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1104.1 General
Means of egress in existing buildings shall comply with the minimum egress requirements where specified in Table 1103.1 as further enumerated in Sections 1104.2 through 1104.25, and the building code that applied at the time of construction. Where the provisions of this chapter conflict with the building code that applied at the time of construction, the most restrictive provision shall apply. Existing buildings that were not required to comply with a building code at the time of construction shall comply with the minimum egress requirements where specified in Table 1103.1 as further enumerated in Sections 1104.2 through 1104.25.
1104.2 Elevators, Escalators and Moving Walks
Elevators, escalators and moving walks shall not be used as a component of a required means of egress.
Exceptions:
  1. Elevators used as an accessible means of egress where allowed by Section 1009.4.
  2. Previously approved elevators, escalators and moving walks in existing buildings.
1104.3 Exit Sign Illumination
Exit signs shall be internally or externally illuminated. The face of an exit sign illuminated from an external source shall have an intensity of not less than 5 footcandles (54 lux). Internally illuminated signs shall provide equivalent luminance and be listed for the purpose.
Exception: Approved self-luminous signs that provide evenly illuminated letters shall have a minimum luminance of 0.06 foot-lamberts (0.21 cd/m2).
1104.4 Power Source
Where emergency illumination is required in Section 1104.5, exit signs shall be visible under emergency illumination conditions.
Exception: Approved signs that provide continuous illumination independent of external power sources are not required to be connected to an emergency electrical system.
1104.5 Illumination Emergency Power
Where means of egress illumination is provided, the power supply for means of egress illumination shall normally be provided by the premises' electrical supply. In the event of power supply failure, illumination shall be automatically provided from an emergency system for the following occupancies where such occupancies require two or more means of egress:
  1. Group A having 50 or more occupants.
    Exception: Assembly occupancies used exclusively as a place of worship and having an occupant load of less than 300.
  2. Group B buildings three or more stories in height, buildings with 100 or more occupants above or below a level of exit discharge serving the occupants or buildings with 1,000 or more total occupants.
  3. Group E in interior exit access and exit stairways and ramps, corridors, windowless areas with student occupancy, shops and laboratories.
  4. Group F having more than 100 occupants.
    Exception: Buildings used only during daylight hours and that are provided with windows for natural light in accordance with the International Building Code.
  5. Group I.
  6. Exception: Buildings less than 3,000 square feet (279 m2) in gross sales area on one story only, excluding mezzanines.
  7. Group R-1.
    Exception: Where each sleeping unit has direct access to the outside of the building at grade.
  8. Group R-2.
    Exception: Where each dwelling unit or sleeping unit has direct access to the outside of the building at grade.
1104.5.1 Emergency Power Duration and Installation
Emergency power for means of egress illumination shall be provided in accordance with Section 1203. In other than Group I-2, emergency power shall be provided for not less than 60 minutes for systems requiring emergency power.
1104.6 Guards
Guards complying with this section shall be provided at the open sides of means of egress that are more than 30 inches (762 mm) above the floor or grade below.
1104.6.1 Height of Guards
Guards shall form a protective barrier not less than 42 inches (1067 mm) high.
Exceptions:
  1. Existing guards on the open side of stairways shall be not less than 30 inches (760 mm) high.
  2. Existing guards within dwelling units shall be not less than 36 inches (910 mm) high.
  3. Existing guards in assembly seating areas.
1104.6.2 Opening Limitations
Open guards shall have balusters or ornamental patterns such that a 6-inch-diameter (152 mm) sphere cannot pass through any opening up to a height of 34 inches (864 mm).
Exceptions:
  1. At elevated walking surfaces for access to, and use of, electrical, mechanical or plumbing systems or equipment, guards shall have balusters or be of solid materials such that a sphere with a diameter of 21 inches (533 mm) cannot pass through any opening.
  2. In occupancies in Group I-3, F, H or S, the clear distance between intermediate rails measured at right angles to the rails shall not exceed 21 inches (533 mm).
