Section 3109F Piping and Pipelines
This section provides minimum engineering standards for piping, pipelines, valves, supports and related appurtenances at MOTs. This section applies to piping and pipelines used for transferring:
- Oil (see Section 3101F.1) to or from tank vessels or barges
- Oil within the MOT
- Vapors, including Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)
- Inerting or enriching gases to vapor control systems
Additionally, it also applies to piping or pipelines providing services, which includes stripping, sampling, venting, vapor control and fire water.
See Section 3101F.3 for definitions of "new" (N) and "existing" (E).
All pressure piping and pipelines for oil service shall conform to the provisions of API Standard 2610 [9.1], ASME B31.3 [9.2] or B31.4 [9.3] as appropriate, including the following:
- All piping/pipelines shall be documented on current P&ID's (N/E).
- Piping and pipeline systems shall be installed above deck (N).
- The systems shall be arranged in a way not to obstruct access to and removal of other piping components and equipment (N).
- Flexibility shall be achieved through adequate expansion loops or joints (N/E).
- A guide or lateral restraint shall be provided just past the elbow where a pipe changes direction in order to minimize excessive axial stress (N).
- Piping shall be routed to allow for movement due to thermal expansion and seismic displacement, without exceeding the allowable stresses in the supports, and anchor connections (see Section 3109F.3) (N/E).
- Plastic piping shall not be used unless designated for oil service (N/E).
- If a flanged connection exists within 20 pipe diameters from the end of any replaced section, the pipe shall be replaced up to and including the flange.
- Pipelines shall be seamless, electric-resistance-welded or electric-fusion-welded (N).
- Piping greater than 2 inches in diameter shall be butt-welded. Piping 2 inches and smaller shall be socket welded or threaded.
- Pipeline connections directly over the water shall be welded (N). Flanged connections not over water shall have secondary containment (N).
- Pipelines that do not have a valid and certified Static Liquid Pressure Test (SLPT) [9.4] shall be marked "OUT OF SERVICE." Out-of-service piping and pipelines shall be purged, gas-freed and physically isolated from sources of oil.
- If a pipeline is "out-of-service" for 3 or more years, it will require a valid and certified Static Liquid Pressure Test (SLPT) and API 570 inspection [9.4] prior to Division approval for re-use (E).
- New piping and pipeline systems require a valid and certified Static Liquid Pressure Test (SLPT) [9.4] and Division approval, prior to operation.
Pipeline stress analysis shall be performed for:
- New piping and pipelines
- Significant rerouting/relocation of existing piping
- Any replacement of "not in-kind" piping
- Any significant rearrangement or replacement of "not in-kind" anchors and/or supports
- Significant seismic displacements calculated from the structural assessment
Pipeline stress analysis shall be performed in accordance with ASME B31.4 [9.3], considering all relevant loads and corresponding displacements determined from the structural analysis described in Section 3104F. Seismic loading of above-grade pipelines may be analyzed in accordance with ASME B31.E [9.5].
Flexibility analysis for piping, considering supports, shall be performed in accordance with ASME B31.4 [9.3] by using the largest temperature differential imposed by normal operation, start-up, shutdown or abnormal conditions. Thermal loads shall be based upon maximum and minimum local temperatures; heat traced piping shall use the maximum attainable temperature of the heat tracing system.
To determine forces at sliding surfaces, the coefficients of static friction shown in Table 31F-9-1 shall be used.
|SLIDING SURFACE MATERIALS||COEFFICIENT OF STATIC FRICTION|
|Teflon on Teflon||0.10|
|Plastic on Steel||0.35|
|Steel on Steel||0.40|
|Steel on Concrete||0.45|
|Steel on Timber||0.49|
Anchors and supports shall conform to ASME B31.3 [9.2], ASME B31.4 [9.3], API Standard 2610 [9.1] and the ASCE Guidelines [9.6](N).
A seismic assessment shall be performed for existing anchors and supports using recommendations in Section 7 of CalARP [9.7] or Chapter 11 of FEMA 356 [9.8], as appropriate (E).
Valves and fittings shall meet the following requirements:
- Conform to ASME B31.3 [9.2], ASME B31.4 [9.3], API Standard 609 [9.9] and ASME B16.34 [9.10], as appropriate, based on their service (N).
- Conform to Section 8 of API Standard 2610 [9.1] (N/E).
- Stems shall be oriented in a way not to pose a hazard in operation or maintenance (N/E).
- Nonductile iron, cast iron, and low-melting temperature metals shall not be used in any hydrocarbon service (N/E).
- Double-block and bleed valves shall be used for manifold valves (N/E).
- Isolation valves shall be fire-safe in accordance with API Standard 607 [9.11] (N).
- Swing check valves shall not be installed in vertical down-flow piping (N/E).
- Pressure relief devices shall be used in any closed piping system that has the possibility of being over pressurized due to temperature increase (thermal relief valves) (N/E).
- Pressure relief devices shall be used in any piping system that has the possibility of being over pressurized due to surging, considering all plausible normal and abnormal operational scenarios in accordance with ASME B31.4 [9.3] (N/E).
- Pressure relief devices shall be sized in accordance with API RP 520 [9.12] (N). Set pressures and accumulating pressures shall be in accordance with API RP 520 [9.12] (N/E).
