For HVAC systems subject to the requirements of Section C403.3.5 but utilizing Exception 2 of that section, a high efficiency multiple-zone VAV system may be provided without a separate parallel DOAS when the system is designed, installed, and configured to comply with all of the following criteria (this exception shall not be used as a substitution for a DOAS per Section C406.6:
- Each VAV system must serve a minimum of 3,000 square feet (278.7 m2) and have a minimum of five VAV zones.
- The VAV systems are provided with airside economizer per Section C403.5 without exceptions.
- A direct-digital control (DDC) system is provided to control the VAV air handling units and associated terminal units per Section C403.4.11 regardless of sizing thresholds of Table C403.4.11.1.
- Multiple-zone VAV systems with a minimum outdoor air requirement of 2,500 cfm (1180 L/s) or greater shall be equipped with a device capable of measuring outdoor airflow intake under all load conditions. The system shall be capable of increasing or reducing the outdoor airflow intake based on feedback from the VAV terminal units as required by Section C403.6.5, without exceptions, and Section C403.7.1, Demand controlled ventilation.
- Multiple-zone VAV systems with a minimum outdoor air requirement of 2,500 cfm (1180 L/s) or greater shall be equipped with a device capable of measuring supply airflow to the VAV terminal units under all load conditions.
- In addition to meeting the zone isolation requirements of Section C403.2.1, a single VAV air handling unit shall not serve more than 50,000 square feet (4645 m2) unless a single floor is greater than 50,000 square feet (4645 m2) in which case the air handler is permitted to serve the entire floor.
- The primary maximum cooling air for the VAV terminal units serving interior cooling load driven zones shall be sized for a supply air temperature that is a minimum of 5°F greater than the supply air temperature for the exterior zones in cooling.
- Air terminal units with a minimum primary airflow set point of 50 percent or greater of the maximum primary airflow set point shall be sized with an inlet velocity of no greater than 900 feet per minute.
- Allowable fan motor horsepower shall not exceed 90 percent of the allowable HVAC fan system bhp (Option 2) as defined by Section C403.8.1.1.
All fan-powered VAV terminal units (series or parallel) shall be provided with electronically commutated motors. The DDC system shall be configured to vary the speed of the motor as a function of the heating and cooling load in the space. Minimum speed shall not be greater than 66 percent of design airflow required for the greater of heating or cooling operation. Minimum speed shall be used during periods of low heating and cooling operation and ventilation-only operation.
Exception: For series fan-powered terminal units where the volume of primary air required to deliver the ventilation requirements at minimum speed exceeds the air that would be delivered at the speed defined above, the minimum speed set point shall be configured to exceed the value required to provide the required ventilation air.
Fan-powered VAV terminal units shall only be permitted at perimeter zones with an envelope heating load requirement. All other VAV terminal units shall be single duct terminal units.
Exception: Fan powered VAV terminal units are allowed at interior spaces with an occupant load greater than or equal to 25 people per 1000 square feet of floor area (as established in Table 403.3.1.1 of the International Mechanical Code) with demand control ventilation in accordance with Section C403.7.1.
- When in occupied heating or in occupied dead band between heating and cooling, all fan-powered VAV terminal units shall be configured to reset the primary air supply set point, based on the VAV air handling unit outdoor air vent fraction, to the minimum ventilation airflow required per International Mechanical Code.
Spaces that are larger than 150 square feet (14 m2) and with an occupant load greater than or equal to 25 people per 1000 square feet (93 m2) of floor area (as established in Table 403.3.1.1 of the International Mechanical Code) shall be provided with all of the following features:
- 13.1. A dedicated VAV terminal unit capable of controlling the space temperature and minimum ventilation shall be provided.
- 13.2. Demand control ventilation (DCV) shall be provided that utilizes a carbon dioxide sensor to reset the ventilation set point of the VAV terminal unit from the design minimum to design maximum ventilation rate as required by Chapter 4 of the International Mechanical Code.
- 13.3. Occupancy sensors shall be provided that are configured to reduce the minimum ventilation rate to zero and setback room temperature set points by a minimum of 5°F, for both cooling and heating, when the space is unoccupied.
