The above water inspection shall include all accessible components above and below deck that are reachable without the need for excavation or extensive removal of materials that may impair visual inspection. The above water inspection shall include, but not be limited to, the following:
- Pile caps
- Deck soffit
- Retaining walls and bulkheads
- Slope protection
- Deck topsides and curbing
- Expansion joints
- Fender system components
- Dolphins and deadmen
- Mooring points and hardware
- Navigation aids
- Platforms, ladders, stairs, handrails and gangways
- Backfill (sinkholes/differential settlement)
The underwater inspection shall include all components below deck to the mudline, including the slope and slope protection, in areas immediately surrounding the MOT. The water depth at the berth(s) shall be evaluated, verifying the maximum or loaded draft specified in the MOT's Operations Manual (2 CCR 2385) [2.1].
The underwater structural inspection shall include the Level I, II and III inspection efforts, as shown in Tables 31F-2-2 and 31F-2-3. The underwater inspection levels of effort are described below, per [2.2]:
Level I—Includes a close visual examination, or a tactile examination using large sweeping motions of the hands where visibility is limited. Although the Level I effort is often referred to as a "swim-by" inspection, it must be detailed enough to detect obvious major damage or deterioration due to overstress or other severe deterioration. It should confirm the continuity of the full length of all members and detect undermining or exposure of normally buried elements. A Level I effort may also include limited probing of the substructure and adjacent channel bottom.
Level II—A detailed inspection which requires marine growth removal from a representative sampling of components within the structure. For piles, a 12-inch high band shall be cleaned at designated locations, generally near the low waterline, at the mudline, and midway between the low waterline and the mudline. On a rectangular pile, the marine growth removal should include at least three sides; on an octagon pile, at least six sides; on a round pile, at least three-fourths of the perimeter. On large diameter piles, 3 ft or greater, marine growth removal should be effected on 1 ft by 1 ft areas at four locations approximately equally spaced around the perimeter, at each elevation. On large solid faced elements such as retaining structures, marine growth removal should be effected on 1 ft by 1 ft areas at the three specified elevations. The inspection should also focus on typical areas of weakness, such as attachment points and welds. The Level II effort is intended to detect and identify damaged and deteriorated areas that may be hidden by surface biofouling. The thoroughness of marine growth removal should be governed by what is necessary to discern the condition of the underlying structural material. Removal of all biofouling staining is generally not required.
Level III—A detailed inspection typically involving nondestructive or partially-destructive testing, conducted to detect hidden or interior damage, or to evaluate material homogeneity. Level III testing is generally limited to key structural areas, areas which are suspect or areas which may be representative of the underwater structure.
UNDERWATER INSPECTION LEVELS OF EFFORT [2.2]
|I||General visual/tactile inspection to confirm as-built condition and detect severe damage||Extensive corrosion, holes Severe mechanical damage||Major spalling and cracking Severe reinforcement corrosion Broken piles||Major loss of section Broken piles and bracings Severe abrasion or marine borer attack||Permanent deformation Broken piles Major cracking or mechanical damage|
|II||To detect surface defects normally obscured by marine growth||Moderate mechanical damage Corrosion pitting and loss of section||Surface cracking and spalling Rust staining Exposed reinforcing steel and/or prestressing strands||External pile damage due to marine borers Splintered piles Loss of bolts and fasteners Rot or insect infestation||Cracking Delamination Material degradation|
|III||To detect hidden or interior damage, evaluate loss of cross-sectional area, or evaluate material homogeneity||Thickness of material Electrical potentials for cathodic protection||Location of reinforcing steel Beginning of corrosion of reinforcing steel Internal voids Change in material strength||Internal damage due to marine borers (internal voids) Decrease in material strength||N/A|
UNDERWATER INSPECTION LEVELS OF EFFORT [2.2]
|LEVEL||SAMPLE SIZE AND METHODOLOGY1|
|Steel||Concrete||Timber||Composite||Slope Protection, Channel Bottom or Mudline-Scour|
|Piles||Bulkheads/Retaining Walls||Piles||Bulkheads/Retaining Walls||Piles||Bulkheads/Retaining Walls||Piles|
|II||Sample Size:||10%||Every 100 LF||10%||Every 100 LF||10%||Every 50 LF||10%||As necessary|
|Method:||Visual: Removal of marine growth in 3 bands||Visual: Removal of marine growth in 1 SF areas||Visual: Removal of marine growth in 3 bands||Visual: Removal of marine growth in 1 SF areas||Visual: Removal of marine growth on 3 bands Measurement: Remaining diameter||Visual: Removal of marine growth in 1 SF areas||Visual: Removal of marine growth in 3 bands|
|III||Sample Size:||5%||Every 200 LF||0%||0%||5%||Every 100 LF||0%||Sonar imaging as necessary|
|Method:||Remaining thickness measurement; electrical potential measurement; corrosion profiling as necessary||Remaining thickness measurement; electrical potential measurement; corrosion profiling as necessary||N/A||N/A||Internal marine borer infestation evaluation||Internal marine borer infestation evaluation|
