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For structures assigned to Seismic Design Category C, cast-in-place deep foundation elements shall be reinforced as specified in this section. Reinforcement shall be provided where required by analysis.
Not fewer than four longitudinal bars, with a minimum longitudinal reinforcement ratio of 0.0025, shall be provided throughout the minimum reinforced length of the element as defined in this section starting at the top of the element. The minimum reinforced length of the element shall be taken as the greatest of the following:
  1. One-third of the element length.
  2. A distance of 10 feet (3048 mm).
  3. Three times the least element dimension.
  4. The distance from the top of the element to the point where the design cracking moment determined in accordance with Section 1810.3.9.1 exceeds the required moment strength determined using the load combinations of ASCE 7, Section 2.3.
Transverse reinforcement shall consist of closed ties or spirals with a minimum 3/8 inch (9.5 mm) diameter. Spacing of transverse reinforcement shall not exceed the smaller of 6 inches (152 mm) or 8-longitudinal-bar diameters, within a distance of three times the least element dimension from the bottom of the pile cap. Spacing of transverse reinforcement shall not exceed 16 longitudinal bar diameters throughout the remainder of the reinforced length.
Exceptions:
  1. The requirements of this section shall not apply to concrete cast in structural steel pipes or tubes.
  2. A spiral-welded metal casing of a thickness not less than the manufacturer's standard No. 14 gage (0.068 inch) is permitted to provide concrete confinement in lieu of the closed ties or spirals. Where used as such, the metal casing shall be protected against possible deleterious action due to soil constituents, changing water levels or other factors indicated by boring records of site conditions.
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