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410.1 Scope
This article covers luminaires, portable luminaires, lampholders, pendants, incandescent filament lamps, arc lamps, electric-discharge lamps, decorative lighting products, lighting accessories for temporary seasonal and holiday use, portable flexible lighting products, and the wiring and equipment forming part of such products and lighting installations.
410.2 Definition
The definition in this section shall apply only within this article.
Clothes Closet Storage Space. The volume bounded by the sides and back closet walls and planes extending from the closet floor vertically to a height of 1.8 m (6 ft) or to the highest clothes-hanging rod and parallel to the walls at a horizontal distance of 600 mm (24 in.) from the sides and back of the closet walls, respectively, and continuing vertically to the closet ceiling parallel to the walls at a horizontal distance of 300 mm (12 in.) or the width of the shelf, whichever is greater; for a closet that permits access to both sides of a hanging rod, this space includes the volume below the highest rod extending 300 mm (12 in.) on either side of the rod on a plane horizontal to the floor extending the entire length of the rod. See Figure 410.2.
FIGURE 410.2 Clothes Closet Storage Space.
410.5 Live Parts
Luminaires, portable luminaires, lampholders, and lamps shall have no live parts normally exposed to contact. Exposed accessible terminals in lampholders and switches shall not be installed in metal luminaire canopies or in open bases of portable table or floor luminaires.
Exception: Cleat-type lampholders located at least 2.5 m (8 ft) above the floor shall be permitted to have exposed terminals.
410.6 Listing Required
All luminaires, lampholders, and retrofit kits shall be listed.
410.7 Reconditioned Equipment
Luminaires, lampholders, and retrofit kits shall not be permitted to be reconditioned. If a retrofit kit is installed in a luminaire in accordance with the installation instructions, the retrofitted luminaire shall not be considered reconditioned.
410.8 Inspection
Luminaires shall be installed such that the connections between the luminaire conductors and the circuit conductors can be inspected without requiring the disconnection of any part of the wiring unless the luminaires are connected by attachment plugs and receptacles.
410.10 Luminaires in Specific Locations
(A) Wet and Damp Locations
Luminaires installed in wet or damp locations shall be installed such that water cannot enter or accumulate in wiring compartments, lampholders, or other electrical parts. All luminaires installed in wet locations shall be marked, "Suitable for Wet Locations." All luminaires installed in damp locations shall be marked "Suitable for Wet Locations" or "Suitable for Damp Locations."
(B) Corrosive Locations
Luminaires installed in corrosive locations shall be of a type suitable for such locations.
(C) In Ducts or Hoods
Luminaires shall be permitted to be installed in commercial cooking hoods where all of the following conditions are met:
  1. The luminaire shall be identified for use within commercial cooking hoods and installed such that the temperature limits of the materials used are not exceeded.
  2. The luminaire shall be constructed so that all exhaust vapors, grease, oil, or cooking vapors are excluded from the lamp and wiring compartment. Diffusers shall be resistant to thermal shock.
  3. Parts of the luminaire exposed within the hood shall be corrosion resistant or protected against corrosion, and the surface shall be smooth so as not to collect deposits and to facilitate cleaning.
  4. Wiring methods and materials supplying the luminaire(s) shall not be exposed within the cooking hood.
Informational Note: See 110.11 for conductors and equipment exposed to deteriorating agents.
(D) Bathtub and Shower Areas
A luminaire installed in a bathtub or shower area shall meet all of the following requirements:
  1. No parts of cord-connected luminaires, chain-, cable-, or cord-suspended luminaires, lighting track, pendants, or ceiling-suspended (paddle) fans shall be located within a zone measured 900 mm (3 ft) horizontally and 2.5 m (8 ft) vertically from the top of the bathtub rim or shower stall threshold. This zone is all-encompassing and includes the space directly over the tub or shower stall.
  2. Luminaires located within the actual outside dimension of the bathtub or shower to a height of 2.5 m (8 ft) vertically from the top of the bathtub rim or shower threshold shall be marked suitable for damp locations or marked suitable for wet locations. Luminaires located where subject to shower spray shall be marked suitable for wet locations.
(E) Luminaires in Indoor Sports, Mixed-Use, and All-Purpose Facilities
Luminaires subject to physical damage, using a mercury vapor or metal halide lamp, installed in playing and spectator seating areas of indoor sports, mixed-use, or all-purpose facilities shall be of the type that protects the lamp with a glass or plastic lens. Such luminaires shall be permitted to have an additional guard.
