The test hole shall be dug or bored. The test hole shall have vertical sides and a horizontal dimension of 4 inches to 8 inches (102 mm to 203 mm). The bottom and sides of the hole shall be scratched with a sharp-pointed instrument to expose the natural soil. All loose material shall be removed from the hole, and the bottom shall be covered with 2 inches (51 mm) of gravel or coarse sand.
The hole shall be filled with clear water to a minimum of 12 inches (305 mm) above the bottom of the hole for tests in sandy soils. The time for this amount of water to seep away shall be determined and this procedure shall be repeated if the water from the second filling of the hole seeps away in 10 minutes or less. The test shall proceed as follows: Water shall be added to a point not more than 6 inches (152 mm) above the gravel or coarse sand. Thereupon, from a fixed reference point, water levels shall be measured at 10-minute intervals for a period of 1 hour. Where 6 inches (152 mm) of water seeps away in less than 10 minutes, a shorter interval between measurements shall be used, but in no case shall the water depth exceed 6 inches (152 mm). Where 6 inches (152 mm) of water seeps away in less than 2 minutes, the test shall be stopped and a rate of less than 3 minutes per inch (7.2 s/mm) shall be reported. The final water level drop shall be used to calculate the percolation rate. Soils not meeting the above requirements shall be tested in accordance with Section 404.2.3.
The hole shall be filled with clear water, and a minimum water depth of 12 inches (305 mm) shall be maintained above the bottom of the hole for a 4-hour period by refilling whenever necessary or by use of an automatic siphon. Water remaining in the hole after 4 hours shall not be removed. Thereafter, the soil shall be allowed to swell not less than 16 hours or more than 30 hours. Immediately after the soil swelling period, the measurements for determining the percolation rate shall be made as follows: Any soil sloughed into the hole shall be removed, and the water level shall be adjusted to 6 inches (152 mm) above the gravel or coarse sand. Thereupon, from a fixed reference point, the water level shall be measured at 30-minute intervals for a period of 4 hours, unless two successive water level drops do not vary by more than 1/16-inch (1.59 mm). At least three water level drops shall be observed and recorded. The hole shall be filled with clear water to a point not more than 6 inches (152 mm) above the gravel or coarse sand whenever it becomes nearly empty. The water level shall not be adjusted during the three measurement periods except to the limits of the last measured water level drop. When the first 6 inches (152 mm) of water seeps away in less than 30 minutes, the time interval between measurements shall be 10 minutes and the test run for 1 hour. The water depth shall not exceed 5 inches (127 mm) at any time during the measurement period. The drop that occurs during the final measurement period shall be used in calculating the percolation rate.
Mechanical percolation test equipment shall be of an approved type.