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13.6.3.1 General
13.6.3.1.1* Number of Extinguishers
The minimum number of fire extinguishers needed to protect a property shall be determined as outlined in 13.6.3. [10:6.1.1]
13.6.3.1.1.1
The installation of extinguishers shall be independent of whether the building is equipped with automatic sprinklers, standpipe and hose, or other fixed protection equipment. [10:6.1.1.1]
13.6.3.1.1.2
Additional extinguishers shall be permitted to be installed to provide more protection as necessary. [10:6.1.1.2]
13.6.3.1.1.3
Fire extinguishers having ratings less than those specified in Table 13.6.3.2.1.1 and Table 13.6.3.3.1.1 shall be permitted to be installed, provided they are not used in fulfilling the minimum protective requirements of this subsection, except as modified in 13.6.3.2.1.4, 13.6.3.2.1.5, and 13.6.3.3.1.1.1. [10:6.1.1.3]
13.6.3.1.2 Extinguisher Readiness
Portable fire extinguishers shall be maintained in a fully charged and operable condition and shall be kept in their designated places at all times when they are not being used. [10:6.1.2]
13.6.3.1.3 Placement
13.6.3.1.3.1
Fire extinguishers shall be conspicuously located where they are readily accessible and immediately available in the event of fire. [10:6.1.3.1]
13.6.3.1.3.2
Fire extinguishers shall be located along normal paths of travel, including exits from areas. [10:6.1.3.2]
13.6.3.1.3.3 Visual Obstructions
13.6.3.1.3.3.1
Fire extinguishers shall be installed in locations where they are visible except as permitted by 13.6.3.1.3.3.2. [10:6.1.3.3.1]
13.6.3.1.3.3.2*
In rooms and in locations where visual obstructions cannot be completely avoided, signs or other means shall be provided to indicate the extinguisher location. [10:6.1.3.3.2]
13.6.3.1.3.3.3
Signs or other means used to indicate fire extinguisher location shall be located in close proximity to the extinguisher. [10:6.1.3.3.3]
13.6.3.1.3.3.4
Signs or other means used to indicate fire extinguisher location shall be visible from the normal path of travel. [10:6.1.3.3.4]
13.6.3.1.3.4*
Portable fire extinguishers other than wheeled extinguishers shall be installed using any of the following means:
  1. Securely on a hanger intended for the extinguisher
  2. In a bracket incorporating releasing straps or bands supplied by the extinguisher manufacturer
  3. In a listed bracket incorporating releasing straps or bands approved for such purpose
  4. In approved cabinets or wall recesses
[10:6.1.3.4]
13.6.3.1.3.5
Wheeled fire extinguishers shall be located in designated locations. [10:6.1.3.5]
13.6.3.1.3.6
Fire extinguishers installed in vehicles or under other conditions where they are subject to dislodgement shall be installed in approved strap-type brackets specifically designed for this application. [10:6.1.3.6]
13.6.3.1.3.7
Fire extinguishers installed under conditions or in locations where they are subject to physical damage (e.g., from impact, vibration, the environment) shall be protected against such damage. [10:6.1.3.7]
13.6.3.1.3.8 Installation Height
13.6.3.1.3.8.1
Fire extinguishers having a gross weight not exceeding 40 lb (18.14 kg) shall be installed so that the top of the fire extinguisher is not more than 5 ft (1.53 m) above the floor. [10:6.1.3.8.1]
13.6.3.1.3.8.2
Fire extinguishers having a gross weight greater than 40 lb (18.14 kg) (except wheeled types) shall be installed so that the top of the fire extinguisher is not more than 31/2 ft (1.07 m) above the floor. [10:6.1.3.8.2]
13.6.3.1.3.8.3
In no case shall the clearance between the bottom of the hand portable fire extinguisher and the floor be less than 4 in. (102 mm). [10:6.1.3.8.3]
13.6.3.1.3.9 Label Visibility
13.6.3.1.3.9.1
Fire extinguishers shall be installed so that the fire extinguisher's operating instructions face outward. [10:6.1.3.9.1]
13.6.3.1.3.9.2
Hazardous materials identification systems (HMIS) labels, 6-year maintenance labels, hydrostatic test labels, or other labels shall not be located or placed on the front of the extinguisher. [10:6.1.3.9.2]
13.6.3.1.3.9.3
The restrictions of 13.6.3.1.3.9.2 shall not apply to the original manufacturer's labels, labels that specifically relate to the extinguisher's operation or fire classification, or inventory control labels specific to that extinguisher. [10:6.1.3.9.3]