  3. Approved existing open guards.
1104.7 Size of Doors
The required capacity of each door opening shall be sufficient for the occupant load thereof and shall provide a minimum clear opening width of 28 inches (711 mm). Where this section requires a minimum clear opening width of 28 inches (711 mm) and a door opening includes two door leaves without a mullion, one leaf shall provide a clear opening width of 28 inches (711 mm). The minimum clear opening height of doorways shall be 80 inches (2032 mm).
Exceptions:
  1. The minimum and maximum width shall not apply to door openings that are not part of the required means of egress in occupancies in Group R-2 and R-3 units that are not required to be an Accessible Type A unit or Type B unit.
  2. Door openings to storage closets less than 10 square feet (0.93 m2) in area shall not be limited by the minimum clear opening width.
  3. The width of door leaves in revolving doors that comply with Section 1010.3.1 shall not be limited.
  4. The maximum width of door leaves in power-operated doors that comply with Section 1010.3.2 shall not be limited.
  5. Door openings within a dwelling unit shall have a minimum clear opening height of 78 inches (1981 mm).
  6. In dwelling and sleeping units that are not required to be Accessible units, Type A units or Type B units, exterior door openings, other than the required exit door, shall have a minimum clear opening height of 76 inches (1930 mm).
  7. Exit access doors serving a room not larger than 70 square feet (6.5 m2) shall have a minimum door leaf width of 24 inches (610 mm).
  8. The minimum clear opening width shall not apply to doors for nonaccessible showers or sauna compartments.
  9. The minimum clear opening width shall not apply to the doors for nonaccessible toilet stalls.
  10. Door closers and door stops shall be permitted to be 78 inches (1980 mm) minimum above the floor.
1104.7.1 Group I-2
In Group I-2 occupancies, means of egress doors where used for the movement of beds shall provide a minimum clear opening width of 411/2 inches (1054 mm).
Doors serving as means of egress doors and not used for movement of beds shall provide a minimum clear opening width of 32 inches (813 mm).
1104.7.2 Ambulatory Care
In ambulatory care facilities, doors serving as means of egress from patient treatment rooms shall provide a minimum clear opening width of 32 inches (813 mm).
1104.8 Opening Force for Doors
The opening force for interior side-swinging doors without closers shall not exceed a 5-pound (22 N) force. The opening forces do not apply to the force required to retract latch bolts or disengage other devices that hold the door in a closed position. For other side-swinging, sliding and folding doors, the door latch shall release when subjected to a force of not more than 15 pounds (66 N). The door shall be set in motion when subjected to a force not exceeding 30 pounds (133 N). The door shall swing to a full-open position when subjected to a force of not more than 50 pounds (222 N). Forces shall be applied to the latch side.
1104.9 Revolving Doors
Revolving doors shall comply with the following:
  1. A revolving door shall not be located within 10 feet (3048 mm) of the foot or top of stairways or escalators. A dispersal area shall be provided between the stairways or escalators and the revolving doors.
  2. The revolutions per minute for a revolving door shall not exceed those shown in Table 1104.9.
  3. Each revolving door shall have a conforming side-hinged swinging door in the same wall as the revolving door and within 10 feet (3048 mm).
Exceptions:
  1. A revolving door is permitted to be used without an adjacent swinging door for street-floor elevator lobbies provided that a stairway, escalator or door from other parts of the building does not discharge through the lobby and the lobby does not have any occupancy or use other than as a means of travel between elevators and a street.
  2. Existing revolving doors where the number of revolving doors does not exceed the number of swinging doors within 20 feet (6096 mm).
TABLE 1104.9
REVOLVING DOOR SPEEDS
INSIDE DIAMETER
(feet-inches)
POWER-DRIVEN-TYPE SPEED CONTROL
(rpm)
MANUAL-TYPE SPEED CONTROL
(rpm)
6-6 11 12
7-0 10 11
7-6 9 11
8-0 9 10
8-6 8 9
9-0 8 9
9-6 7 8
10-0 7 8
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
1104.9.1 Egress Component
A revolving door used as a component of a means of egress shall comply with Section 1104.9 and all of the following conditions:
  1. Revolving doors shall not be given credit for more than 50 percent of the required egress capacity.
  2. Each revolving door shall be credited with not more than a 50-person capacity.
  3. Revolving doors shall be capable of being collapsed when a force of not more than 130 pounds (578 N) is applied within 3 inches (76 mm) of the outer edge of a wing.
