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27.4.1 General
Hydraulic calculations shall be prepared on form sheets that include a summary sheet, detailed worksheets, and a graph sheet. [See Figure A.27.4.2(a), Figure A.27.4.3, and Figure A.27.4.4 for copies of typical forms.]
27.4.2* Summary Sheet
The summary sheet shall contain the following information, where applicable:
  1. Date
  2. Location
  3. Name of owner and occupant
  4. Building number or other identification
  5. Description of hazard (for storage applications, the commodity classification, storage height, and rack configuration shall be included)
  6. Name and address of contractor or designer
  7. Name of approving agency
  8. System design requirements, as follows:
    1. Design area of water application, ft2 (m2).
    2. Minimum rate of water application (density), gpm/ft2 (mm/min). Where sprinklers are listed with minimum water application in gpm (L/min) or pressure in psi (bar), the minimum rate of water application shall be indicated in gpm (L/min) or pressure, psi (bar).
    3. Area per sprinkler, ft2 (m2).
  9. Total water requirements as calculated, including allowance for inside hose, outside hydrants, and water curtain and exposure sprinklers
  10. Allowance for in-rack sprinklers, gpm (L/min)
  11. Limitations (dimension, flow, and pressure) on extended coverage or other listed special sprinklers
27.4.3* Detailed Worksheets
Detailed worksheets or computer printout sheets shall contain the following information:
  1. Sheet number
  2. Sprinkler description and discharge constant (K)
  3. Hydraulic reference points
  4. Flow in gpm (L/min)
  5. Pipe size
  6. Pipe lengths, center-to-center of fittings
  7. Equivalent pipe lengths for fittings and devices
  8. Friction loss in psi/ft (bar/m) of pipe
  9. Total friction loss between reference points
  10. In-rack sprinkler demand balanced to ceiling demand
  11. Elevation head in psi (bar) between reference points
  12. Required pressure in psi (bar) at each reference point
  13. Velocity pressure and normal pressure if included in calculations
  14. Notes to indicate starting points or reference to other sheets or to clarify data shown
  15. *Diagram to accompany gridded system calculations to indicate flow quantities and directions for lines with sprinklers operating in the remote area
  16. Combined K-factor calculations for sprinklers on drops, armovers, or sprigs where calculations do not begin at the sprinkler
27.4.4* Graph Sheet
A graphic representation of the complete hydraulic calculation shall be plotted on semiexponential graph paper (Q1.85) and shall include the following:
  1. Water supply curve
  2. Sprinkler system demand
  3. Hose allowance (where applicable)
  4. In-rack sprinkler demand (where applicable)
27.4.5 Hydraulic Reports
27.4.5.1* General
27.4.5.1.1
Hydraulic calculations shall be prepared on form sheets that include a summary sheet, a graph sheet, a water supply analysis, a node analysis, and detailed worksheets.
27.4.5.1.2
The data shall be presented in the order shown in Figure 27.4.5.1.2(a) through Figure 27.4.5.1.2(d).
FIGURE 27.4.5.1.2(a) Summary Sheet.
FIGURE 27.4.5.1.2(b) Graph Sheet.
FIGURE 27.4.5.1.2(c) Supply and Node Analysis Sheet.
FIGURE 27.4.5.1.2(d) Detailed Worksheet.
