Buildings and other structures and portions thereof shall be designed to resist:
Where the load combinations with overstrength factor in Section 12.4.3.2 of ASCE 7 apply, they shall be used as follows:
- The load combinations specified in Section 1605.2, 1605.3.1 or 1605.3.2;
- The load combinations specified in Chapters 18 through 23; and
- The seismic load effects including overstrength factor in accordance with Section 12.4.3 of ASCE 7 where required by Section 12.2.5.2, 12.3.3.3 or 12.10.2.1 of ASCE 7. With the simplified procedure of ASCE 7 Section 12.14, the seismic load effects including overstrength factor in accordance with Section 12.14.3.2 of ASCE 7 shall be used.
Where the load combinations with overstrength factor in Section 12.4.3.2 of ASCE 7 apply, they shall be used as follows:
- The basic combinations for strength design with overstrength factor in lieu of Equations 16-5 and 16-7 in Section 1605.2.
- The basic combinations for allowable stress design with overstrength factor in lieu of Equations 16-12, 16-14 and 16-16 in Section 1605.3.1.
- The basic combinations for allowable stress design with overstrength factor in lieu of Equations 16-21 and 16-22 in Section 1605.3.2.
Regardless of which load combinations are used to design for strength, where overall structure stability (such as stability against overturning, sliding, or buoyancy) is being verified, use of the load combinations specified in Section 1605.2 or 1605.3 shall be permitted. Where the load combinations specified in Section 1605.2 are used, strength reduction factors applicable to soil resistance shall be provided by a registered design professional. The stability of retaining walls shall be verified in accordance with Section 1807.2.3.
Where strength design or load and resistance factor design is used, buildings and other structures, and portions thereof, shall be designed to resist the most critical effects resulting from the following combinations of factored loads:
where:
Exceptions:
1. Where other factored load combinations are specifically required by other provisions of this code, such combinations shall take precedence.
2. Where the effect of H resists the primary variable load effect, a load factor of 0.9 shall be included with H where H is permanent and H shall be set to zero for all other conditions.
where:
f_{1} | = | 1 for places of public assembly live loads in excess of 100 pounds per square foot (4.79 kN/m^{2}), and parking garages; and 0.5 for other live loads. |
f_{2} | = | 0.7 for roof configurations (such as saw tooth) that do not shed snow off the structure, and 0.2 for other roof configurations. f_{2} = 0.20 + .025(A-5) for other configurations where roof snow load exceeds 30 psf; f_{2} = 0 for roof snow loads of 30 psf (1.44kN/m2) or less. Where A = Elevation above sea level at the location of the structure (ft./1,000). |
Exceptions:
1. Where other factored load combinations are specifically required by other provisions of this code, such combinations shall take precedence.
2. Where the effect of H resists the primary variable load effect, a load factor of 0.9 shall be included with H where H is permanent and H shall be set to zero for all other conditions.
Where flood loads, F_{a}, are to be considered in the design, the load combinations of Section 2.3.3 of ASCE 7 shall be used. Where self-straining loads, T, are considered in design, their structural effects in combination with other loads shall be determined in accordance with Section 2.3.5 of ASCE 7. Where an ice-sensitive structure is subjected to loads due to atmospheric icing, the load combinations of Section 2.3.4 of ASCE 7 shall be considered.
Where allowable stress design (working stress design), as permitted by this code, is used, structures and portions thereof shall resist the most critical effects resulting from the following combinations of loads:
Exceptions:
1. Crane hook loads need not be combined with roof live load or with more than three-fourths of the snow load or one-half of the wind load.
