The council finds that lead poisoning from paint containing lead is a preventable childhood disease and a public health crisis. The council further finds that the hazard in dwellings that may occur from paint containing lead is subject to many factors, such as the age of a building and its maintenance. The Council also finds and declares that City government must focus on primary prevention as the essential tool to combat childhood lead poisoning and to achieve the goal of preventing children from suffering the adverse health and other effects of exposure to lead-based paint. The pursuit of primary prevention, which means eliminating lead hazards before children are exposed, has been recommended by the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and promoted by leading experts in the field as a critical course of action to protect the health of young children. The Council, therefore, declares that resources must be directed to primary prevention, including identifying children who are most at risk. The council recognizes that it cannot legislate a single maintenance standard for all dwellings to eliminate this hazard. Instead, the council by enacting this article makes it the responsibility of every owner of a multiple dwelling to investigate dwelling units for lead-based paint hazards and to address such hazards on a case-by-case basis as the conditions may warrant, taking such actions as are necessary to prevent a child from becoming lead poisoned. Having established this responsibility, the council finds that sufficient information exists to guide owners in making determinations about the existence of lead-based paint hazards. See, e.g., United States environmental protection agency, "Identification of Dangerous Levels of Lead; Final Rule" Federal Register, Vol. 66, No. 4 ( January 5, 2001); United States department of housing and urban development, "Guidelines for the Evaluation and Control of Lead-Based Paint Hazards in Housing" (June 1995, revised 1997). The New York city department of health and mental hygiene has reported for the year 2001 that among children tested, 5,638 were newly identified with elevated blood lead levels of 10 micrograms per deciliter or above. The New York city department of health and mental hygiene has reported for the year 2001 that among children tested, 653 were newly identified at or above the department's environmental intervention blood lead level, which is a blood lead level equal to or exceeding 20 micrograms per deciliter in a single test or two reported blood lead levels between 15 and 19 micrograms per deciliter at least three months apart, and has also reported an overall incidence of 931 children tested with blood lead levels equal to or exceeding 20 micrograms per deciliter. When a child is identified with environmental intervention blood lead levels, the city is obligated to investigate potential sources of the lead poisoning, incurring the expense of an environmental investigation and often times also incurring the expense of medical treatment and remedial education, if necessary. The council finds that these blood lead levels among New York city children constitute a severe health crisis and has established as its goal the elimination of childhood lead poisoning by the year 2010. In addition, the department of health and mental hygiene has reported for the year 2001 that only 29% of children in New York city are tested both at age one and age two for the disease of lead poisoning even though the testing of all children at age one and age two is mandatory under state law. The council finds that improved screening among these children is critical since children at these ages are at greatest risk for lead poisoning. The council declares that it is reasonable and necessary to increase the rate of blood-lead testing. This local law requires the department of health and mental hygiene to report to the council on progress toward increasing screening rates and reducing the incidence rates of children newly identified with elevated blood lead levels. The council further finds that the administration and enforcement of the City's lead poisoning prevention programs can be better coordinated. While it is intended that the department of housing preservation and development remain the agency responsible for the implementation and enforcement of this article, it is also intended that the department of health and mental hygiene shall have a significant role in the promulgation and interpretation of rules and in the development of necessary procedures pursuant to this article.
Whenever used in this article the following terms shall have the following meanings:
(1) "Chewable surface" shall mean a protruding interior window sill in a dwelling unit in a multiple dwelling where a child of applicable age resides and which is readily accessible to such child. "Chewable surface" shall also mean any other type of interior edge or protrusion in a dwelling unit in a multiple dwelling, such as a rail or stair, where there is evidence that such other edge or protrusion has been chewed or where an occupant has notified the owner that a child of applicable age who resides in that multiple dwelling has mouthed or chewed such edge or protrusion.
(2) "Common area" shall mean a portion of a multiple dwelling that is not within a dwelling unit and is regularly used by occupants for access to and egress from any dwelling unit within such multiple dwelling.
(3) "Deteriorated subsurface" shall mean an unstable or unsound painted subsurface, an indication of which can be observed through a visual inspection, including, but not limited to, rotted or decayed wood, or wood or plaster that has been subject to moisture or disturbance.