1. The minimum inspection sampling size for small structures shall include at least two components.
LF = Linear Feet; SF = Square Feet; N/A = Not Applicable
For coated steel components, Level I and Level II efforts should focus on the evaluation of the integrity and effectiveness of the coating. The piles should be inspected without damaging the coating. Level III efforts should include ultrasonic thickness measurements without removal of the coating, where feasible.
For steel, concrete or timber components that have been encased, the Level I and II efforts should focus on the evaluation of the integrity of the encasement. If evidence of significant damage to the encasement is present, or if evidence of significant deterioration of the underlying component is present, then the damage evaluation should consider whether the encasement was provided for protection and/or structural capacity. Encasements should not typically be removed for an audit.
For encasements on which the formwork has been left in place, the inspection should focus on the integrity of the encasement, not the formwork. Level I and Level II efforts in such cases should concentrate on the top and bottom of the encasement. For concrete components, if deterioration, loss of bonding, or other significant problems with the encasement are suspected, it may be necessary to conduct a special inspection, including coring of the encasement and laboratory evaluation of the materials.
For steel, concrete or timber components that have been wrapped, the Level I and II efforts should focus on the evaluation of the integrity of the wrap. Since the effectiveness of a wrap may be compromised by removal, and since the removal and re-installation of wraps is time-consuming, it should not be routinely done. However, if evidence of significant damage exists, or if the effectiveness of the wraps is in question, then samples should be removed to facilitate the inspection and evaluation. The samples may be limited to particular zones or portions of members if damage is suspected, based on the physical evidence of potential problems. A minimum sample size of three members should be used. A five-percent sample size, up to 30 total members, may be adequate as an upper limit.
For wrapped timber components, Level III efforts should consist of removal of the wraps from a representative sample of components in order to evaluate the condition of the timber beneath the wrap. The sample may be limited to particular zones or portions of the members if damage is suspected (e.g., at the mudline/bottom of wrap or in the tidal zone). The sample size should be determined based on the physical evidence of potential problems and the aggressiveness of the environment. A minimum sample size of three members should be used. A five-percent sample size, up to 30 total members, may be adequate as an upper limit.
The mechanical and electrical inspections shall include but not be limited to the following:
- Loading arms
- Cranes and lifting equipment, including cables
- Piping/manifolds and supports
- Oil transfer hoses
- Fire detection and suppression systems
- Vapor control system
- Sumps/sump tanks
- Vent systems
- Pumps and pump systems
- Communications equipment
- Electrical switches and junction boxes
- Emergency power equipment
- Air compressors
- Cathodic protection systems
- ESD and other control systems
All alarms, limit switches, load cells, current meters, anemometers, leak detection equipment, etc., shall be operated and/or tested to the extent feasible, to ensure proper function.
Utility, auxiliary and fire protection piping shall have external visual inspections, similar to that defined in Section 10.1 of API RP 574 [2.3] (N/E).
During each audit, a comprehensive corrosion inspection shall be performed by a qualified engineer or technician. This inspection shall include all steel and metallic components, and any installed cathodic protection system (CPS). CPS inspection during the audit is not intended to substitute for required testing and maintenance performed on a more frequent schedule per Section 3111F.10. All inspection results shall be documented, and shall be used in the corrosion assessment (Section 3102F.3.6.5).
Submerged wharf structures and associated cathodic protection equipment (if installed) shall be inspected per [2.2]. Above water structures, ancillary equipment, supports, and hardware shall be visually inspected. Corrosion inspection of utility, auxiliary and fire pipelines shall be done per Section 3102F.3.5.3.
For oil pipelines in an API 570 [2.4] inspection program, a corrosion inspection is not required as part of the audit; however, the latest inspection results, calculations, and conclusions shall be reviewed, and any significant results shall be included in the corrosion assessment.