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The requirements of this section are supplemental to the other requirements in this subpart and apply when one or more employees are hoisted.
The use of equipment to hoist employees is prohibited except where the employer demonstrates that the erection, use, and dismantling of conventional means of reaching the work area, such as a personnel hoist, ladder, stairway, aerial lift, elevating work platform, or scaffold, would be more hazardous, or is not possible because of the project's structural design or worksite conditions. This paragraph does not apply to work covered by subpart R (Steel Erection) of this part.
1926.1431(b) Use of Personnel Platform
When using equipment to hoist employees, the employees must be in a personnel platform that meets the requirements of paragraph (e) of this section.
1926.1431(b)(2) Exceptions:
A personnel platform is not required for hoisting employees:
Into and out of drill shafts that are up to and including 8 feet in diameter (see paragraph (o) of this section for requirements for hoisting these employees).
Solely for transfer to or from a marine worksite in a marine-hoisted personnel transfer device (see paragraph (r) of this section for requirements for hoisting these employees).
In storage-tank (steel or concrete), shaft and chimney operations (see paragraph (s) of this section for requirements for hoisting these employees).
In pile driving operations (see paragraph (p) of this section for requirements for hoisting these employees).
1926.1431(c) Equipment Set-Up
The equipment must be uniformly level, within one percent of level grade, and located on footing that a qualified person has determined to be sufficiently firm and stable.
Equipment with outriggers or stabilizers must have them all extended and locked. The amount of extension must be the same for all outriggers and stabilizers and in accordance with manufacturer procedures and load charts.
1926.1431(d) Equipment Criteria
1926.1431(d)(1) Capacity: Use of Suspended Personnel Platforms
The total load (with the platform loaded, including the hook, load line and rigging) must not exceed 50 percent of the rated capacity for the radius and configuration of the equipment, except during proof testing.
1926.1431(d)(2) Capacity: Use of Boom-Attached Personnel Platforms
The total weight of the loaded personnel platform must not exceed 50 percent of the rated capacity for the radius and configuration of the equipment (except during proof testing).
1926.1431(d)(3) Capacity: Hoisting Personnel Without a Personnel Platform
When hoisting personnel without a personnel platform pursuant to paragraph (b)(2) of this section, the total load (including the hook, load line, rigging and any other equipment that imposes a load) must not exceed 50 percent of the rated capacity for the radius and configuration of the equipment, except during proof testing.
When the occupied personnel platform is in a stationary working position, the load and boom hoist brakes, swing brakes, and operator actuated secondary braking and locking features (such as pawls or dogs) or automatic secondary brakes must be engaged.
1926.1431(d)(5) Devices
Equipment (except for derricks and articulating cranes) with a variable angle boom must be equipped with all of the following:
A boom angle indicator, readily visible to the operator, and
1926.1431(d)(5)(i)(B) A Boom Hoist Limiting Device
Equipment with a luffing jib must be equipped with:
A jib angle indicator, readily visible to the operator, and.
1926.1431(d)(5)(iii)(B) A Jib Hoist Limiting Device
Equipment with telescoping booms must be equipped with a device to indicate the boom's extended length clearly to the operator, or must have measuring marks on the boom.
1926.1431(d)(5)(v) Anti Two-Block
A device which automatically prevents damage and load failure from contact between the load block, overhaul ball, or similar component, and the boom tip (or fixed upper block or similar component) must be used. The device(s) must prevent such damage/failure at all points where two-blocking could occur. Exception: This device is not required when hoisting personnel in pile driving operations. Instead, paragraph (p)(2) of this section specifies how to prevent two-blocking during such operations.
1926.1431(d)(5)(vi) Controlled Load Lowering
The load line hoist drum must have a system, other than the load line hoist brake, which regulates the lowering rate of speed of the hoist mechanism. This system or device must be used when hoisting personnel.

Note: Free fall of the load line hoist is prohibited (see § 1926.1426(d); the use of equipment in which the boom hoist mechanism can free fall is also prohibited (see § 1926.1426(a)(1).