(F) Luminaires Installed in or Under Roof Decking
Luminaires installed in exposed or concealed locations under metal-corrugated sheet roof decking shall be installed and supported so there is not less than 38 mm (11/2 in.) measured from the lowest surface of the roof decking to the top of the luminaire.
410.11 Luminaires Near Combustible Material
Luminaires shall be constructed, installed, or equipped with shades or guards so that combustible material is not subjected to temperatures in excess of 90°C (194°F).
410.12 Luminaires Over Combustible Material
Lampholders installed over highly combustible material shall be of the unswitched type. Unless an individual switch is provided for each luminaire, lampholders shall be located at least 2.5 m (8 ft) above the floor or shall be located or guarded so that the lamps cannot be readily removed or damaged.
410.14 Luminaires in Show Windows
Chain-supported luminaires used in a show window shall be permitted to be externally wired. No other externally wired luminaires shall be used.
410.16 Luminaires in Clothes Closets
(A) Luminaire Types Permitted
Only luminaires of the following types shall be permitted in a clothes closet:
  1. Surface-mounted or recessed incandescent or LED luminaires with completely enclosed light sources
  2. Surface-mounted or recessed fluorescent luminaires
  3. Surface-mounted fluorescent or LED luminaires identified as suitable for installation within the clothes closet storage space
(B) Luminaire Types Not Permitted
Incandescent luminaires with open or partially enclosed lamps and pendant luminaires or lampholders shall not be permitted.
(C) Location
The minimum clearance between luminaires installed in clothes closets and the nearest point of a clothes closet storage space shall be as follows:
  1. 300 mm (12 in.) for surface-mounted incandescent or LED luminaires with a completely enclosed light source installed on the wall above the door or on the ceiling.
  2. 150 mm (6 in.) for surface-mounted fluorescent luminaires installed on the wall above the door or on the ceiling.
  3. 150 mm (6 in.) for recessed incandescent or LED luminaires with a completely enclosed light source installed in the wall or the ceiling.
  4. 150 mm (6 in.) for recessed fluorescent luminaires installed in the wall or the ceiling.
  5. Surface-mounted fluorescent or LED luminaires shall be permitted to be installed within the clothes closet storage space where identified for this use.
410.18 Space for Cove Lighting
Coves shall have adequate space and shall be located so that lamps and equipment can be properly installed and maintained.
410.20 Space for Conductors
Canopies and outlet boxes taken together shall provide sufficient space so that luminaire conductors and their connecting devices are capable of being installed in accordance with 314.16.
410.21 Temperature Limit of Conductors in Outlet Boxes
Luminaires shall be of such construction or installed so that the conductors in outlet boxes shall not be subjected to temperatures greater than that for which the conductors are rated.
Branch-circuit wiring, other than 2-wire or multiwire branch circuits supplying power to luminaires connected together, shall not be passed through an outlet box that is an integral part of a luminaire unless the luminaire is identified for through-wiring.
Informational Note: See 410.64(C) for wiring supplying power to luminaires connected together.
410.22 Outlet Boxes to Be Covered
In a completed installation, each outlet box shall be provided with a cover unless covered by means of a luminaire canopy, lampholder, receptacle that covers the box or is provided with a faceplate, or similar device.
410.23 Covering of Combustible Material at Outlet Boxes
Any combustible wall or ceiling finish exposed between the edge of a luminaire canopy or pan and an outlet box having a surface area of 1160 mm2 (180 in.2) or more shall be covered with noncombustible material.
410.24 Connection of Electric-Discharge and LED Luminaires
(A) Independent of the Outlet Box
Electric-discharge and LED luminaires supported independently of the outlet box shall be connected to the branch circuit through metal raceway, nonmetallic raceway, Type MC cable, Type AC cable, Type MI cable, nonmetallic sheathed cable, or by flexible cord as permitted in 410.62(B) or 410.62(C).
(B) Access to Boxes
Electric-discharge and LED luminaires surface mounted over concealed outlet, pull, or junction boxes and designed not to be supported solely by the outlet box shall be provided with suitable openings in the back of the luminaire to provide access to the wiring in the box.
410.30 Supports
(A) General
Luminaires and lampholders shall be securely supported. A luminaire that weighs more than 3 kg (6 lb) or exceeds 400 mm (16 in.) in any dimension shall not be supported by the screw shell of a lampholder.