- Discharge from pressure relief valves shall be directed into lower pressure piping for recycling or proper disposal. Discharge shall never be directed into the open environment, unless secondary containment is provided (N/E).
- Threaded, socket-welded, flanged and welded fittings shall conform to Section 8 of API Standard 2610 [9.1] (N/E).
- ESD valves and SIVs shall also conform to the requirements of Sections 3108F.3.2.1 and 3108F.3.2.2.
- Actuators shall have a readily accessible, manually operated overriding device to operate the valve during a power loss.
- Torque switches shall be set to stop the motor closing operation at a specified torque setting.
- Limit switches shall be set to stop the motor opening operation at a specified limit switch setting.
- Critical valves shall be provided with thermal insulation. The insulation shall be inspected and maintained at periodic intervals. Records of thermal insulation inspections and condition shall be maintained for at least 6 years.
- Electrical insulation for critical valves shall be measured for resistance following installation and retested periodically. These records shall be maintained for at least 6 years.
- ESD valve and SIV actuators shall also conform to the requirements of Section 3108F.3.2.
Utility and auxiliary piping includes service for:
- Stripping and sampling
- Vapor control
- Natural gas
- Compressed air, venting and nitrogen
Stripping and sampling piping shall conform to Section 3109F.2 (N/E).
Vapor return lines and VOC vapor inerting and enriching (natural gas) piping shall conform to 33 CFR 154.2100(b)[9.13] (N/E).
Compressed air, venting and nitrogen piping and fittings shall conform to ASME B31.3 [9.2] (N).
Firewater and foam piping and fittings shall meet the following requirements:
- Conform to NFPA 11 [9.14], NFPA 24 [9.15], and ASME B16.5 [9.16] (N/E).
- Fire mains shall be carbon steel pipe (N/E).
- High density polyethylene (HDPE) piping may be used for buried pipelines (N/E).
- Piping and appurtenances shall be color-coded per local jurisdiction requirements or per ASME A13.1 [9.17] (N/E).
- Pipeline stress analysis shall be performed for firewater pipelines per Section 3109F.3 (N).
- External visual inspection shall be performed per Section 3102F.3.5.5 (N/E).
- [9.1] American Petroleum Institute (API), 2005, API Standard 2610 (R2010), "Design, Construction, Operation, Maintenance, and Inspection of Terminal and Tank Facilities," 2nd ed., Washington, D.C.
- [9.2] American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), 2015, ASME B31.3-2014 (ASME B31.3), "Process Piping," New York.
- [9.3] American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), 2012, ASME B31.4-2012 (ASME B31.4), "Pipeline Transportation Systems for Liquid Hydrocarbons and Other Liquids," New York.
- [9.4] California Code of Regulations (CCR), Title 2, Division 3, Chapter 1, Article 5.5 — Marine Terminal Oil Pipelines (2 CCR 2560 et seq.)
- [9.5] American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), 2008, ASME B31E, "Standard for the Seismic Design and Retrofit of Above-Ground Piping Systems," New York.
- [9.6] American Society of Civil Engineers, 2011, "Guidelines for Seismic Evaluation and Design of Petro-chemical Facilities," 2nd ed., New York.
- [9.7] CalARP Program Seismic Guidance Committee, December 2013, "Guidance for California Accidental Release Prevention (CalARP) Program Seismic Assessments," Sacramento, CA.
- [9.8] Federal Emergency Management Agency, Nov. 2000, FEMA 356, "Prestandard and Commentary for the Seismic Rehabilitation of Buildings," Washington, D.C.
- [9.9] American Petroleum Institute (API), 2009, API Standard 609, "Butterfly Valves: Double Flanged, Lug- and Wafer-Type," 7th ed., Washington, D.C.
- [9.10] American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), 2013, ASME B16.34-2013 (ASME B16.34), "Valves Flanged Threaded and Welding End," New York.
- [9.11] American Petroleum Institute (API), 2010, API Standard 607, "Fire Test for Quarter-Turn Valves and Valves Equipped with Nonmetallic Seats," 6th ed., Washington, D.C.
- [9.12] American Petroleum Institute (API), API Recommended Practice 520 P1 and P2 (API 520), "Sizing, Selection, and Installation of Pressure-relieving Devices, Part 1 —Sizing and Selection," 2014, 9th ed., and "Sizing, Selection, and Installation of Pressure-Relieving Devices in Refineries — Part 2 — Installation," 2015, 6th ed., Washington, D.C.
- [9.13] Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 33, Section 154.2100 — Vapor Control System, General (33 CFR 154.2100)
- [9.14] National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), NFPA 11, "Standard for Low-, Medium-, and High-Expansion Foam," Quincy, MA. For edition, see California Code of Regulations (CCR), Title 24, Part 2, Chapter 35 — Referenced Standards.
- [9.15] National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), NFPA 24, "Standard for the Installation of Private Fire Service Mains and Their Appurtenances," Quincy, MA. For edition, see California Code of Regulations (CCR), Title 24, Part 2, Chapter 35 — Referenced Standards.
- [9.16] American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), 2013, ASME B16.5-2013 (ASME B16.5), "Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings," New York.
- [9.17] American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), 2007, ASME A13.1-2007 (R2013) (ASME A13.1), "Scheme for the Identification of Piping Systems," New York.
Authority: Sections 8750 through 8760,Public Resources Code.
Reference: Sections 8750, 8751, 8755 and 8757, Public Resources Code.