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Section 1607 Live Loads

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1607.1 General
Live loads are those loads defined in Chapter 2 of this code.
TABLE 1607.1
MINIMUM UNIFORMLY DISTRIBUTED LIVE LOADS, L0, AND MINIMUM CONCENTRATED LIVE LOADS
OCCUPANCY OR USE UNIFORM (psf) CONCENTRATED (pounds) ALSO SEE SECTION
1. Apartments (see residential)
2. Access floor systems Office use 50 2,000
Computer use 100 2,000
3. Armories and drill rooms 150b
4. Assembly areas Fixed seats (fastened to floor) 60a
Follow spot, projections and control rooms 50
Lobbies 100a
Movable seats 100a
Stage floors 150b
Platforms (assembly) 100a
Bleachers, folding and telescopic seating and grandstands 100a (See Section 1607.19)
Stadiums and arenas with fixed seats (fastened to the floor) 60a (See Section 1607.19)
Other assembly areas 100a
5. Balconies and decks 1.5 times the live load for the area served, not required to exceed 100
6. Catwalks for maintenance and service access 40 300
7. Cornices 60
8. Corridors First floor 100
Other floors Same as occupancy served except as indicated
9. Dining rooms and restaurants 100a
10. Dwellings (see residential)
11. Elevator machine room and control room grating (on area of 2 inches by 2 inches) 300
12. Finish light floor plate construction (on area of 1 inch by 1 inch) 200
13. Fire escapes 100
  On single-family dwellings only 40
14. Fixed ladders See Section 1607.17
15. Garages Passenger vehicles only 40c SeeSection 1607.7
Trucks and buses See Section 1607.8
16. Handrails, guards and grab bars See Section 1607.9
17. Helipads See Section 1607.6
18. Hospitals Corridors above first floor 80 1,000
Operating rooms, laboratories 60 1,000
Patient rooms 40 1,000
19. Hotels (see residential)
20. Libraries Corridors above first floor 80 1,000
Reading rooms 60 1,000
Stack rooms 150b 1,000 Section 1607.18
21. Manufacturing Heavy 250b 3,000
Light 125b 2,000
22. Marquees, except one- and two-family dwellings 75
23. Office buildings Corridors above first floor 80 2,000
File and computer rooms shall be designed for heavier loads based on anticipated occupancy
Lobbies and first-floor corridors 100 2,000
Offices 50 2,000
24. Penal institutions Cell blocks 40
Corridors 100
25. Recreational uses Bowling alleys, poolrooms and similar uses 75a
Dance halls and ballrooms 100a
Gymnasiums 100a
Ice skating rinks 250b
Roller skating rinks 100a
26. Residential One- and two-family dwellings: Section 1607.22
Uninhabitable attics without storage
10
Uninhabitable attics with storage
20
Habitable attics and sleeping areas
30
Canopies, including marquees
20
All other areas
40
Hotels and multifamily dwellings:
Private rooms and corridors serving them
40
Public roomsa and corridors serving them
100
27. Roofs       Section 1607.14.2
   
   
   
Ordinary flat, pitched, and curved roofs (that are not occupiable) 20
Roof areas used for assembly purposes 100a
Roof areas used for occupancies other than assembly Same as occupancy served
Vegetative and landscaped roofs:
Roof areas not intended for occupancy
20
Roof areas used for assembly purposes
100a
Roof areas used for other occupancies
Same as occupancy served
Awnings and canopies:
Fabric construction supported by a skeleton structure
5a
All other construction, except one- and two-family dwellings
20
Primary roof members exposed to a work floor:  
Single panel point of lower chord of roof trusses or any point along primary structural members supporting roofs over manufacturing, storage warehouses, and repair garages
2,000
All other primary roof members
300
All roof surfaces subject to maintenance workers 300
28. Schools Classrooms 40 1,000
Corridors above first floor 80 1,000
First-floor corridors 100 1,000
29. Scuttles, skylight ribs and accessible ceilings 200
30. Sidewalks, vehicular driveways and yards, subject to trucking 250b 8,000 Section 1607.20
31. Stairs and exits One- and two-family dwellings 40 300 Section 1607.21
All other 100 300 Section 1607.21
32. Storage areas above ceilings 20
33. Storage warehouses (shall be designed for heavier loads if required for anticipated storage) Heavy 250b
Light 125b
34. Stores Retail:  
First floor
100 1,000
Upper floors
75 1,000
Wholesale, all floors 125b 1,000
35. Vehicle barriers See Section 1607.10
36. Walkways and elevated platforms (other than exitways) 60
37. Yards and terraces, pedestrian 100a
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 square inch = 645.16 mm2,
1 square foot = 0.0929 m2,
1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kN/m2, 1 pound = 0.004448 kN,
1 pound per cubic foot = 16 kg/m3.