13.6.3.1.3.10 Cabinets
13.6.3.1.3.10.1
Cabinets housing fire extinguishers shall not be locked, except where fire extinguishers are subject to malicious use and cabinets include a means of emergency access. [10:6.1.3.10.1]
13.6.3.1.3.10.2
The location of fire extinguishers as described in 13.6.3.1.3.3.2 shall be marked conspicuously. [10:6.1.3.10.2]
13.6.3.1.3.10.3
Fire extinguishers mounted in cabinets or wall recesses shall be placed so that the fire extinguisher's operating instructions face outward. [10:6.1.3.10.3]
13.6.3.1.3.10.4*
Where fire extinguishers are installed in closed cabinets that are exposed to elevated temperatures, the cabinets shall be provided with screened openings and drains. [10:6.1.3.10.4]
13.6.3.1.3.10.5
Cabinets or wall recesses for fire extinguishers shall be installed such that the extinguisher mounting heights specified in 13.6.3.1.3.8.1 and 13.6.3.1.3.8.2 are met. [10:6.1.3.10.5]
13.6.3.1.3.10.6*
For fire resistance-rated walls, only surface-mounted cabinets or listed fire-rated cabinets shall be installed. [10:6.1.3.10.6]
13.6.3.1.3.11*
Fire extinguishers shall not be exposed to temperatures outside of the listed temperature range shown on the fire extinguisher label. [10: 6.1.3.11]
13.6.3.1.4 Antifreeze
13.6.3.1.4.1
Fire extinguishers containing only plain water shall be protected to temperatures as low as —40°F (—40°C) by the addition of an antifreeze that is stipulated on the fire extinguisher nameplate. [10:6.1.4.1]
13.6.3.1.4.2
Calcium chloride solutions shall not be used in stainless steel fire extinguishers. [10:6.1.4.2]
13.6.3.1.5 Electronic Monitoring and Alarm System
13.6.3.1.5.1
The connection to the electronic monitoring device shall be continuously supervised for integrity. [10:6.1.5.1]
13.6.3.1.5.2
The power source for the electronic monitoring device shall be supervised for continuity of power. [10:6.1.5.2]
13.6.3.2 Installations for Class A Hazards
13.6.3.2.1 Fire Extinguisher Size and Placement for Class A Hazards
13.6.3.2.1.1
Minimal sizes of fire extinguishers for the listed grades of hazards shall be provided on the basis of Table 13.6.3.2.1.1, except as modified by 13.6.3.2.1.4 and 13.6.3.2.1.5. [10:6.2.1.1]
Table 13.6.3.2.1.1 Fire Extinguisher Size and Placement for Class A Hazards
Criteria
Light Hazard
Occupancy
Ordinary
Hazard
Occupancy
Extra
Hazard
Occupancy
Minimum rated single
extinguisher
2-A
2-A
4-A
Maximum floor area
per unit of A
3000 ft2
1500 ft2
1000 ft2
Maximum floor area
per extinguisher
11,250 ft2
11,250 ft2
11,250 ft2
Maximum travel
distance to
extinguisher
75 ft
75 ft
75 ft
For SI units, 1 ft = 0.305 m; 1 ft2 = 0.0929 m2.
Note: For maximum floor area explanations, see E.3.3 of NFPA 10.
[10:Table 6.2.1.1]
13.6.3.2.1.2
The minimum number of extinguishers for Class A hazards shall be sufficient to meet the requirements of 13.6.3.2.1.2.1 through 13.6.3.2.1.2.3. [10:6.2.1.2]
13.6.3.2.1.2.1
The minimum number of fire extinguishers for Class A hazards for each floor of a building shall be determined by dividing the total floor area by the maximum area to be protected per extinguisher as determined by Table 13.6.3.2.1.1. (See Annex E of NFPA 10.) [10:6.2.1.2.1]
13.6.3.2.1.2.2
Fire extinguishers shall be located so that the maximum travel distances shall not exceed 75 ft(22.9 m), except as modified by 13.6.3.2.1.4. [10:6.2.1.2.2]
13.6.3.2.1.2.3
Where the quantity of extinguishers required to satisfy 13.6.3.2.1.2.2 exceeds the number calculated in 13.6.3.2.1.2.1, additional extinguishers shall be installed. [10:6.2.1.2.3]
13.6.3.2.1.3
Smaller fire extinguishers that are rated on Class B and Class C fires but do not have a minimum 1-A rating shall not be used to meet the requirements of 13.6.3.2.1. [10:6.2.1.3]
13.6.3.2.1.4
Fire extinguishers of lesser rating shall be permitted to be installed but shall not be considered as fulfilling any part of the requirements of Table 13.6.3.2.1.1, except as permitted in 13.6.3.2.1.4.1 and 13.6.3.2.1.4.2. [10:6.2.1.3.1]
13.6.3.2.1.4.1
Up to two water-type extinguishers, each with 1-A rating, shall be permitted to be used to fulfill the requirements of one 2-A rated extinguisher. [10:6.2.1.3.1.1]
13.6.3.2.1.4.2
Two 21/2 gal (9.46 L) water-type extinguishers shall be permitted to be used to fulfill the requirements of one 4-A rated extinguisher. [10:6.2.1.3.1.2]