2. Flat roof snow loads of 30 psf (1.44 kN/m^{2}) or less and roof live loads of 30 psf (1.44 kN/m^{2}) or less need not be combined with seismic loads. Where flat roof snow loads exceed 30 psf (1.44 kN/m^{2}), 20 percent shall be combined with seismic loads. Flat roof snow loads of 30 pounds per square foot (1.44 kNm^{2}) or less need not be combined with seismic loads. Where flat roof snow loads exceed 30 pounds per square foot (1.44 kNm^{2}), the snow loads may be reduced in accordance with the following in load combinations including both snow and seismic loads. Ws as calculated below, shall be combined with seismic loads.
W_{s} = (0.20 + 0.025(A-5))P_{f} is greater than or equal to 0.20 P_{f}.
Where:
W_{s} = Weight of snow to be included in seismic calculations
A = Elevation above sea level at the location of the structure (ft./1,000)
P_{f} = Design roof snow load, psf.
For the purpose of this section, snow load shall be assumed uniform on the roof footprint without including the effects of drift or sliding. The Importance Factor, I, used in calculating P_{f} may be considered 1.0 for use in the formula for W_{s}
3. Where the effect of H resists the primary variable load effect, a load factor of 0.6 shall be included with H where H is permanent and H shall be set to zero for all other conditions.
4. In Equation 16-15, the wind load, W, is permitted to be reduced in accordance with Exception 2 of Section 2.4.1 of ASCE 7.
5. In Equation 16-16, 0.6 D is permitted to be increased to 0.9 D for the design of special reinforced masonry shear walls complying with Chapter 21.
Exceptions:
1. Crane hook loads need not be combined with roof live load or with more than three-fourths of the snow load or one-half of the wind load.
2. Flat roof snow loads of 30 psf (1.44 kN/m^{2}) or less and roof live loads of 30 psf (1.44 kN/m^{2}) or less need not be combined with seismic loads. Where flat roof snow loads exceed 30 psf (1.44 kN/m^{2}), 20 percent shall be combined with seismic loads. Flat roof snow loads of 30 pounds per square foot (1.44 kNm^{2}) or less need not be combined with seismic loads. Where flat roof snow loads exceed 30 pounds per square foot (1.44 kNm^{2}), the snow loads may be reduced in accordance with the following in load combinations including both snow and seismic loads. Ws as calculated below, shall be combined with seismic loads.
W_{s} = (0.20 + 0.025(A-5))P_{f} is greater than or equal to 0.20 P_{f}.
Where:
W_{s} = Weight of snow to be included in seismic calculations
A = Elevation above sea level at the location of the structure (ft./1,000)
P_{f} = Design roof snow load, psf.
For the purpose of this section, snow load shall be assumed uniform on the roof footprint without including the effects of drift or sliding. The Importance Factor, I, used in calculating P_{f} may be considered 1.0 for use in the formula for W_{s}
3. Where the effect of H resists the primary variable load effect, a load factor of 0.6 shall be included with H where H is permanent and H shall be set to zero for all other conditions.
4. In Equation 16-15, the wind load, W, is permitted to be reduced in accordance with Exception 2 of Section 2.4.1 of ASCE 7.
5. In Equation 16-16, 0.6 D is permitted to be increased to 0.9 D for the design of special reinforced masonry shear walls complying with Chapter 21.
Increases in allowable stresses specified in the appropriate material chapter or the referenced standards shall not be used with the load combinations of Section 1605.3.1, except that increases shall be permitted in accordance with Chapter 23.
Where flood loads, F_{a}, are to be considered in design, the load combinations of Section 2.4.2 of ASCE 7 shall be used. Where self-straining loads, T, are considered in design, their structural effects in combination with other loads shall be determined in accordance with Section 2.4.4 of ASCE 7. Where an ice-sensitive structure is subjected to loads due to atmospheric icing, the load combinations of Section 2.4.3 of ASCE 7 shall be considered.
