Section 1604 General Design Requirements
Buildings and other structures, and parts thereof, shall be designed and constructed to support safely the factored loads in load combinations defined in this code without exceeding the appropriate strength limit states for the materials of construction. Alternatively, buildings and other structures, and parts thereof, shall be designed and constructed to support safely the nominal loads in load combinations defined in this code without exceeding the appropriate specified allowable stresses for the materials of construction.
|CONSTRUCTION||L or Lr||S or W f||D + Ld, g|
|Supporting plaster or stucco ceiling||l/360||l/360||l/240|
|Supporting nonplaster ceiling||l/240||l/240||l/180|
|Not supporting ceiling||l/180||l/180||l/120|
|With plaster or stucco finishes||—||l/360||—|
|With other brittle finishes||—||l/240||—|
|With flexible finishes||—||l/120||—|
|With plaster or stucco finishes||l/360||—||—|
|With other brittle finishes||l/240||—||—|
|With flexible finishes||l/120||—||—|
- For structural roofing and siding made of formed metal sheets, the total load deflection shall not exceed l/60. For secondary roof structural members supporting formed metal roofing, the live load deflection shall not exceed l/150. For secondary wall members supporting formed metal siding, the design wind load deflection shall not exceed l/90. For roofs, this exception only applies when the metal sheets have no roof covering.
- Flexible, folding and portable partitions are not governed by the provisions of this section. The deflection criterion for interior partitions is based on the horizontal load defined in Section 1607.15.
- See Section 2403 for glass supports.
- The deflection limit for the D+(L+Lr) load combination only applies to the deflection due to the creep component of long-term dead load deflection plus the short-term live load deflection. For lumber, structural glued laminated timber, prefabricated wood I-joists and structural composite lumber members that are dry at time of installation and used under dry conditions in accordance with the ANSI/AWC NDS, the creep component of the long-term deflection shall be permitted to be estimated as the immediate dead load deflection resulting from 0.5D. For lumber and glued laminated timber members installed or used at all other moisture conditions or cross laminated timber and wood structural panels that are dry at time of installation and used under dry conditions in accordance with the ANSI/AWC NDS, the creep component of the long-term deflection is permitted to be estimated as the immediate dead load deflection resulting from D. The value of 0.5D shall not be used in combination with ANSI/AWC NDS provisions for long-term loading.
- The preceding deflections do not ensure against ponding. Roofs that do not have sufficient slope or camber to ensure adequate drainage shall be investigated for ponding. See Chapter 8 of ASCE 7.
- The wind load shall be permitted to be taken as 0.42 times the "component and cladding" loads or directly calculated using the 10-year mean return interval wind speed for the purpose of determining deflection limits in Table 1604.3. Where framing members support glass, the deflection limit therein shall not exceed that specified in Section 1604.3.7
- For steel structural members, the deflection due to creep component of long-term dead load shall be permitted to be taken as zero.
- For aluminum structural members or aluminum panels used in skylights and sloped glazing framing, roofs or walls of sunroom additions or patio covers not supporting edge of glass or aluminum sandwich panels, the total load deflection shall not exceed l/60. For continuous aluminum structural members supporting edge of glass, the total load deflection shall not exceed l/175 for each glass lite or l/60 for the entire length of the member, whichever is more stringent. For aluminum sandwich panels used in roofs or walls of sunroom additions or patio covers, the total load deflection shall not exceed l/120.
- l = Length of the member between supports. For cantilever members, l shall be taken as twice the length of the cantilever.
The deflection of framing members supporting glass subjected to 0.6 times the "component and cladding" wind loads shall not exceed either of the following:
- 1/175 of the length of span of the framing member, for framing members having a length not more than 13 feet 6 inches (4115 mm).
- 1/240 of the length of span of the framing member + 1/4 inch (6.4 mm), for framing members having a length greater than 13 feet 6 inches (4115 mm).
Load effects on structural members and their connections shall be determined by methods of structural analysis that take into account equilibrium, general stability, geometric compatibility and both short- and long-term material properties.
Members that tend to accumulate residual deformations under repeated service loads shall have included in their analysis the effects of added deformations expected to occur during their service life.
Any system or method of construction to be used shall be based on a rational analysis in accordance with well-established principles of mechanics. Such analysis shall result in a system that provides a complete load path capable of transferring loads from their point of origin to the load-resisting elements.
The total lateral force shall be distributed to the various vertical elements of the lateral force-resisting system in proportion to their rigidities, considering the rigidity of the horizontal bracing system or diaphragm. Rigid elements assumed not to be a part of the lateral force-resisting system are permitted to be incorporated into buildings provided that their effect on the action of the system is considered and provided for in the design. A diaphragm is rigid for the purpose of distribution of story shear and torsional moment when the lateral deformation of the diaphragm is less than or equal to two times the average story drift. Where required by ASCE 7, provisions shall be made for the increased forces induced on resisting elements of the structural system resulting from torsion due to eccentricity between the center of application of the lateral forces and the center of rigidity of the lateral force-resisting system.
Every structure shall be designed to resist the effects caused by the forces specified in this chapter, including overturning, uplift and sliding. Where sliding is used to isolate the elements, the effects of friction between sliding elements shall be included as a force.
Each building and structure shall be assigned a risk category in accordance with Table 1604.5. Where a referenced standard specifies an occupancy category, the risk category shall not be taken as lower than the occupancy category specified therein. Where a referenced standard specifies that the assignment of a risk category be in accordance with ASCE 7, Table 1.5-1, Table 1604.5 shall be used in lieu of ASCE 7, Table 1.5-1.
Exception: The assignment of buildings and structures to Tsunami Risk Categories III and IV is permitted to be in accordance with Section 6.4 of ASCE 7.
|RISK CATEGORY||NATURE OF OCCUPANCY|
|I||Buildings and other structures that represent a low hazard to human life in the event of failure, including but not limited to:|
|II||Buildings and other structures except those listed in Risk Categories I, III and IV.|
|III||Buildings and other structures that represent a substantial hazard to human life in the event of failure, including but not limited to: |
|IV||Buildings and other structures designated as essential facilities, including but not limited to: |
- For purposes of occupant load calculation, occupancies required by Table 1004.5 to use gross floor area calculations shall be permitted to use net floor areas to determine the total occupant load.
- Where approved by the building official, the classification of buildings and other structures as Risk Category III or IV based on their quantities of toxic, highly toxic or explosive materials is permitted to be reduced to Risk Category II, provided that it can be demonstrated by a hazard assessment in accordance with Section 1.5.3 of ASCE 7 that a release of the toxic, highly toxic or explosive materials is not sufficient to pose a threat to the public.
Where a building or structure is occupied by two or more occupancies not included in the same risk category, it shall be assigned the classification of the highest risk category corresponding to the various occupancies. Where buildings or structures have two or more portions that are structurally separated, each portion shall be separately classified. Where a separated portion of a building or structure provides required access to, required egress from or shares life safety components with another portion having a higher risk category, both portions shall be assigned to the higher risk category.
Exception: Where a storm shelter designed and constructed in accordance with ICC 500 is provided in a building, structure or portion thereof normally occupied for other purposes, the risk category for the normal occupancy of the building shall apply unless the storm shelter is a designated emergency shelter in accordance with Table 1604.5.