.
4The employer must have evidence provided by the respirator manufacturer that testing of these respirators demonstrates performance at a level of protection of 1,000 or greater to receive an APF of 1,000. This level of performance can best be demonstrated by performing a WPF or SWPF study or equivalent testing. Absent such testing, all other PAPRs and SARs with helmets/hoods are to be treated as loose-fitting facepiece respirators, and receive an APF of 25.
5These APFs do not apply to respirators used solely for escape. For escape respirators used in association with specific substances covered by 29 CFR 1910 subpart Z, employers must refer to the appropriate substance-specific standards in that subpart. Escape respirators for other IDLH atmospheres are specified by 29 CFR 1910.134 (d)(2)(ii).
1910.134(d)(3)(i)(B) Maximum Use Concentration (MUC)
1910.134(d)(3)(i)(B)(1)
The employer must select a respirator for employee use that maintains the employee's exposure to the hazardous substance, when measured outside the respirator, at or below the MUC.
1910.134(d)(3)(i)(B)(2)
Employers must not apply MUCs to conditions that are immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH); instead, they must use respirators listed for IDLH conditions in paragraph (d)(2) of this standard.
1910.134(d)(3)(i)(B)(3)
When the calculated MUC exceeds the IDLH level for a hazardous substance, or the performance limits of the cartridge or canister, then employers must set the maximum MUC at that lower limit.
1910.134(d)(3)(iii)
For protection against gases and vapors, the employer shall provide:
1910.134(d)(3)(iii)(A)
1910.134(d)(3)(iii)(B)
An air-purifying respirator, provided that:
1910.134(d)(3)(iii)(B)(1)
The respirator is equipped with an end-of-service-life indicator (ESLI) certified by NIOSH for the contaminant; or
1910.134(d)(3)(iii)(B)(2)
If there is no ESLI appropriate for conditions in the employer's workplace, the employer implements a change schedule for canisters and cartridges that is based on objective information or data that will ensure that canisters and cartridges are changed before the end of their service life. The employer shall describe in the respirator program the information and data relied upon and the basis for the canister and cartridge change schedule and the basis for reliance on the data.
1910.134(d)(3)(iv)
For protection against particulates, the employer shall provide:
1910.134(d)(3)(iv)(A)
1910.134(d)(3)(iv)(B)
An air-purifying respirator equipped with a filter certified by NIOSH under 30 CFR part 11 as a high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter, or an air-purifying respirator equipped with a filter certified for particulates by NIOSH under 42 CFR part 84; or
1910.134(d)(3)(iv)(C)
For contaminants consisting primarily of particles with mass median aerodynamic diameters (MMAD) of at least 2 micrometers, an air-purifying respirator equipped with any filter certified for particulates by NIOSH.

TABLE I. -- ASSIGNED PROTECTION FACTORS
[RESERVED]


TABLE II
Altitude (ft.) Oxygen
deficient
Atmospheres
(% 02) for which
the employer
atmosphere-
may rely on
supplying
respirators
Less than 3,001
3,001-4,000
4,001-5,000
5,001-6,000
6,001-7,000
7,001-8,0001
16.0-19.5
16.4-19.5
17.1-19.5
17.8-19.5
18.5-19.5
19.3-19.5.
1Above 8,000 feet the exception does not apply. Oxygen- enriched breathing air must be supplied above 14,000 feet.
1910.134(d)(3)(ii)
The respirator selected shall be appropriate for the chemical state and physical form of the contaminant.

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