  1. Live load reduction is not permitted.
  2. Live load reduction is only permitted in accordance with Section 1607.12.1.2or Item 1 of Section 1607.12.2.
  3. Live load reduction is only permitted in accordance with Section 1607.12.1.3 or Item 2 of Section 1607.12.2.
1607.2 Loads Not Specified
For occupancies or uses not designated in Section 1607, the live load shall be determined in accordance with a method approved by the building official.
1607.3 Uniform Live Loads
The live loads used in the design of buildings and other structures shall be the maximum loads expected by the intended use or occupancy but shall not be less than the minimum uniformly distributed live loads given in Table 1607.1.
1607.4 Concentrated Live Loads
Floors, roofs and other similar surfaces shall be designed to support the uniformly distributed live loads prescribed in Section 1607.3 or the concentrated live loads, given in Table 1607.1, whichever produces the greater load effects. Unless otherwise specified, the indicated concentration shall be assumed to be uniformly distributed over an area of 21/2 feet by 21/2 feet (762 mm by 762 mm) and shall be located so as to produce the maximum load effects in the structural members.
1607.5 Partition Loads
In office buildings and in other buildings where partition locations are subject to change, provisions for partition weight shall be made, whether or not partitions are shown on the construction documents, unless the specified live load is 80 psf (3.83 kN/m2) or greater. The partition load shall be not less than a uniformly distributed live load of 15 psf (0.72 kN/m2).
1607.6 Helipads
Helipads shall be designed for the following live loads:
  1. A uniform live load, L, as specified in Items 1.1 and 1.2. This load shall not be reduced.
    1.1.  40 psf (1.92 kN/m2) where the design basis helicopter has a maximum take-off weight of 3,000 pounds (13.35 kN) or less.
    1.2.  60 psf (2.87 kN/m2) where the design basis helicopter has a maximum take-off weight greater than 3,000 pounds (13.35 kN).
  2. A single concentrated live load, L, of 3,000 pounds (13.35 kN) applied over an area of 4.5 inches by 4.5 inches (114 mm by 114 mm) and located so as to produce the maximum load effects on the structural elements under consideration. The concentrated load is not required to act concurrently with other uniform or concentrated live loads.
  3. Two single concentrated live loads, L, 8 feet (2438 mm) apart applied on the landing pad (representing the helicopter's two main landing gear, whether skid type or wheeled type), each having a magnitude of 0.75 times the maximum take-off weight of the helicopter, and located so as to produce the maximum load effects on the structural elements under consideration. The concentrated loads shall be applied over an area of 8 inches by 8 inches (203 mm by 203 mm) and are not required to act concurrently with other uniform or concentrated live loads.
Landing areas designed for a design basis helicopter with maximum take-off weight of 3,000 pounds (13.35 kN) shall be identified with a 3,000-pound (13.34 kN) weight limitation. The landing area weight limitation shall be indicated by the numeral "3" (kips) located in the bottom right corner of the landing area as viewed from the primary approach path. The indication for the landing area weight limitation shall be a minimum 5 feet (1524 mm) in height.
1607.7 Passenger Vehicle Garages
Floors in garages or portions of a building used for the storage of motor vehicles shall be designed for the uniformly distributed live loads indicated in Table 1607.1 or the following concentrated load:
  1. For garages restricted to passenger vehicles accommodating not more than nine passengers, 3,000 pounds (13.35 kN) acting on an area of 4.5 inches by 4.5 inches (114 mm by 114 mm).
  2. For mechanical parking structures without slab or deck that are used for storing passenger vehicles only, 2,250 pounds (10 kN) per wheel.
1607.8 Heavy Vehicle Loads
Floors and other surfaces that are intended to support vehicle loads greater than a 10,000-pound (4536 kg) gross vehicle weight rating shall comply with Sections 1607.8.1 through 1607.8.5.
1607.8.1 Loads
Where any structure does not restrict access for vehicles that exceed a 10,000-pound (4536 kg) gross vehicle weight rating, those portions of the structure subject to such loads shall be designed using the vehicular live loads, including consideration of impact and fatigue, in accordance with the codes and specifications required by the jurisdiction having authority for the design and construction of the roadways and bridges in the same location of the structure.
