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R702.3.1 Materials
Gypsum board and gypsum panel product materials and accessories shall conform to ASTM C22, C475, C514, C1002, C1047, C1177, C1178, C1278, C1396, C1658 or C1766 and shall be installed in accordance with the provisions of this section. Adhesives for the installation of gypsum board and gypsum panel products shall conform to ASTM C557.
R702.3.1.1 Adhesives
Expandable foam adhesives for the installation of gypsum board and gypsum panel products shall conform to ASTM D6464. Other adhesives for the installation of gypsum board and gypsum panel products shall conform to ASTM C557. Supports and fasteners used to attach gypsum board and gypsum panel products shall comply with Table R702.3.5 or other approved method.
R702.3.2 Wood Framing
Wood framing supporting gypsum board and gypsum panel products shall be not less than 2 inches (51 mm) nominal thickness in the least dimension except that wood furring strips not less than 1-inch by 2-inch (25 mm by 51 mm) nominal dimension shall be permitted to be used over solid backing or framing spaced not more than 24 inches (610 mm) on center.
R702.3.3 Cold-Formed Steel Framing
Cold-formed steel framing supporting gypsum board and gypsum panel products shall be not less than 11/4 inches (32 mm) wide in the least dimension. Nonload-bearing cold-formed steel framing shall comply with AISI S220. Load-bearing cold-formed steel framing shall comply with AISI S240.
R702.3.4 Insulating Concrete Form Walls
Foam plastics for insulating concrete form walls constructed in accordance with Sections R404.1.2 and R608 on the interior of habitable spaces shall be protected in accordance with Section R316.4. Use of adhesives in conjunction with mechanical fasteners is permitted. Adhesives used for interior and exterior finishes shall be compatible with the insulating form materials.
R702.3.5 Application
Supports and fasteners used to attach gypsum board and gypsum panel products shall comply with Table R702.3.5. Gypsum sheathing shall be attached to exterior walls in accordance with Table R602.3(1). Gypsum board and gypsum panel products shall be applied at right angles or parallel to framing members. All edges and ends of gypsum board and gypsum panel products shall occur on the framing members, except those edges and ends that are perpendicular to the framing members. Interior gypsum board shall not be installed where it is directly exposed to the weather or to water.
TABLE R702.3.5
MINIMUM THICKNESS AND APPLICATION OF GYPSUM BOARD AND GYPSUM PANEL PRODUCTS
THICKNESS OF GYPSUM BOARD OR GYPSUM PANEL PRODUCTS (inches) APPLICATION ORIENTATION OF GYPSUM BOARD OR GYPSUM PANEL PRODUCTS TO FRAMING MAXIMUM SPACING OF FRAMING MEMBERS (inches o.c.) MAXIMUM SPACING OF FASTENERS (inches) SIZE OF NAILS FOR APPLICATION TO WOOD FRAMINGc
Nailsa Screwsb
Application without adhesive
3/8 Ceilingd Perpendicular 16 7 12 13 gage, 11/4" long, 19/64" head; 0.098" diameter, 11/4" long, ring shank; or 4d cooler nail, 0.080" diameter, 13/8" long, 7/32" head.
Wall Either direction 16 8 16
1/2 Ceiling Either direction 16 7 12 13 gage, 13/8" long, 19/64" head; 0.098" diameter, 11/4" long, ring shank; 5d cooler nail, 0.086" diameter, 15/8" long, 15/64" head; or gypsum board nail, 0.086" diameter, 1 5/8" long, 9/32" head.
Ceilingd Perpendicular 24 7 12
Wall Either direction 24 8 12
Wall Either direction 16 8 16
5/8 Ceiling Either direction 16 7 12 13 gage, 15/8" long, 19/64" head; 0.098" diameter, 13/8" long, ring shank; 6d cooler nail, 0.092" diameter, 17/8" long, 1/4" head; or gypsum board nail, 0.0915" diameter, 17/8" long, 19/64" head.
Ceiling Perpendicular 24 7 12
Type X at garage ceiling beneath habitable rooms Perpendicular 24 6 6 17/8" long 0.099" diameter galvanized nails or equivalent drywall screws. Screws shall comply with Section R702.3.5.1.
Wall Either direction 24 8 12 13 gage, 15/8" long, 19/64" head; 0.098" diameter, 13/8" long, ring shank; 6d cooler nail, 0.092" diameter, 17/8" long, 1/4" head; or gypsum board nail, 0.0915" diameter, 17/8" long, 19/64" head.
Wall Either direction 16 8 16
Application with adhesive
3/8 Ceilingd Perpendicular 16 16 16 Same as above for 3/8" gypsum board and gypsum panel products.
Wall Either direction 16 16 24
1/2 or 5/8 Ceiling Either direction 16 16 16 Same as above for 1/2" and 5/8" gypsum board and gypsum panel products, respectively.
Ceilingd Perpendicular 24 12 16
Wall Either direction 24 16 24
Two 3/8 layers Ceiling Perpendicular 16 16 16 Base ply nailed as above for 1/2" gypsum board and gypsum panel products; face ply installed with adhesive.
Wall Either direction 24 24 24
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.
  1. For application without adhesive, a pair of nails spaced not less than 2 inches apart or more than 21/2 inches apart shall be permitted to be used with the pair of nails spaced 12 inches on center.
