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# 1605.3 Load Combinations Using Allowable Stress Design

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Load combinations for allowable stress design shall be in accordance with Section 1605.3.1 or 1605.3.2.

Where allowable stress design (working stress design), as permitted by this code, is used, structures and portions thereof shall resist the most critical effects resulting from the following combinations of loads:

**(Equation 16-8)**

**(Equation 16-9)**

**(Equation 16-10)**

**(Equation 16-11)**

**(Equation 16-12)**

**(Equation 16-13)**

**(Equation 16-14)**

**(Equation 16-15)**

**(Equation 16-16)**

**Exceptions:**

- Crane hook loads need not be combined with roof live load or with more than three-fourths of the snow load or one-half of the wind load.
- Flat roof snow loads of 30 psf (1.44 kN/m
^{2}) or less and roof live loads of 30 psf (1.44 kN/m^{2}) or less need not be combined with seismic loads. Where flat roof snow loads exceed 30 psf (1.44 kN/m^{2}), 20 percent shall be combined with seismic loads. - Where the effect of
*H*resists the primary variable load effect, a load factor of 0.6 shall be included with*H*where*H*is permanent and*H*shall be set to zero for all other conditions. - In Equation 16-15, the wind load,
*W*, is permitted to be reduced in accordance with Exception 2 of Section 2.4.1 of ASCE 7. - In Equation 16-16, 0.6
*D*is permitted to be increased to 0.9*D*for the design of special reinforced masonry shear walls complying with Chapter 21.

Increases in allowable stresses specified in the appropriate material chapter or the referenced standards shall not be used with the load combinations of Section 1605.3.1, except that increases shall be permitted in accordance with Chapter 23.

Where flood loads, F

_{a}, are to be considered in design, the load combinations of Section 2.4.2 of ASCE 7 shall be used. Where self-straining loads, T, are considered in design, their structural effects in combination with other loads shall be determined in accordance with Section 2.4.4 of ASCE 7. Where an ice-sensitive structure is subjected to loads due to atmospheric icing, the load combinations of Section 2.4.3 of ASCE 7 shall be considered.In lieu of the basic load combinations specified in Section 1605.3.1, structures and portions thereof shall be permitted to be designed for the most critical effects resulting from the following combinations. Where using these alternative basic allowable stress load combinations that include wind or seismic loads, allowable stresses are permitted to be increased or load combinations reduced where permitted by the material chapter of this code or the referenced standards. For load combinations that include the counteracting effects of dead and wind loads, only two-thirds of the minimum dead load likely to be in place during a design wind event shall be used. Where using allowable stresses that have been increased or load combinations that have been reduced as permitted by the material chapter of this code or the referenced standards, where wind loads are calculated in accordance with Chapters 26 through 31 of ASCE 7, the coefficient (ω) in the following equations shall be taken as 1.3. For other wind loads, (ω) shall be taken as 1. Where allowable stresses have not been increased or load combinations have not been reduced as permitted by the material chapter of this code or the referenced standards, (ω) shall be taken as 1. Where using these alternative load combinations to evaluate sliding, overturning and soil bearing at the soil-structure interface, the reduction of foundation overturning from Section 12.13.4 in ASCE 7 shall not be used. Where using these alternative basic load combinations for proportioning foundations for loadings, which include seismic loads, the vertical seismic load effect,

*E*, in Equation 12.4-4 of ASCE 7 is permitted to be taken equal to zero._{v}**(Equation 16-17)**

**(Equation 16-18)**

**(Equation 16-19)**

**(Equation 16-20)**

**(Equation 16-21)**

**(Equation 16-22)**

**Exceptions:**

- Crane hook loads need not be combined with roof live loads or with more than three-fourths of the snow load or one-half of the wind load.
- Flat roof snow loads of 30 psf (1.44 kN/m
^{2}) or less and roof live loads of 30 psf (1.44 kN/m^{2}) or less need not be combined with seismic loads. Where flat roof snow loads exceed 30 psf (1.44 kN/m^{2}), 20 percent shall be combined with seismic loads.

Where

*F*,*H*or*T*are to be considered in the design, each applicable load shall be added to the combinations specified in Section 1605.3.2. Where self-straining loads,*T*, are considered in the design, their structural effects in combination with other loads shall be determined in accordance with Section 2.4.4 of ASCE 7.### Related Code Sections

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