27.4.5.2 Summary Sheet
The summary sheet as shown in Figure 27.4.5.1.2(a) shall contain the following information, where applicable:
  1. Project name and date
  2. Location (including street address)
  3. Owner or expected occupant of space being designed
  4. Name, address, and phone number of installing contractor
  5. Name and phone number of designer
  6. Authority having jurisdiction
  7. Standard or document system is being designed to, including the edition of the document
  8. Design area number and location
  9. Drawing or sheet number where design area is located
  10. Occupancy or commodity classification and information
  11. For storage applications (including miscellaneous), additional information including storage height, ceiling height, storage configuration, aisle width, orientation of upright or pendent, sprinkler K-factor and sprinkler temperature, and the table and or curve utilized in the design
  12. System type, including the system volume with type of protection system indicated in the notes
  13. Sprinkler type, including coverage and response type
  14. Slope of roof or ceiling within the design area
  15. System design requirements, as follows:
    1. Design area of application, ft2 (m2)
    2. Minimum rate of water application (density), gpm/ft2 (mm/min)
    3. Area per sprinkler, ft2 (m2)
    4. Number of sprinklers calculated
  16. Total water requirements as calculated, including allowance for inside hose, outside hydrants, water curtain, and exposure sprinklers, and allowance for in-rack sprinklers, gpm (L/min)
  17. Ceiling height if used for quick response sprinkler reduction
  18. Elevation of highest calculated sprinkler
  19. Water supply information, including the following:
    1. Date and time of test
    2. Location of the test and flow hydrant(s)
    3. Source of the water for the flow test
    4. Elevation of the test hydrant relative to the finished floor
    5. Size of fire pump, gpm @ psi
    6. Size of on-site water tank
  20. Notes that include peaking information for calculations performed by a computer program, type of preaction system, limitations (dimension, flow, and pressure) on extended-coverage or other listed special sprinklers, system type, including the system volume
27.4.5.3 Graph Sheet
A graphic representation of the complete hydraulic calculation shall be plotted on semiexponential graph paper (Q1.85) as shown in Figure 27.4.5.1.2(b) and shall include the following:
  1. Water supply curve
  2. Sprinkler system demand
  3. Hose demand (where applicable)
  4. In-rack sprinkler demand (where applicable)
  5. Additional pressures supplied by a fire pump or other source (when applicable)
27.4.5.4 Supply Analysis
Information summarized from the graph sheet as shown in Figure 27.4.5.1.2(c) shall include the following:
  1. Node tag at the source
  2. Static pressure [psi (bar)] available at the source
  3. Residual pressure [psi (bar)] available at the source
  4. Total flow [gpm (L/min)] available at the source
  5. Available pressure [psi (bar)] at the source when the total calculated demand is flowing
  6. Total calculated demand [gpm (L/min)] at the source
  7. Required pressure [psi (bar)] when flowing total calculated demand
27.4.5.5 Node Analysis
Organized information as shown in Figure 27.4.5.1.2(c) regarding the node tags given to each hydraulic reference point on the system as indicated on the shop drawings shall include the following information:
  1. Node tag for each specific point on the system used in the hydraulic calculations
  2. Elevation in ft (m) of each node tag
  3. K-factor of flowing nodes (such as sprinklers)
  4. Hose allowance in gpm (L/min) requirements for the node tag
  5. Pressure in psi (bar) at the node
  6. Discharge in gpm (L/min) calculated at the node
  7. Notes that indicate any special requirements for the node
27.4.5.6 Detailed Worksheets
Detailed worksheets as shown in Figure 27.4.5.1.2(d) or computer printout sheets shall contain the following information:
  1. Sheet number
  2. Hydraulic reference points used in each step
  3. Elevation in ft (m) at each hydraulic reference point
  4. Sprinkler description and discharge constant (K) for the flowing reference point
  5. Flow in gpm (L/min) for the flowing reference point (when applicable)
  6. Total flow in gpm (L/min) through each step
  7. Nominal pipe size in in. (mm)
  8. Actual internal diameter of pipe in in. (mm)
  9. Quantity and length in ft (m) of each type of fitting and device
  10. Pipe lengths in ft (m), center-to-center of fittings
  11. Equivalent pipe lengths in ft (m) of fittings and devices for the step
  12. Total equivalent length in ft (m) of pipes and fitting for the step
  13. C-factor used in each step
  14. Friction loss in psi/ft (bar/m) of pipe
  15. Sum of the pressures from the previous step (starting pressure at beginning)
  16. Elevation head in psi (bar) between reference points
  17. Total friction loss in psi (bar) between reference points
  18. Required pressure in psi (bar) at each reference point
  19. Notes and other information shall include the following:
    1. Velocity pressure and normal pressure if included in calculations
    2. In-rack sprinkler demand balanced to ceiling demand
    3. Notes to indicate starting points or reference to other sheets or to clarify data shown
    4. Diagram to accompany gridded system calculations to indicate flow quantities and directions for lines with sprinklers operating in the remote area
    5. Combined K-factor calculations for sprinklers on drops, armovers, or sprigs where calculations do not begin at the sprinkler
    6. The pressure [psi/(bar)] loss assigned the backflow device when included on a system
    7. Friction factor and Reynolds number when the Darcy-Weisbach equation is used

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