Any system, method of design or method of construction shall admit of a rational analysis in accordance with well-established principles of mechanics and sound engineering practices.
Buildings, structures and all parts thereof shall be designed and constructed to be of sufficient strength to support the estimated or actual imposed dead, live, wind, and any other loads, both during construction and after completion of the structure, without exceeding the allowable materials stresses specified by this code.
Floor and roof systems shall be designed and constructed to transfer horizontal forces to such parts of the structural frame as are designed to carry these forces to the foundation. Where roofs or floors are constructed of individual prefabricated units and the transfer of forces to the building frame and foundation is totally or partially dependent on such units, the units and their attachments shall be capable of resisting applied loads in both vertical and both horizontal directions. Where roofs or floors are constructed of individual prefabricated units and the transfer of forces to the building frame and foundation is wholly independent of such units, the units and their attachments shall be capable of resisting applied loads normal to the surface, in and out.
Fences not exceeding 6 feet (1829 mm) in height from grade may be designed for 75 mph (33 m/s) fastest mile wind speed or 115 mph (40 m/s) 3-second gust.
- The sway force applied to seats in stadiums, grandstands, bleachers and reviewing stands shall be not less than 24 pounds per lineal foot (350 N/m), applied perpendicularly and along the seats.
- Sway forces shall be applied simultaneously with gravity loads.
- Sway forces need not be applied simultaneously with other lateral forces.
The deflection of any structural member or component when subjected to live, wind and other superimposed loads set forth herein shall not exceed the following:
|1. Roof and ceiling or components supporting plaster||L/360|
|2. Roof members or components not supporting plaster under||L/240|
|3. Structural metal roof panels of cold-formed steel construction||L/180|
|4. Floor members or components||L/360|
|5. Vertical members and wall members or components consisting of or supporting material that hardens in place, is brittle or lacks resistance to cracking caused by bending strains||L/360|
|6. Vertical members and wall members or components not required to meet the conditions of Section 1616.3, Item 4||L/180|
|7. Roof and vertical members, wall members and panels of carports, canopies, marquees, the roof projection is greater than 12 feet (3.7 m) in the direction of the span, for free-standing roofs and roofs supported by existing structures. Existing structures supporting such roofs shall be capable of supporting the additional loading||L/180|
|8. For Group R3 occupancies only, roof and vertical members, wall members and panels of carports, canopies, marquees, patio covers, utility sheds and similar minor structures not to be considered living areas, where the roof projection is 12 feet (3.7 m) or less in the direction of the span and for free-standing roofs and roofs supported by existing structures||L/80|
|9. Members supporting screens only||L/80|
|10. Storm shutters and fold-down awnings, which in the closed position shall provide a minimum clear separation from the glass of 1 inch (25 mm) but not to exceed 2 inches (51 mm) when the shutter or awning is at its maximum point of permissible deflection||L/30|
|11. Roofs and exterior walls of utility sheds having maximum dimensions of 10 feet (3 m) length, 10 feet (3 m) width, and 7 feet (2.1 m) height||L/80|
|12. Roofs and exterior walls of storage buildings larger than utility sheds||L/180|
In the design of any building, structure or portion thereof, consideration shall be given to the relief of stresses caused by expansion, contraction and other volume changes.