  2. Screws shall be in accordance with Section R702.3.5.1. Screws for attaching gypsum board or gypsum panel products to structural insulated panels shall penetrate the wood structural panel facing not less than 7/16 inch.
  3. Where cold-formed steel framing is used with a clinching design to receive nails by two edges of metal, the nails shall be not less than 5/8 inch longer than the gypsum board or gypsum panel product thickness and shall have ringed shanks. Where the cold-formed steel framing has a nailing groove formed to receive the nails, the nails shall have barbed shanks or be 0.086-inch diameter, 15/8 inches long, 15/64-inch head for 1/2-inch gypsum board or gypsum panel product; and 0.099-inch diameter, 17/8 inches long, 15/64-inch head for 5/8-inch gypsum board or gypsum panel product.
  4. Three-eighths-inch-thick single-ply gypsum board or gypsum panel product shall not be used on a ceiling where a water-based textured finish is to be applied, or where it will be required to support insulation above a ceiling. On ceiling applications to receive a water-based texture material, either hand or spray applied, the gypsum board or gypsum panel product shall be applied perpendicular to framing. Where applying a water-based texture material, the minimum gypsum board thickness shall be increased from 3/8 inch to 1/2 inch for 16-inch on center framing, and from 1/2 inch to 5/8 inch for 24-inch on center framing or 1/2-inch sag-resistant gypsum ceiling board shall be used.
R702.3.5.1 Screw Fastening
Screws for attaching gypsum board and gypsum panel products to wood framing shall be Type W or Type S in accordance with ASTM C1002 and shall penetrate the wood not less than 5/8 inch (15.9 mm). Gypsum board and gypsum panel products shall be attached to cold-formed steel framing with minimum No. 6 screws. Screws for attaching gypsum board and gypsum panel products to cold-formed steel framing less than 0.033 inch (1 mm) thick shall be Type S in accordance with ASTM C1002 or bugle head style in accordance with ASTM C1513 and shall penetrate the steel not less than 3/8 inch (9.5 mm). Screws for attaching gypsum board and gypsum panel products to cold-formed steel framing 0.033 inch to 0.112 inch (1 mm to 3 mm) thick shall be in accordance with ASTM C954 or bugle head style in accordance with ASTM C1513. Screws for attaching gypsum board and gypsum panel products to structural insulated panels shall penetrate the wood structural panel facing not less than 7/16 inch (11.1 mm).
R702.3.6 Horizontal Gypsum Board Diaphragm Ceilings
Gypsum board and gypsum panel products shall be permitted on wood joists to create a horizontal diaphragm in accordance with Table R702.3.6. Gypsum board and gypsum panel products shall be installed perpendicular to ceiling framing members. End joints of adjacent courses of board and panels shall not occur on the same joist. The maximum allowable diaphragm proportions shall be 11/2:1 between shear resisting elements. Rotation or cantilever conditions shall not be permitted. Gypsum board or gypsum panel products shall not be used in diaphragm ceilings to resist lateral forces imposed by masonry or concrete construction. Perimeter edges shall be blocked using wood members not less than 2-inch by 6-inch (51 mm by 152 mm) nominal dimension. Blocking material shall be installed flat over the top plate of the wall to provide a nailing surface not less than 2 inches (51 mm) in width for the attachment of the gypsum board or gypsum panel product.
TABLE R702.3.6
SHEAR CAPACITY FOR HORIZONTAL WOOD-FRAMED GYPSUM BOARD DIAPHRAGM CEILING ASSEMBLIES
MATERIAL THICKNESS OF MATERIAL (min.) (inch) SPACING OF FRAMING MEMBERS (max.) (inch) SHEAR VALUEa, b (plf of ceiling) MINIMUM FASTENER SIZEc, d
Gypsum board or gypsum panel product 1/2 16 o.c. 90 5d cooler or wallboard nail;
15/8-inch long; 0.086-inch shank;
15/64-inch head
Gypsum board or gypsum panel product 1/2 24 o.c. 70 5d cooler or wallboard nail;
15/8-inch long; 0.086-inch shank;
15/64-inch head
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per linear foot = 1.488 kg/m.
  1. Values are not cumulative with other horizontal diaphragm values and are for short-term loading caused by wind or seismic loading. Values shall be reduced 25 percent for normal loading.
  2. Values shall be reduced 50 percent in Seismic Design Categories D0, D1, D2 and E.
  3. 11/4-inch, No. 6 Type S or W screws shall be permitted to be substituted for the listed nails.
  4. Fasteners shall be spaced not more than 7 inches on center at all supports, including perimeter blocking, and not less than 3/8 inch from the edges and ends of the gypsum board.
R702.3.7 Water-Resistant Gypsum Backing Board
Gypsum board used as the base or backer for adhesive application of ceramic tile or other required nonabsorbent finish material shall conform to ASTM C1178, C1278 or C1396. Use of water-resistant gypsum backing board shall be permitted on ceilings. Water-resistant gypsum board shall not be installed over a Class I or II vapor retarder in a shower or tub compartment. Cut or exposed edges, including those at wall intersections, shall be sealed as recommended by the manufacturer.
R702.3.7.1 Limitations
Water-resistant gypsum backing board shall not be used where there will be direct exposure to water, or in areas subject to continuous high humidity.

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