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11.5 Heating Appliances
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The installation of stationary liquid fuel-burning appliances, including but not limited to industrial-, commercial-, and residential-type steam, hot water, or warm air heating appliances; domestic-type range burners; space heaters; and portable liquid fuel-burning equipment shall comply with Section 11.5 and NFPA 31.
Section 11.5 shall not apply to internal combustion engines, oil lamps, or portable devices not specifically covered in NFPA 31. (See Chapter 11 of NFPA 31 for portable devices that are covered in NFPA 31.) [31:1.1.5]
The type and grade of liquid fuel used in a liquid fuel-burning appliance shall be that liquid fuel for which the appliance is listed and approved or is stipulated by the manufacturer. Liquid fuels shall meet one of the following specifications and shall not contain gasoline or any other flammable liquid:
- ASTM D396, Standard Specification for Fuel Oils
- ASTM D3699, Standard Specification for Kerosene
- ASTM D6448, Industrial Burner Fuels from Used Lube Oils
- ASTM D6751, Standard Specification for Biodiesel Fuel Blend Stock (B100) for Middle Distillate Fuel
- ASTM D6823, Commercial Burner Fuels from Used Lube Oils
Appliances that burn crankcase oil or used oil shall not be used in a residential occupancy. Such appliances shall only be used if all of the following conditions are met:
- The installation is in a commercial or industrial occupancy.
- The oil-burning appliance is designed to burn crankcase oil or used oil and is listed for such use.
- The appliance is installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions and with the terms of its listing.
- The installation meets the applicable requirements of Section 4.6 and Chapter 12 of NFPA 31.
Where heavy oils are used, the following shall be required:
- The oil-burning appliance shall be designed to burn such fuels.
- Means shall be provided to maintain the oil at its proper atomizing temperature.
- Automatically operated burners that require preheating of oil shall be arranged so that no oil can be delivered for combustion until the oil is at the proper atomizing temperature.
- * Use of an oil-fired appliance that is listed in accordance with ANSI/UL 296A, Standard for Waste Oil-Burning Air-Heating Appliances, shall be deemed as meeting the intent of 220.127.116.11.3(1) through 18.104.22.168.3(3).
A properly sized and rated oil filter or strainer shall be installed in the oil supply line to an oil burner. [31:4.5.4]
Clothes dryers shall be cleaned to maintain the lint trap and keep the mechanical and heating components free from excessive accumulations of lint.
Kerosene burners and oil stoves shall be equipped with a primary safety control furnished as an integral part of the appliance by the manufacturer to stop the flow of oil in the event of flame failure. Barometric oil feed shall not be considered a primary safety control.
Kerosene heaters shall be listed and labeled in accordance with UL 647, Standard for Unvented Kerosene-Fired Room Heaters and Portable Heaters, and their use shall meet all of the following:
- Adequate ventilation shall be provided.
- Kerosene heaters shall not be placed on carpeting.
- Kerosene heaters shall be located not less than 3 ft (0.9 m) from combustible furnishings and drapes.
- Only approved Type 1-K water clear kerosene shall be used.
- Kerosene heaters shall be allowed to cool before refueling.
Portable electric heaters shall be designed and located so that they cannot be easily overturned.
All portable electric heaters shall be listed.
All chimneys, smokestacks, or similar devices for conveying smoke or hot gases to the outer air and the stoves, furnaces, incinerators, boilers, or any other heat-producing devices or appliances shall be installed and maintained in accordance with NFPA 54 and NFPA 211.
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