In lieu of the basic load combinations specified in Section 1605.3.1, structures and portions thereof shall be permitted to be designed for the most critical effects resulting from the following combinations. When using these alternative basic load combinations that include wind or seismic loads, allowable stresses are permitted to be increased or load combinations reduced where permitted by the material chapter of this code or the referenced standards. For load combinations that include the counteracting effects of dead and wind loads, only two-thirds of the minimum dead load likely to be in place during a design wind event shall be used. When using allowable stresses that have been increased or load combinations that have been reduced as permitted by the material chapter of this code or the referenced standards, where wind loads are calculated in accordance with Chapters 26 through 31 of ASCE 7, the coefficient (ω) in the following equations shall be taken as 1.3. For other wind loads, (ω) shall be taken as 1. When allowable stresses have not been increased or load combinations have not been reduced as permitted by the material chapter of this code or the referenced standards, (ω) shall be taken as 1. When using these alternative load combinations to evaluate sliding, overturning and soil bearing at the soil-structure interface, the reduction of foundation overturning from Section 12.13.4 in ASCE 7 shall not be used. When using these alternative basic load combinations for proportioning foundations for loadings, which include seismic loads, the vertical seismic load effect, E_{v}, in Equation 12.4-4 of ASCE 7 is permitted to be taken equal to zero.
Exceptions:
1. Crane hook loads need not be combined with roof live loads or with more than three-fourths of the snow load or one-half of the wind load.
2. Flat roof snow loads of 30 psf (1.44 kN/m^{2}) or less and roof live loads of 30 psf (1.44 kN/m^{2}) or less need not be combined with seismic loads. Where flat roof snow loads exceed 30 psf (1.44 kN/m^{2}), 20 percent shall be combined with seismic loads. Flat roof snow loads of 30 pounds per square foot (1.44 kNm^{2}) or less need not be combined with seismic loads. Where flat roof snow loads exceed 30 pounds per square foot (1.44 kNm^{2}), the snow loads may be reduced in accordance with the following in load combinations including both snow and seismic loads. Ws as calculated below, shall be combined with seismic loads.
W_{s} = (0.20 + 0.025(A-5))P_{f} is greater than or equal to 0.20 P_{f}.
Where:
W_{s} = Weight of snow to be included in seismic calculations
A = Elevation above sea level at the location of the structure (ft./1,000)
P_{f} = Design roof snow load, psf.
For the purpose of this section, snow load shall be assumed uniform on the roof footprint without including the effects of drift or sliding. The Importance Factor, I, used in calculating P_{f} may be considered 1.0 for use in the formula for W_{s}
Exceptions:
1. Crane hook loads need not be combined with roof live loads or with more than three-fourths of the snow load or one-half of the wind load.
2. Flat roof snow loads of 30 psf (1.44 kN/m^{2}) or less and roof live loads of 30 psf (1.44 kN/m^{2}) or less need not be combined with seismic loads. Where flat roof snow loads exceed 30 psf (1.44 kN/m^{2}), 20 percent shall be combined with seismic loads. Flat roof snow loads of 30 pounds per square foot (1.44 kNm^{2}) or less need not be combined with seismic loads. Where flat roof snow loads exceed 30 pounds per square foot (1.44 kNm^{2}), the snow loads may be reduced in accordance with the following in load combinations including both snow and seismic loads. Ws as calculated below, shall be combined with seismic loads.
W_{s} = (0.20 + 0.025(A-5))P_{f} is greater than or equal to 0.20 P_{f}.
Where:
W_{s} = Weight of snow to be included in seismic calculations
A = Elevation above sea level at the location of the structure (ft./1,000)
P_{f} = Design roof snow load, psf.
For the purpose of this section, snow load shall be assumed uniform on the roof footprint without including the effects of drift or sliding. The Importance Factor, I, used in calculating P_{f} may be considered 1.0 for use in the formula for W_{s}
Where F, H or T are to be considered in the design, each applicable load shall be added to the combinations specified in Section 1605.3.2. Where self-straining loads, T, are considered in design, their structural effects in combination with other loads shall be determined in accordance with Section 2.4.4 of ASCE 7.