Changes in direction of pipe shall be permitted to be made by the use of fittings, factory bends or field bends.
Metallic pipe bends shall comply with the following:
- Bends shall be made only with bending tools and procedures intended for that purpose.
- All bends shall be smooth and free from buckling, cracks or other evidence of mechanical damage.
- The longitudinal weld of the pipe shall be near the neutral axis of the bend.
- Pipe shall not be bent through an arc of more than 90 degrees (1.6 rad).
- The inside radius of a bend shall be not less than six times the outside diameter of the pipe.
Plastic pipe bends shall comply with the following:
- The pipe shall not be damaged and the internal diameter of the pipe shall not be effectively reduced.
- Joints shall not be located in pipe bends.
- The radius of the inner curve of such bends shall not be less than 25 times the inside diameter of the pipe.
- Where the piping manufacturer specifies the use of special bending tools or procedures, such tools or procedures shall be used.
Factory-made welding elbows or transverse segments cut therefrom shall have an arc length measured along the crotch at least 1 inch (25 mm) in pipe sizes 2 inches (51 mm) and larger.