# Section 1605 Load Combinations

Buildings and other structures and portions thereof shall be designed to resist all of the following:

- The load combinations specified in Section 1605.2, 1605.3.1 or 1605.3.2.
- The load combinations specified in Chapters 18 through 23.
- The seismic load effects including overstrength factor in accordance with Sections 2.3.6 and 2.4.5 of ASCE 7 where required by Chapters 12, 13, and 15 of ASCE 7. With the simplified procedure of ASCE 7, Section 12.14, the seismic load effects including overstrength factor in accordance with Section 12.14.3.2 and Chapter 2 of ASCE 7 shall be used.

Applicable loads shall be considered, including both earthquake and wind, in accordance with the specified load combinations. Each load combination shall also be investigated with one or more of the variable loads set to zero.

Where the load combinations with overstrength factor in Sections 2.3.6 and 2.4.5 of ASCE 7 apply, they shall be used as follows:

- The basic combinations for strength design with overstrength factor in lieu of Equations 16-5 and 16-7 in Section 1605.2.
- The basic combinations for allowable stress design with overstrength factor in lieu of Equations 16-12, 16-14 and 16-16 in Section 1605.3.1.
- The basic combinations for allowable stress design with overstrength factor in lieu of Equations 16-21 and 16-22 in Section 1605.3.2.

Where strength design or load and resistance factor design is used, buildings and other structures, and portions thereof, shall be designed to resist the most critical effects resulting from the following combinations of factored loads:

**(Equation 16-1)**

**(Equation 16-2)**

**(Equation 16-3)**

**(Equation 16-4)**

**(Equation 16-5)**

**(Equation 16-6)**

**(Equation 16-7)**

where:

*f*_{1} = 1 for places of public assembly live loads in excess of 100 pounds per square foot (4.79 kN/m^{2}), and parking garages; and 0.5 for other live loads.

*f*_{2} = 0.7 for roof configurations (such as saw tooth) that do not shed snow off the structure, and 0.2 for other roof configurations.

**Exceptions:**

- Where other factored load combinations are specifically required by other provisions of this code, such combinations shall take precedence.
- Where the effect of
*H*resists the primary variable load effect, a load factor of 0.9 shall be included with*H*where*H*is permanent and*H*shall be set to zero for all other conditions.

*F*, are to be considered in the design, the load combinations of Section 2.3.2 of ASCE 7 shall be used. Where self-straining loads, T, are considered in design, their structural effects in combination with other loads shall be determined in accordance with Section 2.3.4 of ASCE 7. Where an ice-sensitive structure is subjected to loads due to atmospheric icing, the load combinations of Section 2.3.3 of ASCE 7 shall be considered.

_{a}Where allowable stress design (working stress design), as permitted by this code, is used, structures and portions thereof shall resist the most critical effects resulting from the following combinations of loads:

**(Equation 16-8)**

**(Equation 16-9)**

**(Equation 16-10)**

**(Equation 16-11)**

**(Equation 16-12)**

**(Equation 16-13)**

**(Equation 16-14)**

**(Equation 16-15)**

**(Equation 16-16)**

**Exceptions:**

- Crane hook loads need not be combined with roof live load or with more than three-fourths of the snow load or one-half of the wind load.
- Flat roof snow loads of 30 psf (1.44 kN/m
^{2}) or less and roof live loads of 30 psf (1.44 kN/m^{2}) or less need not be combined with seismic loads. Where flat roof snow loads exceed 30 psf (1.44 kN/m^{2}), 20 percent shall be combined with seismic loads. - Where the effect of
*H*resists the primary variable load effect, a load factor of 0.6 shall be included with*H*where*H*is permanent and*H*shall be set to zero for all other conditions. - In Equation 16-15, the wind load,
*W*, is permitted to be reduced in accordance with Exception 2 of Section 2.4.1 of ASCE 7. - In Equation 16-16, 0.6
*D*is permitted to be increased to 0.9*D*for the design of special reinforced masonry shear walls complying with Chapter 21.

_{a}, are to be considered in design, the load combinations of Section 2.4.2 of ASCE 7 shall be used. Where self-straining loads, T, are considered in design, their structural effects in combination with other loads shall be determined in accordance with Section 2.4.4 of ASCE 7. Where an ice-sensitive structure is subjected to loads due to atmospheric icing, the load combinations of Section 2.4.3 of ASCE 7 shall be considered.

In lieu of the basic load combinations specified in Section 1605.3.1, structures and portions thereof shall be permitted to be designed for the most critical effects resulting from the following combinations. Where using these alternative basic allowable stress load combinations that include wind or seismic loads, allowable stresses are permitted to be increased or load combinations reduced where permitted by the material chapter of this code or the referenced standards. For load combinations that include the counteracting effects of dead and wind loads, only two-thirds of the minimum dead load likely to be in place during a design wind event shall be used. Where using allowable stresses that have been increased or load combinations that have been reduced as permitted by the material chapter of this code or the referenced standards, where wind loads are calculated in accordance with Chapters 26 through 31 of ASCE 7, the coefficient (ω) in the following equations shall be taken as 1.3. For other wind loads, (ω) shall be taken as 1. Where allowable stresses have not been increased or load combinations have not been reduced as permitted by the material chapter of this code or the referenced standards, (ω) shall be taken as 1. Where using these alternative load combinations to evaluate sliding, overturning and soil bearing at the soil-structure interface, the reduction of foundation overturning from Section 12.13.4 in ASCE 7 shall not be used. Where using these alternative basic load combinations for proportioning foundations for loadings, which include seismic loads, the vertical seismic load effect, *E _{v}*, in Equation 12.4-4 of ASCE 7 is permitted to be taken equal to zero.

**(Equation 16-17)**

**(Equation 16-18)**

**(Equation 16-19)**

**(Equation 16-20)**

**(Equation 16-21)**

**(Equation 16-22)**

**Exceptions:**

- Crane hook loads need not be combined with roof live loads or with more than three-fourths of the snow load or one-half of the wind load.
- Flat roof snow loads of 30 psf (1.44 kN/m
^{2}) or less and roof live loads of 30 psf (1.44 kN/m^{2}) or less need not be combined with seismic loads. Where flat roof snow loads exceed 30 psf (1.44 kN/m^{2}), 20 percent shall be combined with seismic loads.

*F*,

*H*or

*T*are to be considered in the design, each applicable load shall be added to the combinations specified in Section 1605.3.2. Where self-straining loads,

*T*, are considered in the design, their structural effects in combination with other loads shall be determined in accordance with Section 2.4.4 of ASCE 7.

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