This section includes safety requirements for sawmill operations including, but not limited to, log and lumber handling, sawing, trimming, and planing; waste disposal; operation of dry kilns; finishing; shipping; storage; yard and yard equipment; and for power tools and affiliated equipment used in connection with such operations, but excluding the manufacture of plywood, cooperage, and veneer.
The term A-frame means a structure made of two independent columns fastened together at the top and separated at the bottom for stability.
The term annealing means heating then cooling to soften and render less brittle.
The term binder means a chain, cable, rope, or other approved material used for binding loads.
The term boom means logs or timbers fastened together end to end and used to contain floating logs. The term includes enclosed logs.
The term brow log means a log placed parallel to a roadway at a landing or dump to protect vehicles while loading or unloading.
The term bunk means a cross support for a load.
The term cant means a log slabbed on one or more sides.
The term carriage means a framework mounted on wheels which runs on tracks or in grooves in a direction parallel to the face of the saw, and which contains apparatus to hold a log securely and advance it towards the saw.
The term carrier means an industrial truck so designed and constructed that it straddles the load to be transported with mechanisms to pick up the load and support it during transportation.
The term chipper means a machine which cuts material into chips.
The terms chock, bunk block, and cheese block mean a wedge that prevents logs or loads from moving.
The term cold deck means a pile of logs stored for future removal.
The term crotch lines means two short lines attached to a hoisting line by a ring or shackle, the lower ends being attached to loading hooks.
The term dog means a steel tooth, one or more of which are attached to each carriage knee to hold log firmly in place on carriage.
The term drag saw means a power-driven, reciprocating crosscut saw mounted on suitable frame and used for bucking logs.
The term head block means that part of a carriage which holds the log and upon which it rests. It generally consists of base, knee, taper set, and mechanism.
The term head rig means a combination of head saw and log carriage used for the initial breakdown of logs into timbers, cants, and boards.
The term hog means a machine for cutting or grinding slabs and other coarse residue from the mill.
The term husk means a head saw framework on a circular mill.
The term industrial truck means a mobile powerdriven truck or tractor.
The term kiln tender means the operator of a kiln.
The term lift truck means an industrial truck used for lateral transportation and equipped with a power-operated lifting device, usually in the form of forks, for piling or unpiling lumber units or packages.
The term live rolls means cylinders of wood or metal mounted on horizontal axes and rotated by power, which are used to convey slabs, lumber, and other wood products.
The term loading boom means any structure projecting from a pivot point to guide a log when lifted.
The term Log deck means a platform in the sawmill on which the logs remain until needed for sawing.
The term lumber hauling truck means an industrial truck, other than a lift truck or a carrier, used for the transport of lumber.
The term log haul means a conveyor for transferring logs to mill.
The term package means a unit of lumber.
The term peavy means a stout wooden handle fitted with a spike and hook and used for rolling logs.
The term pike pole means a long pole whose end is shod with a sharp pointed spike.
The term pitman rod means connecting rod.
The term resaw means band, circular, or sash gang saws used to break down slabs, cants, or flitches into lumber.
The term running line means any moving rope as distinguished from a stationary rope such as a guyline.
The term safety factor means a calculated reduction factor which may be applied to laboratory test values to obtain safe working stresses for wooden beams and other mechanical members; ratio of breaking load to safe load.
The term saw guide means a device for steadying a circular or bandsaw.
The term setwork means a mechanism on a sawmill carriage which enables an operator to move the log into position for another cut.
The term sorting gaps means the areas on a log pond enclosed by boom sticks into which logs are sorted.
The term spreader wheel means a metal wheel that separates the board from the log in back of circular saws to prevent binding.
The term splitter means a knife-type, nonrotating spreader.
The term sticker means a strip of wood or other material used to separate layers of lumber.
The term stiff boom means the anchored, stationary boom sticks which are tied together and on which boom men work.
The term swifter is a means of tying boom sticks together to prevent them from spreading while being towed.
The term telltale means a device used to serve as a warning for overhead objects.
The term top saw means the upper of two circular saws on a head rig, both being on the same husk.
The term tramway means a way for trams, usually consisting of parallel tracks laid on wooden beams.
The term trestle means a braced framework of timbers, piles or steelwork for carrying a road or railroad over a depression.
All buildings, docks, tramways, walkways, log dumps, and other structures shall be designed, constructed and maintained so as to support the imposed load in accordance with a safety factor.
Work areas under mills shall be as evenly surfaced as local conditions permit. They shall be free from unnecessary obstructions and provided with lighting facilities in accordance with American National Standard for Industrial Lighting A11.1—1965, which is incorporated by reference as specified in §1910.6.
Flooring in buildings and on ramps and walkways shall be constructed and installed in accordance with established principles of mechanics and sound engineering practices. They shall be of adequate strength to support the estimated or actual dead and live loads acting on them with the resultant stress not exceeding the allowable stress for the material being used.
The flooring of buildings, docks, and passageways shall be kept in good repair. When a hazardous condition develops that cannot be immediately repaired, the area shall be guarded until adequate repairs are made.
Floors, footwalks, and passageways in the work area around machines or other places where a person is required to stand or walk shall be provided with effective means to minimize slipping.