1607.8.2 Fire Truck and Emergency Vehicles
Where a structure or portions of a structure are accessed and loaded by fire department access vehicles and other similar emergency vehicles, the structure shall be designed for the greater of the following loads:
  1. The actual operational loads, including outrigger reactions and contact areas of the vehicles as stipulated and approved by the building official.
  2. The live loading specified in Section 1607.8.1.
1607.8.3 Heavy Vehicle Garages
Garages designed to accommodate vehicles that exceed a 10,000-pound (4536 kg) gross vehicle weight rating, shall be designed using the live loading specified by Section 1607.8.1. For garages the design for impact and fatigue is not required.
Exception: The vehicular live loads and load placement are allowed to be determined using the actual vehicle weights for the vehicles allowed onto the garage floors, provided that such loads and placement are based on rational engineering principles and are approved by the building official, but shall be not less than 50 psf (2.9 kN/m2). This live load shall not be reduced.
1607.8.4 Forklifts and Movable Equipment
Where a structure is intended to have forklifts or other movable equipment present, the structure shall be designed for the total vehicle or equipment load and the individual wheel loads for the anticipated vehicles as specified by the owner of the facility. These loads shall be posted in accordance with Section 1607.8.5.
1607.8.4.1 Impact and Fatigue
Impact loads and fatigue loading shall be considered in the design of the supporting structure. For the purposes of design, the vehicle and wheel loads shall be increased by 30 percent to account for impact.
1607.8.5 Posting
The maximum weight of vehicles allowed into or on a garage or other structure shall be posted by the owner or the owner's authorized agent in accordance with Section 106.1.
1607.9 Loads on Handrails, Guards, Grab Bars and Seats
Handrails and guards shall be designed and constructed for the structural loading conditions set forth in Section 1607.9.1. Grab bars, shower seats and accessible benches shall be designed and constructed for the structural loading conditions set forth in Section 1607.9.2.
1607.9.1 Handrails and Guards
Handrails and guards shall be designed to resist a linear load of 50 pounds per linear foot (plf) (0.73 kN/m) in accordance with Section 4.5.1.1 of ASCE 7. Glass handrail assemblies and guards shall comply with Section 2407.
Exceptions:
  1. For one- and two-family dwellings, only the single concentrated load required by Section 1607.9.1.1 shall be applied.
  2. In Group I-3, F, H and S occupancies, for areas that are not accessible to the general public and that have an occupant load less than 50, the minimum load shall be 20 pounds per foot (0.29 kN/m).
1607.9.1.1 Concentrated Load
Handrails and guards shall be designed to resist a concentrated load of 200 pounds (0.89 kN) in accordance with Section 4.5.1 of ASCE 7.
1607.9.1.2 Guard Component Loads
Balusters, panel fillers and guard infill components, including all rails except the handrail and the top rail, shall be designed to resist a concentrated load of 50 pounds (0.22 kN) in accordance with Section 4.5.1.2 of ASCE 7.
1607.9.2 Grab Bars, Shower Seats and Accessible Benches
Grab bars, shower seats and accessible benches shall be designed to resist a single concentrated load of 250 pounds (1.11 kN) applied in any direction at any point on the grab bar, shower seat, or seat of the accessible bench so as to produce the maximum load effects.
1607.10 Vehicle Barriers
Vehicle barriers for passenger vehicles shall be designed to resist a concentrated load of 6,000 pounds (26.70 kN) in accordance with Section 4.5.3 of ASCE 7. Garages accommodating trucks and buses shall be designed in accordance with an approved method that contains provisions for traffic railings.
1607.11 Impact Loads
The live loads specified in Sections 1607.3 through 1607.10 shall be assumed to include adequate allowance for ordinary impact conditions. Provisions shall be made in the structural design for uses and loads that involve unusual vibration and impact forces.
1607.11.1 Elevators
Members, elements and components subject to dynamic loads from elevators shall be designed for impact loads and deflection limits prescribed by ASME A17.1/CSA B44.
1607.11.2 Machinery
For the purpose of design, the weight of machinery and moving loads shall be increased as follows to allow for impact:
  1. Light machinery, shaft- or motor-driven, 20 percent.
  2. Reciprocating machinery or power-driven units, 50 percent.
Percentages shall be increased where specified by the manufacturer.
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