1810.3.9.4.2 Seismic Reinforcement in Seismic Design Categories D Through F
For structures assigned to Seismic Design Category D, E or F, cast-in-place deep foundation elements shall be reinforced as specified in this section. Reinforcement shall be provided where required by analysis.
Not fewer than four longitudinal bars, with a minimum longitudinal reinforcement ratio of 0.005, shall be provided throughout the minimum reinforced length of the element as defined in this section starting at the top of the element. The minimum reinforced length of the element shall be taken as the greatest of the following:
- One-half of the element length.
- A distance of 10 feet (3048 mm).
- Three times the least element dimension.
- The distance from the top of the element to the point where the design cracking moment determined in accordance with Section 1810.3.9.1 exceeds the required moment strength determined using the load combinations of Section 1605.2.
Transverse reinforcement shall consist of closed ties or spirals not smaller than No. 3 bars for elements with a least dimension up to 20 inches (508 mm), and No. 4 bars for larger elements. Throughout the remainder of the reinforced length outside the regions with transverse confinement reinforcement, as specified in Section 1810.3.9.4.2.1 or 1810.3.9.4.2.2, the spacing of transverse reinforcement shall not exceed the least of the following:
- 12 longitudinal bar diameters.
- One-half the least dimension of the element.
- 12 inches (305 mm).
- The requirements of this section shall not apply to concrete cast in structural steel pipes or tubes.
- A spiral-welded metal casing of a thickness not less than manufacturer's standard No. 14 gage (0.068 inch) is permitted to provide concrete confinement in lieu of the closed ties or spirals. Where used as such, the metal casing shall be protected against possible deleterious action due to soil constituents, changing water levels or other factors indicated by boring records of site conditions.