Areas under floor openings shall, where practical, be fenced off. When this is not practical, they shall be plainly marked and telltales shall be installed to hang over these areas.
Walkways, docks, and platforms shall be of sufficient width to provide adequate passage and working areas.
Docks and runways used for the operation of lift trucks and other vehicles shall have a substantial guard or shear timber except where loading and unloading are being performed.
All elevated walks, runways, or platforms, if 4 feet or more from the floor level, shall be provided with a standard railing except on loading or unloading sides of platforms. If height exceeds 6 feet, a standard toe board also shall be provided to prevent material from rolling or falling off.
Where elevated platforms are used routinely on a daily basis, they shall be equipped with stairways or fixed ladders that comply with subpart D of this part.
Where required, walkways and stairways with standard handrails shall be provided in elevated and hazardous locations. Where such passageways are over walkways or work areas, standard toe boards shall be provided.
Walkways shall be evenly floored and kept in good repair.
Stairways shall be constructed in accordance with subpart D of this part.
All stairways shall be adequately lighted as prescribed in paragraph (c)(9) of this section.
Stairways shall be provided with a standard handrail on at least one side or on any open side. Where stairs are more than four feet wide there shall be a standard handrail at each side, and where more than eight feet wide, a third standard handrail shall be erected in the center of the stairway.
Doors shall not open directly on or block a flight of stairs, and shall swing in the direction of exit travel.
All swinging doors shall be provided with windows; with one window for each section of double swinging doors. Such windows shall be of shatterproof or safety glass unless otherwise protected against breakage.
Where sliding doors are used as exits, an inner door shall be cut inside each of the main doors and arranged to open outward.
Where a doorway opens upon a railroad track or upon a tramway or dock over which vehicles travel, a barrier or other warning device shall be placed to prevent workmen from stepping into moving traffic.
Exits shall be located and identified in a manner that affords ready exit from all work areas.
Ventilation shall be provided to supply adequate fresh healthful air to rooms, buildings, and work areas.
All open vats and tanks into which workmen could fall shall be guarded.
Illumination shall be provided and designed to supply adequate general and local lighting to rooms, buildings, and work areas during the time of use.
Factors upon which the adequacy and effectiveness of illumination will be judged, include the following:
The quantity of light in foot-candle intensity shall be sufficient for the work being done.
The quality of the light shall be such that it is free from glare, and has correct direction, diffusion, and distribution.
Shadows and extreme contrasts shall be avoided or kept to a minimum.
Physical hazard marking shall be as specified in §1910.144 of this part.
Means shall be provided to block, chain, or otherwise secure equipment normally supported by hydraulic pressure so as to provide for safe maintenance.
All gas piping and appliances shall be installed in accordance with the American National Standard Requirements for the Installation of Gas Appliances and Gas Piping Z21.30—1964, which is incorporated by reference as specified in §1910.6.
Construction, operation, and maintenance of conveyors shall be in accordance with American National Standard B20.1—1957, which is incorporated by reference as specified in §1910.6.
Spiked live rolls shall be guarded.
Tramways and trestles shall have substantial mud sills or foundations which shall be frequently inspected and kept in repair. When vehicles are operated on tramways and trestles which are used for foot passage, traffic shall be controlled or a walkway with standard handrails at the outer edge and shear timber on the inner edge shall be provided. This walkway shall be wide enough to allow adequate clearance to vehicles. When walkways cross over other thoroughfares, they shall be solidly fenced at the outer edge to a height of 42 inches over such thoroughfares.
Stationary tramways and trestles shall have a vertical clearance of 22 feet over railroad rails. When constructed over carrier docks or roads, they shall have a clearance of 6 feet above the driver's foot rest on the carrier, and in no event shall this clearance be less than 12 feet from the roadway. In existing operations where it is impractical to obtain such clearance, telltales, electric signals, signs or other precautionary measures shall be installed.
Blower collecting, and exhaust systems should be designed, constructed, and maintained in accordance with American National Standards Z33.1—1961 (For the Installation of Blower and Exhaust Systems for Dust, Stock, and Vapor Removal or Conveying) and Z12.2—1962 (R1969) (Code for the Prevention of Dust Explosion in Woodworking and Wood Flour Manufacturing Plants), which are incorporated by reference as specified in §1910.6.
Each woodworking machine that creates dust, shavings, chips, or slivers shall be equipped with an exhaust or conveyor system located and adjusted to remove the maximum amount of refuse from the point of operation and immediate vicinity.
Exhaust pipes shall not discharge into an unconfined outside pile if uncontrolled fire or explosion hazards are created. They may empty into settling or dust chambers, designed to prevent the dust or refuse from entering any work area. Such chambers shall be constructed and operated to minimize the danger of fire or dust explosion.
Provision for the daily removal of refuse shall be made in all operations not required to have an exhaust system or having refuse too heavy, bulky, or otherwise unsuitable to be handled by the exhaust system.
All mills containing one or more machines that create dust, shavings, chips, or slivers during a period of time equal to or greater than one-fourth of the working day, shall be equipped with a collecting system. It may be either continuous or automatic, and shall be of sufficient strength and capacity to enable it to remove such refuse from points of operation and immediate vicinities of machines and work areas.