Section 414 Hazardous Materials
A report shall be submitted to the building official identifying the maximum expected quantities of hazardous materials to be stored, used in a closed system and used in an open system, and subdivided to separately address hazardous material classification categories based on Tables 307.1(1) and 307.1(2). The methods of protection from such hazards, including but not limited to control areas, fire protection systems and Group H occupancies shall be indicated in the report and on the construction documents. The opinion and report shall be prepared by a qualified person, firm or corporation approved by the building official and provided without charge to the enforcing agency.
For buildings and structures with an occupancy in Group H, separate floor plans shall be submitted identifying the locations of anticipated contents and processes so as to reflect the nature of each occupied portion of every building and structure.
|STORY||PERCENTAGE OF THE MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE|
QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREAa
|NUMBER OF CONTROL|
AREAS PER STORY
|FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING FOR|
FIRE BARRIERS IN HOURSb
|Higher than 9||5||1||2|
|Lower than 2||Not Allowed||Not Allowed||Not Allowed|
- Percentages shall be of the maximum allowable quantity per control area shown in Tables 307.1(1) and 307.1(2), with all increases allowed in the notes to those tables.
- Separation shall include fire barriers and horizontal assemblies as necessary to provide separation from other portions of the building.
The required fire-resistance rating for fire barriers shall be in accordance with Table 414.2.2. The floor assembly of the control area and the construction supporting the floor of the control area shall have a fire-resistance rating of not less than 2 hours.
Exception: The floor assembly of the control area and the construction supporting the floor of the control area are allowed to be 1-hour fire-resistance-rated in buildings of Types IIA, IIIA, IV and VA construction, provided that both of the following conditions exist:
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER INDOOR AND OUTDOOR CONTROL AREA IN GROUP M AND S OCCUPANCIES NONFLAMMABLE SOLIDS AND NONFLAMMABLE AND NONCOMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDSd, e, f
|CONDITION||MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA|
|A. Health-hazard materials—nonflammable and noncombustible solids and liquids|
|1. Corrosivesb, c||Not Applicable||9,750||975|
|2. Highly toxics||Not Applicable||20b, c||2b, c|
|3. Toxicsb, c||Not Applicable||1,000||100|
|B. Physical-hazard materials—nonflammable and noncombustible solids and liquids|
|1. Oxidizersb, c||4||Not Allowed||Not Allowed|
|1||18,000i, j||1,800i, j|
|2. Unstable (reactives)b, c||4||Not Allowed||Not Allowed|
|1||Not Limited||Not Limited|
|3. Water reactives||3b, c||550||55|
|1||Not Limited||Not Limited|
For SI: 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 gallon = 3.785 L.
- Hazard categories are as specified in the International Fire Code.
- Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent in buildings that are sprinklered in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. Where Note c also applies, the increase for both notes shall be applied accumulatively.
- Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent where stored in approved storage cabinets, in accordance with the International Fire Code. Where Note b also applies, the increase for both notes shall be applied accumulatively.
- See Table 414.2.2 for design and number of control areas.
- Allowable quantities for other hazardous material categories shall be in accordance with Section 307.
- Maximum quantities shall be increased 100 percent in outdoor control areas.
- Maximum amounts shall be increased to 2,250 pounds where individual packages are in the original sealed containers from the manufacturer or packager and do not exceed 10 pounds each.
- Maximum amounts shall be increased to 4,500 pounds where individual packages are in the original sealed containers from the manufacturer or packager and do not exceed 10 pounds each.
- The permitted quantities shall not be limited in a building equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
- Quantities are unlimited in an outdoor control area.
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY OF FLAMMABLE AND COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS IN WHOLESALE AND RETAIL SALES OCCUPANCIES PER CONTROL AREAa
|TYPE OF LIQUID||MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA (gallons)|
|Sprinklered in accordance with note|
b densities and arrangements
|Sprinklered in accordance with Tables 5704.3.6.3(4) through |
5704.3.6.3(8) and 5704.3.7.5.1 of the International Fire Code
|Class IB, IC, II and IIIA||7,500c||15,000c||1,600|
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2, 1 gallon = 3.785 L, 1 gallon per minute per square foot = 40.75 L/min/m2.
- Control areas shall be separated from each other by not less than a 1-hour fire barrier wall.
- For uncartoned commodities on shelves 6 feet or less in height where the ceiling height does not exceed 18 feet, quantities are those permitted with a minimum sprinkler design density of Ordinary Hazard Group 2.
- For cartoned, palletized or racked commodities where storage is 4 feet 6 inches or less in height and where the ceiling height does not exceed 18 feet, quantities are those permitted with a minimum sprinkler design density of 0.21 gallon per minute per square foot over the most remote 1,500-square-foot area.
- Where wholesale and retail sales or storage areas exceed 50,000 square feet in area, the maximum allowable quantities are allowed to be increased by 2 percent for each 1,000 square feet of area in excess of 50,000 square feet, up to not more than 100 percent of the table amounts. A control area separation is not required. The cumulative amounts, including amounts attained by having an additional control area, shall not exceed 30,000 gallons.
Rooms, areas or spaces in which explosive, corrosive, combustible, flammable or highly toxic dusts, mists, fumes, vapors or gases are or have the potential to be emitted due to the processing, use, handling or storage of materials shall be mechanically ventilated where required by this code, the International Fire Code or the International Mechanical Code.
Emissions generated at workstations shall be confined to the area in which they are generated as specified in the International Fire Code and the International Mechanical Code.
Explosion control shall be provided in accordance with the International Fire Code as required by Table 414.5.1 where quantities of hazardous materials specified in that table exceed the maximum allowable quantities in Table 307.1(1) or where a structure, room or space is occupied for purposes involving explosion hazards as required by Section 415 or the International Fire Code.
|MATERIAL||CLASS||EXPLOSION CONTROL METHODS|
|Barricade construction||Explosion (deflagration) venting or explosion (deflagration) prevention systemsb|
|Combustible dustsc||—||Not Required||Required|
|Cryogenic flammables||—||Not Required||Required|
|Explosives||Division 1.1||Required||Not Required|
|Division 1.2||Required||Not Required|
|Division 1.3||Not Required||Required|
|Division 1.4||Not Required||Required|
|Division 1.5||Required||Not Required|
|Division 1.6||Required||Not Required|
|Flammable gas||Gaseous||Not Required||Required|
|Flammable liquid||IAd||Not Required||Required|
|Organic peroxides||U||Required||Not Permitted|
|Oxidizer liquids and solids||4||Required||Not Permitted|
|Pyrophoric gas||—||Not Required||Required|
|Unstable (reactive)||4||Required||Not Permitted|
|3 Detonable||Required||Not Permitted|
|3 Nondetonable||Not Required||Required|
|Water-reactive liquids and solids||3||Not Required||Required|
|Acetylene generator rooms||—||Not Required||Required|
|Grain processing||—||Not Required||Required|
|Liquefied petroleum gas-distribution facilities||—||Not Required||Required|
|Where explosion hazards existf||Detonation||Required||Not Permitted|
- See Section 414.1.3.
- See the International Fire Code.
- As generated during manufacturing or processing.
- Storage or use.
- In open use or dispensing.
- Rooms containing dispensing and use of hazardous materials where an explosive environment can occur because of the characteristics or nature of the hazardous materials or as a result of the dispensing or use process.
- A method of explosion control shall be provided where Class 2 water-reactive materials can form potentially explosive mixtures.
- Explosion venting is not required for Group H-5 fabrication areas complying with Section 415.11.1 and the International Fire Code.
Emergency or standby power is not required for the mechanical ventilation systems provided for any of the following: