The basic lateral and vertical seismic-force-resisting systems shall conform to one of the types indicated in Table 1617.6.2 subject to the limitations on height indicated in the table based on seismic design category as determined in Section 1616. The appropriate response modification coefficient, R, system over-strength factor, Ω0, and deflection amplification factor, Cd, indicated in Table 1617.6.2 shall be used in determining the base shear, element design forces and design story drift. For seismic-force-resisting systems not listed in Table 16 17.6.2, analytical and test data shall be submitted that establish the dynamic characteristics and demonstrate the lateral-force resistance and energy dissipation capacity to be equivalent to the structural systems listed in Table 1617.6.2 for equivalent response modification coefficient, R, system over-strength coefficient, 0, and deflection amplification factor, Cd, values. Buildings shall not exceed the limitations of Section 1616.6.1.
For other than dual systems and shear wall-frame interactive systems, where a combination of different structural systems is utilized to resist lateral forces in the same direction, the value, R, used for design in that direction shall not be greater than the least value for any of the systems utilized in that same direction.
Exception: For light-framed, flexible diaphragm buildings, of Seismic Use Group I and two stories or less in height: Resisting elements are permitted to be designed using the least value of R for the different structural systems found on each independent line of resistance. The value of R used for design of diaphragms in such structures shall not be greater than the least value for any of the systems utilized in that same direction.
The response modification coefficient, R, in the direction under consideration at any story shall not exceed the lowest response modification coefficient, R, for the seismic-force-resisting system in the same direction considered above that story, excluding penthouses. The system over-strength factor, 0, in the direction under consideration at any story, shall not be less than the largest value of this factor for the seismic-force-resisting system in the same direction considered above that story. In structures assigned to Seismic Design Category D, if a system with a response modification coefficient, R, with a value less than five is used as part of the seismic-force-resisting system in any direction of the structure, the lowest such value shall be used for the entire structure.
- Detached one-and two-family dwellings constructed of light framing.
- The response modification coefficient, R, and system over-strength factor, Ω0, for supported structural systems with a weight equal to or less than 10 percent of the weight of the structure are permitted to be determined independent of the values of these parameters for the structure as a whole.
- The following two-stage static analysis procedure is permitted to be used for structures having a flexible upper portion supported on a rigid lower portion where both portions of the structure considered separately can be classified as being regular, the average story stiffness of the lower portion is at least 10 times the average story stiffness of the upper portion and the period of the entire structure is not greater than 1.1 times the period of the upper portion considered as a separate structure fixed at the base:
- shall be designed as a separate structure using the appropriate values of R and
- The rigid lower portion shall be designed as a separate structure using the appropriate values of R and ρ. The reactions from the upper portion shall be those determined from the analysis of the upper portion amplified by the ratio of,R/ρ, of the upper portion over, R/ρ, of the lower portion. This ratio shall not be less than 1.0.
Moment-resisting frames that are enclosed or adjoined by stiffer elements not considered to be part of the seismic-force-resisting system shall be designed so that the action or failure of those elements will not impair the vertical load and seismic-force-resisting capability of the frame. The design shall consider and provide for the effect of these rigid elements on the structural system at deformations corresponding to the design story drift, Δ, as determined in Section 1617.5.4. In addition, the effects of these elements shall be considered when determining whether a structure has one or more of the irregularities defined in Section 1616.5.1.
Every structural component not included in the seismic-force-resisting system in the direction under consideration shall be designed to be adequate for vertical load-carrying capacity and the induced moments and shears resulting from the design story drift, Δ, as determined in accordance with Section 1617.5.4. Where allowable stress design is used, Δ shall be computed without dividing the earthquake force by 1.4. The moments and shears induced in components that are not included in the seismic-force-resisting system in the direction under consideration shall be calculated including the stiffening effects of adjoining rigid structural and nonstructural elements.
A special moment frame that is used but not required by Table 1617.6.2 is permitted to be discontinued and supported by a stiffer system with a lower response modification coefficient, R, provided the requirements of Sections 1620.2.3 and 1620.4.1 are met. Where a special moment frame is required by Table 16 17.6.2, the frame shall be continuous to the foundation.