Dedicated data centers, computer rooms, electronic equipment rooms, telecom rooms, or other similar spaces with cooling loads greater than 5 watts/ft2 shall be provided with separate cooling systems to allow the VAV air handlers to turn off during unoccupied hours in the office space and to allow the supply air temperature reset to occur.
Exception: The VAV air handling unit and VAV terminal units may be used for secondary backup cooling when there is a failure of the primary HVAC system.
Additionally, computer rooms, electronic equipment rooms, telecom rooms, or other similar spaces shall be provided with airside economizer in accordance with Section C403.5 without using the exceptions to Section C403.5.
Exception: Heat recovery per Exception 9 of Section C403.5 may be in lieu of airside economizer for the separate, independent HVAC system.
HVAC system central heating or cooling plant will include a minimum of one of the following options:
- 15.1. VAV terminal units with hydronic heating coils connected to systems with hot water generation equipment limited to the following types of equipment: gas-fired hydronic boilers with a thermal efficiency, Et, of not less than 92 percent, airto-water heat pumps or heat recovery chillers. Hydronic heating coils shall be sized for a maximum entering hot water temperature of 120°F (48.9°C) for peak anticipated heating load conditions.
- 15.2. Chilled water VAV air handing units connected to systems with chilled water generation equipment with IPLV values more than 25 percent higher than the minimum part load efficiencies listed in Table C403.3.2(7), in the appropriate size category, using the same test procedures. Equipment shall be listed in the appropriate certification program to qualify. The smallest chiller or compressor in the central plant shall not exceed 20 percent of the total central plant cooling capacity or the chilled water system shall include thermal storage sized for a minimum of 20 percent of the total central cooling plant capacity.
The DDC system shall include a fault detection and diagnostics (FDD) system complying with the following:
16.1. The following temperature sensors shall be permanently installed to monitor system operation:
- 16.1.1. Outside air.
- 16.1.2. Supply air.
- 16.1.3. Return air.
- 16.2. Temperature sensors shall have an accuracy of ±2°F (1.1°C) over the range of 40°F to 80°F (4°C to 26.7°C).
16.3. The VAV air handling unit controller shall be configured to provide system status by indicating the following:
- 16.3.1. Free cooling available.
- 16.3.2. Economizer enabled.
- 16.3.3. Compressor enabled.
- 16.3.4. Heating enabled.
- 16.3.5. Mixed air low limit cycle active.
- 16.3.6. The current value of each sensor.
- 16.4. The VAV air handling unit controller shall be capable of manually initiating each operating mode so that the operation of compressors, economizers, fans and the heating system can be independently tested and verified.
- 16.5. The VAV air handling unit shall be configured to report faults to a fault management application able to be accessed by day-to-day operating or service personnel or annunciated locally on zone thermostats.
16.6. The VAV terminal unit shall be configured to report if the VAV inlet valve has failed by performing the following diagnostic check at a maximum interval of once a month:
- 16.6.1. Command VAV terminal unit primary air inlet valve closed and verify that primary airflow goes to zero.
- 16.6.2. Command VAV thermal unit primary air inlet valve to design airflow and verify that unit is controlling to within 10% of design airflow.
16.7. The VAV terminal unit shall be configured to report and trend when the zone is driving the following VAV air handling unit reset sequences. The building operator shall have the capability to exclude zones used in the reset sequences from the DDC control system graphical user interface:
- 16.7.1. Supply air temperature set point reset to lowest supply air temperature set point for cooling operation.
- 16.7.2. Supply air duct static pressure set point reset for the highest duct static pressure set point allowable.
16.8. The FDD system shall be configured to detect the following faults:
- 16.8.1. Air temperature sensor failure/fault.
- 16.8.2. Not economizing when the unit should be economizing.
- 16.8.3. Economizing when the unit should not be economizing.
- 16.8.4. Outdoor air or return air damper not modulating.
- 16.8.5. Excess outdoor air.
- 16.8.6. VAV terminal unit primary air valve failure.