C403.4.2 Hydronic Systems Controls
Hydronic heat pumps connected to a common heat pump water loop with central devices for heat rejection and heat addition shall have controls that are capable of providing a heat pump water supply temperature dead band of not less than 20°F (11°C) between initiation of heat rejection and heat addition by the central devices.
Exception: Where a system loop temperature optimization controller is installed and can determine the most efficient operating temperature based on realtime conditions of demand and capacity, dead bands of less than 20°F (11°C) shall be permitted.
For Climate Zones 3 and 4:
- Where a closed-circuit cooling tower is used directly in the heat pump loop, either an automatic valve shall be installed to bypass all but a minimal flow of water around the tower, or lower leakage positive closure dampers shall be provided.
- Where an open-circuit tower is used directly in the heat pump loop, an automatic valve shall be installed to bypass all heat pump water flow around the tower.
- Where an open- or closed-circuit cooling tower is used in conjunction with a separate heat exchanger to isolate the cooling tower from the heat pump loop, then heat loss shall be controlled by shutting down the circulation pump on the cooling tower loop.
Hydronic systems greater than or equal to 500,000 Btu/h (146.5 kW) in design output capacity supplying heated or chilled water to comfort conditioning systems shall include controls that have the capability to do all of the following:
- . Automatically reset the supply-water temperatures in response to varying building heating and cooling demand using coil valve position, zone-return water temperature, building-return water temperature or outside air temperature. The temperature shall be capable of being reset by not less than 25 percent of the design supply-to-return water temperature difference.
- Automatically vary fluid flow for hydronic systems with a combined motor capacity of 10 hp (7.5 kW) or larger with three or more control valves or other devices by reducing the system design flow rate by not less than 50 percent by designed valves that modulate or step open and close, or pumps that modulate or turn on and off as a function of load.
- Automatically vary pump flow on chilled-water systems and heat rejection loops serving water-cooled unitary air conditioners with a combined motor capacity of 10 hp (7.5 kW) or larger by reducing pump design flow by not less than 50 percent, utilizing adjustable speed drives on pumps, or multiple-staged pumps where not less than one-half of the total pump horsepower is capable of being automatically turned off. Pump flow shall be controlled to maintain one control valve nearly wide open or to satisfy the minimum differential pressure.
- Supply-water temperature reset for chilled-water systems supplied by off-site district chilled water or chilled water from ice storage systems.
- Minimum flow rates other than 50 percent as required by the equipment manufacturer for proper operation of equipment where using flow bypass or end-of-line 3-way valves.
- Variable pump flow on dedicated equipment circulation pumps where configured in primary/secondary design to provide the minimum flow requirements of the equipment manufacturer for proper operation of equipment.
The system turndown requirement shall be met through the use of multiple single input boilers, one or more modulating boilers or a combination of single input and modulating boilers.
Chilled water plants including more than one chiller shall have the capability to reduce flow automatically through the chiller plant when a chiller is shut down. Chillers piped in series for the purpose of increased temperature differential shall be considered as one chiller.
Boiler plants including more than one boiler shall have the capability to reduce flow automatically through the boiler plant when a boiler is shut down.