(4) "Friction Surface" shall mean any painted surface that touches or is in contact with another surface, such that the two surfaces are capable of relative motion and abrade, scrape, or bind when in relative motion. Friction surfaces shall include, but not be limited to, window frames and jambs, doors, and hinges.
(5) "Impact Surface" shall mean any interior painted surface that shows evidence, such as marking, denting, or chipping, that it is subject to damage by repeated sudden force, such as certain parts of door frames, moldings, or baseboards.
(6) "Lead-based paint hazard" shall mean any condition in a dwelling or dwelling unit that causes exposure to lead from lead-contaminated dust, from lead-based paint that is peeling, or from lead-based paint that is present on chewable surfaces, deteriorated subsurfaces, friction surfaces, or impact surfaces that would result in adverse human health effects.
(7) "Lead-based paint" shall mean paint or other similar surface coating material containing 1.0 milligrams of lead per square centimeter or greater, as determined by laboratory analysis, or by an x-ray fluorescence analyzer. If an x-ray fluorescence analyzer is used, readings shall be corrected for substrate bias when necessary as specified by the performance characteristic sheets released by the United States environmental protection agency and the United States department of housing and urban development for the specific x-ray fluorescence analyzer used. X-ray fluorescence readings shall be classified as positive, negative or inconclusive in accordance with the United States department of housing and urban development "Guidelines for the Evaluation and Control of Lead-Based Paint Hazards in Housing" (June 1995, revised 1997) and the performance characteristic sheets released by the United States environmental protection agency and the United States department of housing and urban development for the specific x-ray fluorescence analyzer used. X-ray fluorescence readings that fall within the inconclusive zone, as determined by the performance characteristic sheets, shall be confirmed by laboratory analysis of paint chips, results shall be reported in milligrams of lead per square centimeter and the measure of such laboratory analysis shall be definitive. If laboratory analysis is used to determine lead content, results shall be reported in milligrams of lead per square centimeter. Where the surface area of a paint chip sample cannot be accurately measured or if an accurately measured paint chip sample cannot be removed, a laboratory analysis may be reported in percent by weight. In such case, lead-based paint shall mean any paint or other similar surface-coating material containing more than 0.5% of metallic lead, based on the non-volatile content of the paint or other similar surface-coating material.
(8) "Lead-contaminated dust" shall mean dust containing lead at a mass per area concentration of 40 or more micrograms per square foot on a floor, 250 or more micrograms per square foot on window sills, and 400 or more micrograms per square foot on window wells, or such more stringent standards as may be adopted by the department of health and mental hygiene.
(9) "Lead-contaminated dust clearance test" shall mean a test for lead-contaminated dust on floors, window wells, and window sills in a dwelling, that is made in accordance with section 27-2056.11 of this article.
(10) "Peeling" shall mean that the paint or other surface-coating material is curling, cracking, scaling, flaking, blistering, chipping, chalking or loose in any manner, such that a space or pocket of air is behind a portion thereof or such that the paint is not completely adhered to the underlying surface.
(11) "Remediation" or "Remediate" shall mean the reduction or elimination of a lead-based paint hazard through the wet scraping and repainting, removal, encapsulation, enclosure, or replacement of lead-based paint, or other method approved by the commissioner of health and mental hygiene.
(12) "Rule" or "rules" shall mean a rule or rules promulgated pursuant to section 1043 of the New York city charter.
(13) "Turnover" shall mean the occupancy of a dwelling unit subsequent to the termination of a tenancy and the vacatur by a prior tenant of such dwelling unit.
(14) "Underlying defect" shall mean a physical condition in a dwelling or dwelling unit that is causing or has caused paint to peel or a painted surface to deteriorate or fail, such as a structural or plumbing failure that allows water to intrude into a dwelling or dwelling unit.
(15) "Window" shall mean the non-glass parts of a window, including but not limited to any window sash, window well, window jamb, window sill, or window molding.
The existence of a lead-based paint hazard in any multiple dwelling where a child of applicable age resides is hereby declared to constitute a condition dangerous to life and health. An owner shall take action to prevent the reasonably foreseeable occurrence of such a condition and shall expeditiously remediate such condition and any underlying defect, when such underlying defect exists, consistent with the work practices established pursuant to section 27-2056.11 of this article, except where lead-contaminated dust is present in such multiple dwelling and the department of health and mental hygiene has made a determination pursuant to paragraph six of subdivision c of section 27-2056.10 of this article.