(B) Metal or Nonmetallic Poles Supporting Luminaires
Metal or nonmetallic poles shall be permitted to be used to support luminaires and as a raceway to enclose supply conductors, provided the following conditions are met:
  1. A pole shall have a handhole not less than 50 mm × 100 mm (2 in. × 4 in.) with a cover suitable for use in wet locations to provide access to the supply terminations within the pole or pole base.
    Exception No. 1: No handhole shall be required in a pole 2.5 m (8 ft) or less in height abovegrade where the supply wiring method continues without splice or pull point, and where the interior of the pole and any splices are accessible by removing the luminaire.
    Exception No. 2: No handhole shall be required in a pole 6.0 m (20 ft) or less in height abovegrade that is provided with a hinged base.
  2. Where raceway risers or cable is not installed within the pole, a threaded fitting or nipple shall be brazed, welded, or attached to the pole opposite the handhole for the supply connection.
  3. A metal pole shall be provided with an equipment grounding terminal as follows:
    1. A pole with a handhole shall have the equipment grounding terminal accessible from the handhole.
    2. A pole with a hinged base shall have the equipment grounding terminal accessible within the base.
      Exception to (3): No grounding terminal shall be required in a pole 2.5 m (8 ft) or less in height abovegrade where the supply wiring method continues without splice or pull, and where the interior of the pole and any splices are accessible by removing the luminaire.
  4. A metal pole with a hinged base shall have the hinged base and pole bonded together.
  5. Metal raceways or other equipment grounding conductors shall be bonded to the metal pole with an equipment grounding conductor recognized by 250.118 and sized in accordance with 250.122.
  6. Conductors in vertical poles used as raceway shall be supported as provided in 300.19.
410.36 Means of Support
(A) Luminaires Supported by Outlet Boxes
Luminaires shall be permitted to be supported by outlet boxes or fittings installed as required by 314.23. The installation shall comply with the following requirements:
  1. The outlet boxes or fittings shall comply with 314.27(A)(1) and 314.27(A)(2).
  2. Luminaires shall be permitted to be supported in accordance with 314.27(E).
  3. Outlet boxes complying with 314.27(E) shall be considered lighting outlets as required by 210.70(A), (B), and (C).
(B) Suspended Ceilings
Framing members of suspended ceiling systems used to support luminaires shall be securely fastened to each other and shall be securely attached to the building structure at appropriate intervals. Luminaires shall be securely fastened to the ceiling framing member by mechanical means such as bolts, screws, or rivets. Listed clips identified for use with the type of ceiling framing member(s) and luminaire(s) shall also be permitted.
(C) Luminaire Studs
Luminaire studs that are not a part of outlet boxes, hickeys, tripods, and crowfeet shall be made of steel, malleable iron, or other material suitable for the application.
(D) Insulating Joints
Insulating joints that are not designed to be mounted with screws or bolts shall have an exterior metal casing, insulated from both screw connections.
(E) Raceway Fittings
Raceway fittings used to support a luminaire(s) shall be capable of supporting the weight of the complete fixture assembly and lamp(s).
(F) Busways
Luminaires shall be permitted to be connected to busways in accordance with 368.17(C).
(G) Trees
Outdoor luminaires and associated equipment shall be permitted to be supported by trees.
Informational Note No. 1: See 225.26 for restrictions for support of overhead conductors.
Informational Note No. 2: See 300.5(D) for protection of conductors.
410.40 General
Luminaires and lighting equipment shall be connected to an equipment grounding conductor as required in Article 250 and Part V of this article.
410.42 Luminaire(s) With Exposed Conductive Parts
Exposed conductive parts that are accessible to unqualified persons shall be connected to an equipment grounding conductor or be separated from all live parts and other conducting surfaces by a listed system of double insulation.
Small isolated parts, such as mounting screws, clips, and decorative bands on glass spaced at least 38 mm (11/2 in.) from lamp terminals, shall not require connection to an equipment grounding conductor.
Portable luminaires with a polarized attachment plug shall not require connection to an equipment grounding conductor.
410.44 Methods of Grounding
Luminaires and equipment shall be mechanically connected to an equipment grounding conductor as specified in 250.118 and sized in accordance with 250.122.
Exception No. 1: Replacement luminaires shall be permitted to connect an equipment grounding conductor in the same manner as replacement receptacles in compliance with 250.130(C). The luminaire shall then comply with 410.42.
Exception No. 2: Where no equipment grounding conductor exists at the outlet, replacement luminaires that are GFCI protected or do not have exposed conductive parts shall not be required to be connected to an equipment grounding conductor.
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