450.3.14 Heating, Ventilating and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) Systems
Mechanical equipment shall be defined as equipment utilized in air-conditioning, heating, ventilating systems and associated electrical, electronic and pneumatic components required for the mechanical equipment to provide the function intended by the application of the equipment. New and existing equipment replacements shall comply with these requirements.
Mechanical equipment shall be installed exterior of the building, to include the roof, in a designated equipment room(s), or in a space(s) located in an attic(s).
If the unit serves only one room, it may be located above the ceiling and shall be accessible through an access opening in accordance with this code. Access panels are not required for lay-in ceiling installations, provided the service functions are not obstructed by other above-ceiling construction, such as electrical conduits, piping, audio visual cabling and like equipment components or supports.
Ventilation shall be provided by mechanical means in all rooms in new facilities and in all renovated or remodeled rooms. The minimum air quantities and filtration efficiencies shall be met as set forth in Part 6 of The Guidelines and Table 4.1-1, Ventilation Requirements for Areas Affecting Resident Care in Nursing Homes of The Guidelines for those spaces that are listed.
For spaces listed in the minimum ventilated rate table, central station-type air-handling equipment shall be used. Package terminal air-conditioning units or fan coils may be used to serve resident rooms and shall be provided with MERV 8 filters minimum.
System designs utilizing fan coil or package terminal air-conditioning units shall have the outdoor air ventilation damper permanently closed. The ventilation requirement shall be satisfied by a central stationtype air handling unit provided with MERV 8 filter minimum or as required by the listed space served. Spaces designated for the exclusive use of physical plant personnel need not comply with this requirement.
Administrative and other staff-only areas shall be provided with outside air at the minimum rate of 20 cfm (9.43 L/s) per person, and the central system shall have a minimum of 30-percent ASHRAE dust spot efficiency filter.
All outdoor air intakes shall be located a minimum of 3 feet (0.91 m) above surrounding surfaces and a minimum of 10 feet (3.05 m) horizontally from any exhaust air or plumbing vent.
All filters in systems in excess of 1,000 cfm (28.32 m3/min) capacity shall be installed with differential pressure gauges. The filter gauge shall have the range of acceptable filter operation clearly and permanently indicated.
Filter housings for MERV 13 efficiency filters shall be fully gasketed and sealed with mechanical latching devices capable of exerting and maintaining a continuous, uniform sealing pressure on the filter media when in the latched, closed position.
The transfer of air quantities through one space to an adjacent space is not permitted except that the transfer of air to maintain space relative pressure by the under cutting of doors is permitted. The maximum allowable air quantity for door undercuts shall be 75 cfm (35.38 L/s) for single door widths up to 44 inches (1117 mm).
Space relative pressure requirements shall be maintained throughout the entire system control range where variable volume systems are utilized.
Spaces having exhaust hoods shall have sufficient make-up supply air such that the required pressure relationship will not be affected by the operation of the hood.
All supply, return and exhaust ventilation fans shall operate continuously. Dietary hood, laundry area, administrative areas that are separated from all resident areas and support areas and maintenance area supply and exhaust fans shall be exempted from continuous operation.
Cooling coil condensate shall be piped to a roof drain, floor drain or other approved location.
Each new resident sleeping room or resident sleeping area that is separated by a permanent partition and door shall be provided with a separate thermostat to provide individual adjustment of room or area temperature.