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Article 9 Pile Driving Operations

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§27-703 Exceptions
The provisions of sections 27-704 and 27-705 of this article shall not apply to piles driven with a vibratory hammer or other equipment wherein the energy of impact cannot be evaluated.
§27-704 Equipment
(a) General. The hammer shall travel freely in the leads. The cushion or cap block shall be replaced, if crushed. The hammer shall deliver its rated energy, and measurements shall be made of the fall of the ram or other suitable data shall be observed at intervals as required to verify the actual energy delivered at the termination of driving.

(b) Cushion or cap block. The cushion or cap block shall be a solid block of hardwood with its grains parallel to the axis of the pile and enclosed in a tight-fitting steel housing, or shall be an equivalent assemblage. If laminated materials are used, the type and construction of these materials shall be such that their strength is equal to, or greater than, hardwood. Wood chips, pieces of rope, hose, shavings, or automobile tires and similar materials shall not be used. Cap blocks shall be replaced if burned, crushed, or otherwise damaged.

(c) Followers. Followers shall not be used unless permitted in writing by the architect or engineer, and only when necessary to accomplish such installation. They shall be of steel or hardwood of such size, shape, length, and weight as to permit driving the pile in the desired location and to the required depth and resistance. The required driving resistance tabulated in Tables 11-4 and 11-5 shall be increased to compensate for the loss of energy in the hammer blow. The follower shall be a single length section, shall be provided with a socket or hood carefully fitted to the top of the pile to minimize loss of energy and to prevent damage to the pile, and shall have sufficient rigidity to prevent "whip" during driving.
§27-705 Procedures
(a) Continuous Driving. Driving of piles preliminary to final seating shall be continuous for an interval adequate to break or prevent the development of freeze. The hammer shall be operated at its rated speed during this interval.

(b) Jetting. Jetting, augering and other methods of pre-excavation shall not be used unless permitted in writing by the architect or engineer. When permitted, such procedures shall be carried out in a manner which will not impair the carrying capacity of the piles already in place or the safety of existing adjacent structures. Jetting or augering shall be stopped at least three feet above the final expected pile-tip elevation and at least three feet above the tip elevation of any pile previously driven within six feet of the jet or auger, except that where piles are to be end bearing on rock or hardpan, jetting or augering may be carried to the surface of the rock or hardpan. Piles shall be carried down beyond the depth of jetting, augering or other pre-excavation until the required resistance is obtained. If there is evidence that jetting or other procedures have disturbed the load-bearing capacities of previously installed piles, those piles that have been disturbed shall be restored to conditions meeting the requirements of this article by redriving or by other methods acceptable to the architect or engineer. Redriving or other remedial measures shall be instituted after the jetting or other operations in the area have been completed.

(c) Sequence of installation. Individual piles and pile groups shall be installed in such sequence that: (1) the carrying capacity of previously installed piles is not reduced; (2) the soil surrounding the piles is not compacted to the extent that other piles in the group cannot be installed properly; and (3) ground movement that would damage adjacent buildings or utilities is prevented. In general, in any group, driving shall start from one side and proceed progressively toward the other side of the group or shall start from the middle and proceed toward the edges of the group.

(d) Heaved piles. In soils in which the installation of piles causes previously installed piles to heave, accurate level marks shall be put on all piles immediately after installation, and all piles that have been heaved by an amount in excess of one-quarter of an inch shall be redriven to the required resistance.

(e) Penetration measurements. Penetration measurements made for the purpose of determining resistance to driving shall not be made when pile heads are damaged to an extent that may affect measured penetration, nor shall they be made immediately after fresh cushion blocks have been inserted under the striking part of the hammer.

Related Code Sections

Article 9 Foundations, Pile Driving Operations
be of steel or hardwood of such size, shape, length, and weight as to permit driving the pile in the desired location and to the required depth ...
1808.2.17.4 Soils and Foundations, Followers
Followers shall not be used unless permitted in writing by the engineer responsible for the pile driving operation. The required driving resistance ...
1809.2.3 Soils and Foundations, Followers
Followers shall not be used unless permitted in writing by the engineer responsible for the pile driving operation. The required driving resistance ...
3319.1 Safeguards During Construction or Demolition, Scope
not apply when such equipment is configured to lift or lower a suspended load not related to the pile driving operation. This exception further shall ...
§27-711 Foundations, Steel H Sections
through 3-65 shall be under the personal inspection of an architect or engineer, and the operations of driving such piles, the observations ...