1926.1431(d)(5)(vii) Proper Operation Required
Personnel hoisting operations must not begin unless the devices listed in this section are in proper working order. If a device stops working properly during such operations, the operator must safely stop operations. Personnel hoisting operations must not resume until the device is again working properly. Alternative measures are not permitted. (See § 1926.1417 for tag-out and related requirements.)
Articulating cranes must be equipped with a properly functioning automatic overload protection device.
Direct attachment of a personnel platform to a luffing jib is prohibited.
1926.1431(e) Personnel Platform Criteria
A qualified person familiar with structural design must design the personnel platform and attachment/suspension system used for hoisting personnel.
The system used to connect the personnel platform to the equipment must allow the platform to remain within 10 degrees of level, regardless of boom angle.
The suspension system must be designed to minimize tipping of the platform due to movement of employees occupying the platform.
The personnel platform itself (excluding the guardrail system and personal fall arrest system anchorages), must be capable of supporting, without failure, its own weight and at least five times the maximum intended load.
All welding of the personnel platform and its components must be performed by a certified welder familiar with the weld grades, types and material specified in the platform design.
The personnel platform must be equipped with a guardrail system which meets the requirements of subpart M of this part, and must be enclosed at least from the toeboard to mid-rail with either solid construction material or expanded metal having openings no greater than 1/2 inch (1.27 cm). Points to which personal fall arrest systems are attached must meet the anchorage requirements in subpart M of this part.
A grab rail must be installed inside the entire perimeter of the personnel platform except for access gates/doors.
1926.1431(e)(8) Access Gates/Doors
If installed, access gates/doors of all types (including swinging, sliding, folding, or other types) must:
1926.1431(e)(8)(i) Not Swing Outward
If due to the size of the personnel platform, such as a 1-person platform, it is infeasible for the door to swing inward and allow safe entry for the platform occupant, then the access gate/door may swing outward.
Be equipped with a device that prevents accidental opening.
Headroom must be sufficient to allow employees to stand upright in the platform.
In addition to the use of hard hats, employees must be protected by overhead protection on the personnel platform when employees are exposed to falling objects. The platform overhead protection must not obscure the view of the operator or platform occupants (such as wire mesh that has up to 1/2 inch openings), unless full protection is necessary.
All edges exposed to employee contact must be smooth enough to prevent injury.
The weight of the platform and its rated capacity must be conspicuously posted on the platform with a plate or other permanent marking.
1926.1431(f) Personnel Platform Loading
The personnel platform must not be loaded in excess of its rated capacity.
1926.1431(f)(2) Use
Personnel platforms must be used only for employees, their tools, and the materials necessary to do their work. Platforms must not be used to hoist materials or tools when not hoisting personnel.
1926.1431(f)(2)(ii) Exception
Materials and tools to be used during the lift, if secured and distributed in accordance with paragraph (f)(3) of this section may be in the platform for trial lifts.
1926.1431(f)(3) Materials and Tools Must Be:
1926.1431(f)(3)(i) Secured to Prevent Displacement
Evenly distributed within the confines of the platform while it is suspended.
The number of employees occupying the personnel platform must not exceed the maximum number the platform was designed to hold or the number required to perform the work, whichever is less.
1926.1431(g) Attachment and Rigging
1926.1431(g)(1) Hooks and Other Detachable Devices
Hooks used in the connection between the hoist line and the personnel platform (including hooks on overhaul ball assemblies, lower load blocks, bridle legs, or other attachment assemblies or components) must be:
Of a type that can be closed and locked, eliminating the throat opening.
1926.1431(g)(1)(i)(B) Closed and Locked When Attached
Where other detachable devices are used, they must be of the type that can be closed and locked to the same extent as the devices addressed in paragraphs (g)(1)(i) and (ii) of this section. Such devices must be closed and locked when attached.
Shackles used in place of hooks must be of the alloy anchor type, with either:
A bolt, nut and retaining pin, in place; or
Of the screw type, with the screw pin secured from accidental removal.
1926.1431(g)(2) Rope Bridle
When a rope bridle is used to suspend the personnel platform, each bridle leg must be connected to a master link or shackle (see paragraph (g)(1) of this section) in a manner that ensures that the load is evenly divided among the bridle legs.