1104.10 Stair Dimensions for Existing Stairways
Existing stairways in buildings shall be permitted to remain if the rise does not exceed 81/4 inches (210 mm) and the run is not less than 9 inches (229 mm). Existing stairways can be rebuilt.
Exception: Other stairways approved by the fire code official.
1104.10.1 Dimensions for Replacement Stairways
The replacement of an existing stairway in a structure shall not be required to comply with the new stairway requirements of Section 1011 where the existing space and construction will not allow a reduction in pitch or slope.
1104.11 Winders
Existing winders shall be allowed to remain in use if they have a minimum tread depth of 6 inches (152 mm) and a minimum tread depth of 9 inches (229 mm) at a point 12 inches (305 mm) from the narrowest edge.
1104.12 Curved Stairways
Existing curved stairways shall be allowed to continue in use, provided that the minimum depth of tread is 10 inches (254 mm) and the smallest radius shall be not less than twice the width of the stairway.
1104.13 Stairway Handrails
Stairways shall have handrails on at least one side. Handrails shall be located so that all portions of the stairway width required for egress capacity are within 44 inches (1118 mm) of a handrail.
Exception: Aisle stairs provided with a center handrail are not required to have additional handrails.
1104.13.1 Height
Handrail height, measured above stair tread nosings, shall be uniform, not less than 30 inches (762 mm) and not more than 42 inches (1067 mm).
1104.14 Slope of Ramps
Ramp runs utilized as part of a means of egress shall have a running slope not steeper than 1 unit vertical in 10 units horizontal (10-percent slope). The slope of other ramps shall not be steeper than 1 unit vertical in 8 units horizontal (12.5-percent slope).
1104.15 Width of Ramps
Existing ramps are permitted to have a minimum width of 30 inches (762 mm) but not less than the width required for the number of occupants served as determined by Section 1005.1. In Group I-2, ramps serving as a means of egress and used for the movement of patients in beds shall comply with Section 1105.6.4.
[BE] 1104.16 Fire Escape Stairways
Fire escape stairways shall comply with Sections 1104.16.1 through 1104.16.7.
[BE] 1104.16.1 Existing Means of Egress
Fire escape stairways shall be permitted in existing buildings but shall not constitute more than 50 percent of the required exit capacity.
[BE] 1104.16.2 Opening Protectives
Doors and windows within 10 feet (3048 mm) of fire escape stairways shall be protected with 3/4-hour opening protectives.
Exception: Opening protectives shall not be required in buildings equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system.
[BE] 1104.16.3 Dimensions
Fire escape stairways shall meet the minimum width, capacity, riser height and tread depth as specified in Section 1104.10.
[BE] 1104.16.4 Access
Access to a fire escape stairway from a corridor shall not be through an intervening room. Access to a fire escape stairway shall be from a door or window meeting the criteria of Section 1005.1. Access to a fire escape stairway shall be directly to a balcony, landing or platform. These shall not be higher than the floor or window sill level and not lower than 8 inches (203 mm) below the floor level or 18 inches (457 mm) below the window sill.
[BE] 1104.16.5 Materials and Strength
Components of fire escape stairways shall be constructed of noncombustible materials. Fire escape stairways and balconies shall support the dead load plus a live load of not less than 100 pounds per square foot (4.78 kN/m2). Fire escape stairways and balconies shall be provided with a top and intermediate handrail on each side.
[BE] 1104.16.5.1 Examination
Fire escape stairways and balconies shall be examined for structural adequacy and safety in accordance with Section 1104.16.5 by a registered design professional or others acceptable to the fire code official every 5 years, or as required by the fire code official. An inspection report shall be submitted to the fire code official after such examination.
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