13.6.3.2.1.5
Up to one-half of the complement of fire extinguishers specified in Table 13.6.3.2.1.1 shall be permitted to be replaced by uniformly spaced 11/2 in. (38 mm) hose stations for use by the occupants of the building. [10:6.2.1.4]
13.6.3.2.1.5.1
Where hose stations are so provided, they shall conform to NFPA 14. [10:6.2.1.4.1]
13.6.3.2.1.5.2
The location of hose stations and the placement of fire extinguishers shall be such that the hose stations do not replace more than every other fire extinguisher. [10:6.2.1.4.2]
13.6.3.2.1.6
Where the area of the floor of a building is less than that specified in Table 13.6.3.2.1.1, at least one fire extinguisher of the minimum size required shall be provided. [10:6.2.1.5]
13.6.3.2.1.7
The protection requirements shall be permitted to be fulfilled with fire extinguishers of higher rating, provided the travel distance to such larger fire extinguishers does not exceed 75 ft (22.9 m) and the maximum floor area per unit of A is not exceeded. [10:6.2.1.6]
13.6.3.3 Installations for Class B Hazards
13.6.3.3.1 Spill Fires
13.6.3.3.1.1
Minimum ratings of fire extinguishers for the listed grades of hazard shall be provided in accordance with Table 13.6.3.3.1.1. [10:6.3.1.1]
Table 13.6.3.3.1.1 Fire Extinguisher Size and Placement for Class B Hazards
Type of Hazard
Basic Minimum
Extinguisher
Rating
Maximum Travel Distance
to Extinguishers
ft
m
Light
5-B
30
9.14
10-B
50
15.25
Ordinary
10-B
30
9.14
20-B
50
15.25
Extra
40-B
30
9.14
80-B
50
15.25
Note:
The specified ratings do not imply that fires of the magnitudes indicated by these ratings will occur, but rather they are provided to give the operators more time and agent to handle difficult spill fires that have the potential to occur.
[10: Table 6.3.1.1]
13.6.3.3.1.1.1
Two or more fire extinguishers of lower rating shall not be used to fulfill the protection requirements of Table 13.6.3.3.1.1 except as permitted by 13.6.3.3.1.1.2 and 13.6.3.3.1.1.3. [10:6.3.1.1.1]
13.6.3.3.1.1.2
Up to three AFFF or FFFP fire extinguishers of at least 21/2 gal (9.46 L) capacity shall be permitted to be used to fulfill extra hazard requirements. [10:6.3.1.1.2]
13.6.3.3.1.1.3
Two AFFF or FFFP fire extinguishers of at least 1.6 gal (6 L) capacity shall be permitted to be used to fulfill ordinary hazard requirements. [10:6.3.1.1.3]
13.6.3.3.1.2
Fire extinguishers of lesser rating, designed for small specific hazards within the general hazard area, shall be permitted to be installed but shall not be considered as fulfilling any part of the requirements of Table 13.6.3.3.1.1, unless permitted by 13.6.3.3.1.1.1 or 13.6.3.3.1.1.2. [10:6.3.1.2]
13.6.3.3.1.3
Fire extinguishers shall be located so that the maximum travel distances do not exceed those specified in Table 13.6.3.3.1.1. [10:6.3.1.3]
13.6.3.3.1.4
The protection requirements shall be permitted to be fulfilled with fire extinguishers of higher ratings, provided the travel distance to such larger fire extinguishers does not exceed 50 ft (15.25 m). [10:6.3.1.4]
13.6.3.3.2 Flammable Liquids of Appreciable Depth
13.6.3.3.2.1
Portable fire extinguishers shall not be installed as the sole protection for flammable liquid hazards of appreciable depth where the surface area exceeds 10 ft2 (0.93 m2). [10:6.3.2.1]
13.6.3.3.2.2*
Where personnel who are trained in extinguishing fires in the protected hazards are located on the premises and capable of responding immediately, the maximum surface area shall not exceed 20 ft2 (1.86 m2). [10:6.3.2.2]
13.6.3.3.2.3
For flammable liquid hazards of appreciable depth, a Class B fire extinguisher shall be provided on the basis of at least 2 numerical units of Class B extinguishing potential per 1 ft2 (0.09 m2) of flammable liquid surface of the largest hazard area. [10:6.3.2.3]
13.6.3.3.2.4
AFFF- or FFFP-type fire extinguishers shall be permitted to be provided on the basis of 1-B of protection per 1 ft2 (0.09 m2) of hazard. (For fires involving water-soluble flammable liquids, see 5.5.3 of NFPA 10.) [10:6.3.2.4]
13.6.3.3.2.5
Two or more fire extinguishers of lower ratings, other than AFFF- or FFFP-type fire extinguishers, shall not be used in lieu of the fire extinguisher required for the largest hazard area. [10:6.3.2.5]
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