Rigging hardware (including wire rope, shackles, rings, master links, and other rigging hardware) and hooks must be capable of supporting, without failure, at least five times the maximum intended load applied or transmitted to that component. Where rotation resistant rope is used, the slings must be capable of supporting without failure at least ten times the maximum intended load.
Eyes in wire rope slings must be fabricated with thimbles.
Bridles and associated rigging for suspending the personnel platform must be used only for the platform and the necessary employees, their tools and materials necessary to do their work. The bridles and associated rigging must not have been used for any purpose other than hoisting personnel.
1926.1431(h) Trial Lift and Inspection
A trial lift with the unoccupied personnel platform loaded at least to the anticipated liftweight must be made from ground level, or any other location where employees will enter the platform, to each location at which the platform is to be hoisted and positioned. Where there is more than one location to be reached from a single set-up position, either individual trial lifts for each location, or a single trial lift, in which the platform is moved sequentially to each location, must be performed; the method selected must be the same as the method that will be used to hoist the personnel.
The trial lift must be performed immediately prior to each shift in which personnel will be hoisted. In addition, the trial lift must be repeated prior to hoisting employees in each of the following circumstances:
The equipment is moved and set up in a new location or returned to a previously used location.
The lift route is changed, unless the competent person determines that the new route presents no new factors affecting safety.
1926.1431(h)(3) The Competent Person Must Determine That:
Safety devices and operational aids required by this section are activated and functioning properly. Other safety devices and operational aids must meet the requirements of § 1926.1415 and § 1926.1416.
The lift will not exceed 50 percent of the equipment's rated capacity at any time during the lift.
The load radius to be used during the lift has been accurately determined.
Nothing interferes with the equipment or the personnel platform in the course of the trial lift.
1926.1431(h)(4) Immediately After the Trial Lift, the Competent Person Must:
Conduct a visual inspection of the equipment, base support or ground, and personnel platform, to determine whether the trial lift has exposed any defect or problem or produced any adverse effect.
Confirm that, upon the completion of the trial lift process, the test weight has been removed.
1926.1431(h)(5) Immediately Prior to Each Lift:
The platform must be hoisted a few inches with the personnel and materials/tools on board and inspected by a competent person to ensure that it is secure and properly balanced.
The following conditions must be determined by a competent person to exist before the lift of personnel proceeds:
Hoist ropes must be free of deficiencies in accordance with § 1926.1413(a).
Multiple part lines must not be twisted around each other.
The primary attachment must be centered over the platform.
If the load rope is slack, the hoisting system must be inspected to ensure that all ropes are properly seated on drums and in sheaves.
Any condition found during the trial lift and subsequent inspection(s) that fails to meet a requirement of this standard or otherwise creates a safety hazard must be corrected before hoisting personnel. (See § 1926.1417 for tag-out and related requirements.)
1926.1431(i) [Reserved]
1926.1431(j) Proof Testing
At each jobsite, prior to hoisting employees on the personnel platform, and after any repair or modification, the platform and rigging must be proof tested to 125 percent of the platform's rated capacity. The proof test may be done concurrently with the trial lift.
The platform must be lowered by controlled load lowering, braked, and held in a suspended position for a minimum of five minutes with the test load evenly distributed on the platform.
After proof testing, a competent person must inspect the platform and rigging to determine if the test has been passed. If any deficiencies are found that pose a safety hazard, the platform and rigging must not be used to hoist personnel unless the deficiencies are corrected, the test is repeated, and a competent person determines that the test has been passed. (See § 1926.1417 for tag-out and related requirements.)
Personnel hoisting must not be conducted until the competent person determines that the platform and rigging have successfully passed the proof test.
1926.1431(k) Work Practices
Hoisting of the personnel platform must be performed in a slow, controlled, cautious manner, with no sudden movements of the equipment or the platform.
1926.1431(k)(2) Platform Occupants Must:
Keep all parts of the body inside the platform during raising, lowering, and horizontal movement. This provision does not apply to an occupant of the platform when necessary to position the platform or while performing the duties of a signal person.
Not pull the platform out of plumb in relation to the hoisting equipment.
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