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66.27 Piping Systems
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This section shall apply to the design, installation, testing, operation, and maintenance of piping systems for flammable and combustible liquids or vapors. Such piping systems shall include but not be limited to pipe, tubing, flanges, bolting, gaskets, valves, fittings, flexible connectors, the pressure-containing parts of other components including but not limited to expansion joints and strainers, and devices that serve such purposes as mixing, separating, snubbing, distributing, metering, control of flow, or secondary containment. [30:27.1.1]
This section shall not apply to any of the following:
- Tubing or casing on any oil or gas wells and any piping connected directly thereto
- Motor vehicles, aircraft, boats, or piping that are integral to a stationary engine assembly
- Piping within the scope of any applicable boiler and pressure vessel code
For the purpose of this section, terms in this section shall have the definitions given. [30:27.2]
A means to lessen or prevent the deterioration of the piping system from exposure to its contents or its environment. [30:27.2.1]
Containment that is external to and separate from the primary piping system. [30:27.2.5]
The design, fabrication, assembly, test, and inspection of piping systems shall be suitable for the working pressures and structural stresses to be encountered by the piping system. Compliance with applicable sections of ASME B31, Code for Pressure Piping, and the provisions of this section shall be considered prima facie evidence of compliance with the foregoing provisions. [30:27.3.1]
Valves installed externally to the tank shall be permitted to be other than steel or ductile iron if the material of construction has a ductility and melting point comparable to steel or ductile iron and is capable of withstanding the stresses and temperatures involved in fire exposure or the valves are otherwise protected from fire exposures, such as by materials having a fire resistance rating of not less than 2 hours. [30:184.108.40.206]
Cast iron, brass, copper, aluminum, malleable iron, and similar materials shall be permitted to be used on tanks described in 220.127.116.11.1.1 or on tanks storing Class IIIB liquids where the tanks are located outdoors and not within a diked area or drainage path of a tank storing a Class I, Class II, or Class IIIA liquid. [30:18.104.22.168]
Low melting point materials shall be permitted to be used outdoors aboveground, outside a dike, outside a remote impounding area, or inside buildings, provided they meet one of the following conditions:
- They are resistant to damage by fire.
- They are located so that any leakage resulting from failure will not expose persons, important buildings, tanks, or structures.
- They are located where leakage can be controlled by operation of one or more accessible, remotely located valves.
Low melting point materials shall be permitted to be used within a dike or within a remote impounding area provided they meet one of the following:
- They are connected above the normal operating liquid level of the tank.
- They are connected below the normal operating liquid level of the tank and one of the following conditions is met:
- The stored liquid is a Class IIIB liquid, the tank is located outdoors, and the piping is not exposed to a potential spill or leak of Class I, Class II or Class IIIA liquid.
- The low melting point material is protected from fire exposure, such as by using materials that have a fire resistance of not less than 2 hours.
Nonmetallic piping systems and components shall be installed in accordance with manufacturer's instructions. [30:22.214.171.124]
Joints shall be made liquidtight and shall be welded, flanged, threaded, or mechanically attached. [30:126.96.36.199]
Joints shall be designed and installed so that the mechanical strength of the joint will not be impaired if exposed to a fire. [30:188.8.131.52]
Threaded joints shall be made with a suitable thread sealant or lubricant. [30:184.108.40.206]
Where such joints are used aboveground, either the piping shall be secured to prevent disengagement at the fitting or the piping system shall be so designed that any spill or leak resulting from disengagement will not expose persons, important buildings, or structures and can be controlled by remote valves. [30:220.127.116.11]
Pipe joints dependent on the friction characteristics of their components shall be permitted to be used inside buildings provided both of the following are met:
- They are located where leakage can be controlled by operation of an accessible, remotely located valve that is outside the fire risk area.
- The mechanical strength and liquidtightness of the joint is not dependent on the resiliency of a combustible material or component.
Piping systems shall be supported and protected against physical damage, including damage from stresses arising from settlement, vibration, expansion, or contraction. The installation of nonmetallic piping shall be in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. [30:27.6.1]
Load-bearing piping supports that are located in areas with a high fire exposure risk shall be protected by one or more of the following:
- Drainage to a safe location to prevent liquid from accumulating under pipeways
- Fire-resistive construction
- Fire-resistant protective coatings or systems
- Water spray systems designed and installed in accordance with NFPA 15
- Other alternate means acceptable to the AHJ
Piping that passes through or pierces a dike wall or the wall of a structure shall be designed to prevent damaging stresses and leakage due to settlement or fire exposure. [30:27.6.3]
Underground piping shall be installed in accordance with 27.6.5 of NFPA 30.
Each connection to a piping system by which equipment such as tank cars, tank vehicles, or marine vessels discharges liquids into storage tanks shall be provided with a check valve for automatic protection against backflow if the piping arrangement is such that backflow from the system is possible. (See also 18.104.22.168.) [30:22.214.171.124]
Unless tested in accordance with the applicable sections of ASME B31, Code for Pressure Piping, all piping shall be tested before being covered, enclosed, or placed in use. [30:27.7.1]
Testing shall be done hydrostatically to 150 percent of the maximum anticipated pressure of the system or pneumatically to 110 percent of the maximum anticipated pressure of the system, and the test pressure shall be maintained while a complete visual inspection of all joints and connections is conducted. [30:126.96.36.199]
In no case shall the test pressure be less than a gauge pressure of 5 psi (35 kPa) measured at the highest point of the system, and in no case shall the test pressure be maintained for less than 10 minutes. [30:188.8.131.52]
The interstitial space of secondary containment-type piping shall be tested hydrostatically or with air pressure at a gauge pressure of 5 psi (35 kPa) or shall be tested in accordance with its listing or with the manufacturer's instructions. [30:27.7.2]
The pressure source shall be disconnected from the interstitial space to ensure that the test is being conducted on a closed system. [30:184.108.40.206]
The pressure shall be maintained for a minimum of 1 hour. [30:220.127.116.11]
Existing piping shall be tested in accordance with this subsection if the piping is leaking. [30:27.7.3]
Vent piping shall be designed, constructed, and installed in accordance with this section. [30:27.8]
Vapors shall be discharged upward or horizontally away from adjacent walls. [30:18.104.22.168]
Vent outlets shall be located so that vapors will not be trapped by eaves or other obstructions and shall be at least 5 ft (1.5 m) from building openings and at least 15 ft (4.5 m) from powered ventilation air intake devices. [30:22.214.171.124]
Manifolding of vent piping shall be prohibited except where required for special purposes such as vapor recovery, vapor conservation, or air pollution control. [30:126.96.36.199]
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